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Z Ź Ł W 今索家晨鍋晨雞日有古 索




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卒; 魯齋

5 II. The king said, “The ancients have said, “The hen does not

announce the morning. The crowing of a hen in the morning that he was present at Muh;-if indeed the | Wei was to the east, radiating from the pres. Gili of the the text was the same officer dis, of Pa ()dep. of Chung-k‘ing, as who is so designated in the Chow Le. Tsóae

Loo is referred to the present dis. follows Gan-kwờ in saying that the fiti # of Nan-chang ( ), dep. of Sënng-yang were · the officers who guarded the gates' (

VW), in Hoo-pih. The name of 兵守門者 千夫長、百夫

Prang remains in P'ang-shan dis., dep. of Mei


J), Sze-ch'uen. All these tribes, we 長, ;-we can only translate these designations

may suppose, acknowledged the supremacy of literally as I have done. According to the the princes of Chow, and had been summoned Chow Le, five men formed a woo (151); five to assist king Woo in his enterprise against woo, or 25 men, formed a lëang (IT); four Show. Some critice, like Wang Loo-chae (2

齋: ; see his ‘Doubts about the Shoo,' on lëang, or 100 men, formed a tsuh

); five tsuh,

the Specch at Muh), say that they had come to or 500 men, formed a leu (tiff); five leu, or his banner of their own accord, without being

called ;-which is very unlikely. 2,500 men, formed a sze (Biti); and five sze, or

[Gaubil says in a note on this par. (Le Chou. 12,500 men, formed a keun () Gan-kwð king, p. 157), that Yung, Shuh, &c., were the and Wang Suh both say that the T * and Fun-nan. To this M.'de Guignes appends

countries on the were leaders of tsuh,' which of course is literally a very bold and sweeping remark:- I will correct; but they say also that the F# add,' he says, “that all the peoples in the text were leaders of sze,' commanded 2,500 men bear the name of it, or barbarians. Thus, this each. K'ang-shing agrees with them in this, conquest of China, made by king Woo, was but makes the #ke to have been ‘lead- a conquest effected by the foreigners on the

west of China. The remark is unwarranted. ers of eu'ChỀ HI) commanding 500 men So far as we learn from the Shoo, these tribes each. It seems absurd to insist on such ex

were only an inferior and auxiliary force on planations. The arrangements of Woo's army

the occasion.] much more probably corresponded with the 4. Attitude in which the troops were required to terms which he employed. 3. The names Yung, Shuh, &c., enumerated here, are said

listen. = 'to lift up;' apparently generally to be those of eight kingdoms of

=to bear aloft in the right hand.' tthe rude tribes on the west and south DL # Hle, 'to erect on the ground, i.e., to rest 南夷八國名). The first and Inst are

the end on the ground, the points being shown found associated together in the £ , of spears 'oer iances, differing in the fornis of

above. There were three tt, in an attack upon the great State their points which would be difficult to describe of Tsoo. It is said that the people of Yung....

in brief space, but principally distinguished by led the hundred tribes of the Po to invade their lengths,—theť, the and the Ts'oo;' and from this description of the Põ by "hundreds’ it is supposed that they were un

Acc. to Wang Ts'ëaou, the handle of the ť der no general Head or chieftain, but consisted

was 6 ft. 6 in. long ; that of the 16 ft.; and of many clans, each acknowledging its own chief. The site of the Yung was in the pres. of the F, 21 feet. Medhurst translates & dis. of Chuh-shan (4 11p), dep. of Yun-yang by - javelin ;' but I have not seen it anywhere

stated that the instrument was thrown from the (EBD), Hoo-pih ; that of the Po was in the

band. The For ó shield' was long and sime prov., dep. of King chow (#1 M), dis.

comparatively narrow, so as to cover most of of Shih-show Z. The country of

the body.

