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II. The king said, "The ancients have said, 'The hen does not announce the morning. The crowing of a hen in the morning

that hp was present at Muh;—if indeed the
^jjj £^ of the the text was the same officer
who is so designated in the Chow Le. Ts;ae
follows Gan-kwu in saying that the £^ j of Nan chang (

were 'the officers who guarded the gates

Wei was to the east, radiating from the pres. dU. of Pa ( iji^), dep. of Chung-k'ing, as a centre. Loo is referred to the present dis.

jif£)> dt'P- of Seang-yang (JH Ipy)- m Hoo-pih. The name of

P'ang remains in P'ang-shan dis., dep. of Mei Sze-ch'uen. All tliese tribes, we may suppose, acknowledged the supremacy of the princes of Chow, and had been summoned to assist king Woo in his enterprise against

Show. Some critics, like Wang Loo-chae ( -|

,P? 'see ms '^->ouu'8 about the Shoo,' on the Speech at Muh), say that they had come to his banner of their own accord, without being called ;—which is very unlikely.

[Gaubil says in a note on this par. (Le Chouking, p. 157), that Yung, Shuh, &c., were the

Jf|j,—we can only translate these designations literally as I have done. According to the Chow Le, five men formed a woo (^5_); five woo, or 25 men, formed a liking (jjjjjj); four leang, or 100 men, formed a tsuh ;five tsuh,

or 500 men, formed a leu ( jfi-); fi^e leu, or 2,500 men, formed a s:e ((jjjj); and five sze, or

12,500 men, formed a keun (j|?). Gan-kwo

, ,,r a . ... . ,v . -zr -+- ifc | countries on the south-west,—e.g., in Sze-ch'uen

and Wang Suh both say that the g ^ ^ Yun.nan To tnU M\ ^ignes appends

were 'leaders of tsuh," which of course is literally | a very bold and sweeping remark:—'I will

correct; but they say also that the -Jj^

were 'leaders of sze,' commanded 2,600 men each. K'ang-shing agrees with them in this,

but makes the to have been 'lead

ers of leu'(jjfc g|t)V commanding 500 men each. It seems absurd to insist on such explanations. The arrangements of Woo's army much more probably corresponded with the terms which he employed. 3. The names Yung, Shuh, &c, enumerated here, are said generally to be those of 'eight kingdoms of

the rude tribes on the west and south' (

i^f Pi /V H T1,e first aml last are

found associated together in the Jj^, ^

—|"" '4f5, in an attack upon the great State ofTs'oo. It is said that' the people of Yung.... led the hundred tribe* of the Po to invade 'JVoo;' and from this description of the Pfl by * hundreds' it is supposed that they were under no general Head or chieftain, hut consisted of many clans, each acknowledging its own chief. The site of the Yung was in the pres.

dis. of Chuh-shan (^ jjj)

dep. of Yun-yang

(HB IH/)' Hoo-pih ; that of the P0 was in the

same prov., dep. of King chow (^J?| ^l). dis.

of Shih-show ^ ). The country of

Slmh was the pres. dep. of Shing-too (J^^fj) in Sze-ch'uen. West and north from this was the country of Keang: while that of Maou and

add,' he says, 'that all the peoples in the text

bear the name of BL, or barbarians. Thus, this

conquest of China, made by king Woo, was a conquest effected by the foreigners on the west of China.' The remark is unwarranted. So far as we learn from the Shoo, these tribes were only an inferior and auxiliary force ou the occasion.]

4. Attitude in which the troops were required to

listen. = 'to lift up;' apparently

=' to bear aloft in the right hand.' ~ff ■= Jj£

H?§ Jft' 'to crect on tn« ground,' i.en to rest the end on the ground, the points being Bhown above. There were three weapons of the nature of spears or lances, differing in the forms of their points which would lie difficult to descril>e in brief space, but principally distinguished by

their lengths,—the the !§J^ and the

Acc. to Wang Ts'eaou, the handle of the

was 6 ft. G in. long; that of the jjt^j 16 ft.; and

of the -^», 21 feet. Medhurst translates "^j? by 'javelin;' but I have not seen it anywhere stated that the instrument was thrown from the

hand. The —j-" or 'shield' was long and

comparatively narrow, so as to cover most of the body.

Ch. II. The Speech. Pp. 5, 6. The crimes of Show. 5. 'the morning,' here =

S|, 'crows in the morning to an THE BOOKS OF SHANG.

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6 indicates the subversion of the family.' Now Show, the king of Shang, follows only the words of his wife. He has blindly thrown away the sacrifices which he should present, and makes no response for the favours which he has received; he has blindly thrown away his paternal and maternal relatives, not treating them properly. They are only the vagabonds of the empire, loaded with crimes, whom he honours and exalts, whom he employs and trusts, making them great officers and nobles, so that they can tyrannize over the people, exercising their villainies in the city of Shang.

nounce the day.' is defined by Gan-kwO

by ;and by Keang Shing, after K'ang-shing,

by The two definitions are much akin.

Woo's language may seem rather undignified; but it was, no doubt, suited to his audience. And we must bear in mind the character and deeds of Ta-ke against whom it was directed.

comp. the last Book, Pt. i., G; Pt. ii., 5.