Ch. II. THE SPEECH. Pp. 5, 6. The crimes Shuh was the pres. dep. of Shing-too (of $15) of Show. 5. the morning,' here in Sze-chóuen. West and north from this was the country of Këany : while that of"Maou and

crows in the morning to an

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川昏棄厥肆祀弗 商王受惟婦言是

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6 indicates the subversion of the family. Now Show, the king of

' Shang, follows only the words of his wife. He has blindly thrown away the sacrifices which he should present, and makes no response for the favours which he has received; he has blindly thrown away his paternal and maternal relatives, not treating them properly. They are only the vagabonds of the empire, loaded with crimes, whom he honours and exalts, whom he employs and trusts, making them great officers and nobles, so that they can tyrannize over the peo- . ple, exercising their villainies in the city of Shang. nounce the day. is defined by Gan-kwð | better, Woo Ch'ing says that IX by ; and by Keang Shing after Kang-shing, |-王之諸父,諸母諸弟, the royal by H. The two definitions are much akin. uncles, royal aunts, royal cousins.' Woo's language may seem rather undignified; we must join I Ž together, and agree with but it was, no doubt, suited to his audience. Wang Ts'eаou that I *SEK And we must bear in mind the character and deeds of Ta-ke against whom it was directed. The general meaning is plain 6. (ig. ## ml 7 enough,—that Show separated himself from all

his relatives, both by blood and by affinity, who -comp. the last Book, Pt. 1, 6 ; Pt. ii., 5. would naturally have the interests of the impe肆。陳to get forth;厥肆祀=其 | rial House at heart. 迪一迪一道, 所當陳之祭祀, the sacrice which and 迪-以道遇之

7 7 l Ź, as in the he ought to offer.' K'ang-shing understood by translation, Keang Shing takes jb = Til the name of a sacrifice’;—but incor

登, and 迪-不用does not emrectly. , 'to answer,''to make an acknow. ploy them. The meaning is not unsuitable ; ledgment for favours received,' such being the but it is not so good as that which I have fol. common meaning of sacrifice with the Chinese; | lowed. lik--refugees.' Woo Ch'ing 一Tung-po ays 祭所以報也,故謂| says: - 四方多罪之人逃亡而 之答: Here also Kang-shing incorrectly 歸結:the great eriminals of all quarters defines the by PW ; and 7 , make their escape

, and betake themselves to without asking any questions, or thinking Chow.' pe ,--the city of Shang,' about them.' 王父母弟-Gian-kwa | probably meaning the capital of Show takes I , as=Tu! or 'grandfather,' say- might translate e, however, in the plural. ing that if he thus treated his grand-uncles, we Keang Shing takes it as = 國, kingdom'or

‘ may be sure he did not treat his uncles any



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步 予 子克如子七不乃之發


也之 、 有 奔熊O伐爸止事惟

0伐 事、
以 如尚乃于齊不恭

所 役麗桓山四焉


土商如 為



7 “Now I, Fă, am simply executing respectfully the punishment

appointed by Heaven.“În to-day's business do not advance more

than six or seven steps; and then stop and adjust your ranks:—my 8 brave men, be energetic! Do not exceed four blows, five blows,

six blows, or seven blows; and then stop and adjust your ranks :9 my brave men, be energetic! Display a martial bearing. Be like

tigers and panthers, like bears, and grisly bears ;—here in the border of Shang. Do not rush on those who fly to us in submission, but receive them to serve our western land:-my brave men, be

, 10 energetic! If you are not thus energetic, you will bring destruction

! on yourselves.

Pp. 7-10. Directions about the rules to be observed in the impending battle.

Tipse |步,即便止駐,以整齊部伍,

以伍 first part of this par. had better be joined to 然後復從而伐之, In advancing the one preceding. King Woo speaks in it of himself in contrast with Show;-of himself as

to meet the enemy, take no more than six or engaged on behalf of Heaven to punish one who

seven steps. Then stop and adjust your ranks, was an enemy to both Heaven and men. Ts'ae and go forward again to smite them.' and others, prefixing it to this and the succeed * F. , -see the last Book, Pt. ii., p. 9. ing parr., make a milder spirit breathe in them than the reader will easily perceive. The stop- 8. Hentet til, 'to strike and thrust.' ping at every seven steps and seven blows was, They are thus admonished, it is said, lest they they think, that as few of the enemy as possible should be hurried on in their rage by a desire might be killed. In this way the tyrant would be overthrown and Heaven's justice would be

for slaughter. 3. 桓桓-威武貌 satisfied with the sacrifice of comparatively few the appearance of martial prowess.' The lives! The cautions were evidently given that the order of battle might be preserved unbroken. ☆ quotes the passage with J instead 一過, to exced. 步一進

貌 is described as 豹圈 * to advance hurriedly., 齊齊a kind of panther. 弗克奔一

'do not meet those who are able to—who really 整,to adjust and put in order. The para- do-run.' The meaning is as in the translation. phrase of the “Daily Explanation' is:- Këang Shing, however, edits PiP instead of i 進而迎敵不過于六步七: after Krang-shing. Ma Tung also read 禦

of 桓

which he explains better than Kang-hing thing:一過舅,則不免于濫殺 Wang Suh read Fitp), which is susceptible of

惟當于凶殘者取之抗拒 being taken either for en or. The mean

者誅 有奔

奔走 ing is substantially the same, whether we adopt or禦| 以役西土,一the transla

擊之以勞役我西 tion of this is after K‘ang-shing. Ma Yung and


武 Wang Suh took the clause as='do your best to serve our western land. Gan-kuð under | EiTB -kw .

降是 stood it differently:— It is thus you will make

于我之 them submissively acknowledge the righteousness of our westeru land.' 10. 蘭所所不勉,或輕進,或資殺或

或進 不島-18 最哉夫子 has been re


是 peated at the close or the several instruction | 大紀律也,則軍有常刑,必 or admonitions, we must suppose that the warn- 戮及爾身有做救矣,可 ing here belongs to each of them. The Daily Explanation' paraphrases the 9th and 10th parr. 7 .

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1 I. In the first month, the day jin-shin immediately followed the end of the moon's waning. The next day was kwei

: ke, when the king in the morning marched from Chow to attack and punish Shang

The Name of the Book - nf, 'The t lll (p. 6), he states how he had inherited Successful Completion of the War. The phrase the possessions and the duties of king Wăn, - st, meaning, literally, ' military affairs and how he declared to the spirits the crimes of completed,' occurs in the 3d paragraph, and has Show ; from EHETŐ (P. 6) to FIE 1

to It is not objectionable as a designation; though it mb (p.8), he repeats his prayer to the spirits.

Tib by no means covers the contents, they all grow From 4 8 4 to the end, the historian up around the accomplishment of Woo's enterprise. The Book is found only in the old Text. again resumes his narrative, and tells of the DIFFICULTIES IN THE ARRANGEMENT AND IN

attack on Show, of his death, of Woo's entrance TERPRETATION. These will fully appear in the

into the capital of Yin, and of his governmental course of the exposition ; it may be sufficient here to describe them generally, and for that

The prayer, however, which concludes with purpose I will use in the first place the words DE V TIL is incomplete. According to of Ying-tă. He says:- This Book consists the analogy of other prayers, recorded in the

portion composed the king's words is small. The language of the there ought to be, after those words, several parts is without the beginning and the some protestation by Woo of his own intentions. end properly marked, and its composition altoge- Avd when all the princes and officers were rether is different from that of tlie other Books.ceiving their investitures and commands from From BE — (p. 1) down to F

the new emperor of the House of Chow, we

cannot suppose that he did not address them, in (p. 4), the historian relates the march to a manner similar to T'ang, in his · Announcethe attack of Yin, and the return from the

ment.' With so many speeches to them before enterprise, with the assembling of the princes : related to them after its close his prayer to the

the conflict, we cannot beliere that he simply -as introductory to the words of the king. spirits. On these two grounds I must conclude From IE to * *##(both that a portion of the Book, immediately followin p. 5), Woo narrates the rise of their house ing these words - ME TË ! e has been of Chow; from To fi F (p.5) t. all lost.


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