#T mr ffli jnE-'the sacriflcei wl,ich

he ought to offer.' K'ang-shing understood by
J^J! jjfJJ 1 the name of a sacrifice';—but incor-
rectly, 'to answer,' 'to make an acknow-
ledgment for favours received,' such being the
common meaning of sacrifice with the Chinese;
-Tung-po says, ^ ft j# $8 fc, ^ f g
Here also K'ang-shing incorrectly
defines it by ;and ^
'without asking any questions, or thinking
about them.' IJT Gan-kwo

takes -\- as = jjjj^ or 'grandfather,'say

ing that if he thus treated his grand-uncles, we may be sure he did not treat his uncles any

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'tr o #J| o fMEjfcJlMi *n ftsjft T * Pi ffi

flrSIRfe jfc N S\fcfir f f f int^t,^

7 "Now I, Fa, am simply executing respectfully the punishment appointed by Heaven. In to-day's business do not advance more than six or seven steps; and then stop and adjust your ranks:—my

8 brave men, be energetic! Do not exceed four blows, five blows, six blows, or seven blows; and then stop and adjust your ranks:—

9 my brave men, be energetic! Display a martial bearing. Be like tigers and panthers, like bears, and grisly bears;—here in the border of Shang. Do not rush on those who fly to its in submission, but receive them to serve our western land:—my brave men, be

10 energetic! If you are not thus energetic, you will bring destruction on yourselves."

to meet the enemy, take no more than six or
seven steps. Then stop and adjust your ranks,
and go forward again to smite them.'
A see the last Book, Pt. ii., p. 9.

8. /j^r~=^p ^|J, 'to strike and thrust.'
They are thus admonished, it is said, lest they
should be hurried on in their rage by a desire
for slaughter. 0. |g = |j |&
'the appearance of martial prowess.' The gj£
quotes the passage with instead

of W.- is described as M,

'a kind of panther.' j£]

'do not meet those who are able to—who really do—run.' The meaning is as in the translation.

Kc.mg Shing, however, edits instead of j^, after K'ang-shiDg. Ma Yung also read |SJ,

Pp. 7—10. Directions about the rules to

be observed in the impending battle. 7. The

first part of this par. had better be joined to the one preceding. King Woo speaks in it of himself in contrast with Show;—of himself as engaged on behalf of Heaven to punish one who was an enemy to both Heaven and men. Ts'ae and others, prefixing it to this and the succeeding parr., make a milder spirit breathe in them than the reader will easily perceive. The stopping at every seven steps and seven blows was, they think, that as few of the enemy as possible might be killed. In this way the tyrant would be overthrown and Heaven's justice would be satisfied with the sacrifice of comparatively few lives! The cautions were evidently given that the order of battle might be preserved unbroken.

>^ = ^. 'to exceed.' ^?=$| jj^, 'to advance hurriedly., ^ =

K, 'to adjust and put in order.' The paraphrase of the 'Daily Explanation' is:—ft

which he explains better than K'ang-shing. Wang Suh read ^J, which is susceptible of

being taken either for ^jlj? or j^p. The meaning is substantially the same, whether we adopt

or M- J# IS iS ±>-the transla

tion of this is after K'ang-shing. Ma Yung and Wang Suh took the clause as = ' do your best to serve our western land.' Gan-kwd understood it differently:—' It is thus you will make them submissively acknowledge the righteousness of our western land' 10. ||<j ffo

Ti #>-** Mi n£ A "¥* has 'been re" peated at the close of the several instructions

or admonitions, we must suppose that the warning here belongs to each of them. The 'Daily Explanation' paraphrases the 9th and 10th parr.

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BOOK III. THE SUCCESSFUL COMPLETION OF THE WAR.

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I. In the first month, the day jin-shin immediately followed the end of the moon's waning. The next day was kwei ke, when the king in the morning marched from Chow to attack and punish Shang.

The Name Of The Book.—j£ Jjjjjj, 'The Successful Completion of the War.' The phrase —it Jjit' meaning, literally, 'military affairs completed,' occurs in the 3d paragraph, and has thence been taken to denominate the Book. It is not objectionable as a designation; though it by no means covers the contents, they all growup around the accomplishment of Woo's enterprise. The Book is found only in the old Text.

Difficulties In The Arrangement and InTerpretation. These w ill fully appear in the course of the exposition; it may be sufficient here to describe them generally, and for that purpose I will use in the first place the words of Ying-tS. He says:—"This Book consists mainly of narrative; the portion composed of the king's words is small. The language of the several parts is without the beginning and the end properly marked, and its composition altogether is different from that of the other Books.

From '(^| ■ (p. 1) down to ^f

(p. 4), the historian relates the march to the attack of Yin, and the return from the enterprise, with the assembling of the princes: —as introductory to the words of the king.

From £ ^ 0 to ^ % ^ (both in p. 5), Woo narrates the rise ot their Mouse of (.'bow; from ^f* yj> (p. 5) to fa 111

III (P- 6), ne *tato* how he had inherited the possessions and the duties of king Win, and how he declared to the spirits the crimes of

Show ; from 0 ^(P- 6) to f£

^Wilai' ^' ^e rePeatsn's prayer to the spirits.

From pjjj- rj^ -^p- to the end, the historian

again resumes his narrative, and tells of the attack on Show, of his death, of Woo's entrance into the capital of Yin, and of his governmental measures.

The prayer, however, which concludes with

tfp Wty ^P' li 'm;('mPlt-',e- According to the analogy of other prayers, recorded in the jli^, there ought to be, after those words,

some protestation by Woo of his own intentions. And when all the princes and officers were receiving their investitures and commands from the new emperor of the House of Chow, we cannot suppose that he did not address them, in a manner similar to T'ang, in his 'Announcement.' With so many speeches to them before the conflict, we cannot believe that he simply related to them after its close his prayer to the spirits. On these two grounds I must conclude that a portion of the Book, immediately following these words—fill J[i|jj j^, has been

lost.

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