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and influence of the sun and moon. His brightness extended over the four quarters of the empire, and shone signally in the western region. Hence it is that our Chow has received the allegiance of many States. If I subdue Show, it will not be my prowess, but the faultless virtue of my deceased father Wan. If Showsubdue me, it will not be from any fault of my deceased father Wan, but because I, who am a little child, am not good."

would all be Woo's own. 5. The greater part of this par. appears in Mih-tsze

mm?

^",— I have translated this in the indicative mood, as historical narrative. Such is the view of Gan-kw6 who explains;—U T,

fffj 'tr lit --1, 'The virtue of king Wan was so great, that he received the allegiance of the States of many quarters, and had two thirds of the empire.' Ts'ae found in the language an auspice of Woo's success in the enterprise in

hand. The 'Daily Explanation,'expanding his construction, says:—A £ fiSi it ffi

^ % "ft rfn % T- 'Thus far*

reaching was the virtue of my father Wan:— the hearts of men cherished him, and the decree of Heaven fell to him. Right it is that our House of Chow should receive the allegiance of the many regions, and possess the empire.' I must prefer to construe with the older scholar. 6. The whole of this par. is found with

the verbal variation of fl for in the Le

Ke,Booki^|a,p.l6. In^p.^p,

we must take pp. lightly, as merely =■ j^jj, 'fault,''error.'

APPENDIX.

I annex here the "Great Declaration," as it appears in Keang Sliing's fjpff at. ^ ^ j^. He has been at great pains to gather up, and put together, the fragments of the Book, as it was when current in the Han dynasty. Wang Ming-shing, or Wang Kwang-luh ^ gives a much briefer edition of it in his lit ^ ^ and arranges many of the sentences, moreover, differently. The fragments give us now in many passages but a farrago of absurdities. We may be sure that a Book containing such things never received the imprimatur of Confucius:

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In the fourth month, Ffi, the eldest son and successor, went up and sacrificed at [or, to] Peih, and then proceeded to the neighbourhood of Mang-tsin.

The duke of Chow said, "Oh! exert yourself. I have heard the excellent words of the wise and ancient kings." The prince Fa bowed with his face to his hands, and his head to the ground.

He then addressed the minister of Instruction, the minister of War, and the minister of Works, with all the other appointed officers,—"Be reverent, firm, and sincere, I am without know ledge, but I look to the virtuous ministers of my fathers to help me, who am but a little child. I have received the achieved work of the dukes my predecessors, and will exert my strength in rewards and punishments, to accomplish whatever they have left undone." On this he put tho host in motion. The grand Tutor, Father Sluing, carrying in his right hand an axe yellow with gold, and in his left a white flag, to give out his orders, said, "The hoary wild bull! The hoary wild bull! Lead ou all your multitudes. There are your boats and oars. The last come shall be beheaded!"

As the prince Fa had got to the middle of the stream in his boat, a white fish entered it. The king knelt down and took it up. He then went on the bank, and burned it, in sacrifice to Heaven. All the dukes said, "This is auspicious!"

On the fifth day there was a ball of fire which descended from above, till it came to the king's house, and there dissolved into it crow. Its colour was red ; its voice was calm and decided; five times it came bringing a stalk of grain. The king was glad, and all his officers also. The duke of Chow said, "He strenuous! Be strenuous! Heaven has showed this to encourage us. But let us trust in it with dread." "Examining into antiquity, it is by accomplishing merit and accomplishing business, that one can transmit his work to perpetual generations, and magnify the laws of Heaven." They sent up this to be joined to the writing of the duke of Chow, and reported to the king, who was moved, and his countenance changed.

Eight hundred princes came of themselves without being called; they came at the same time without previous agreement; without consultation they all spoke to the same effect, saying, "Show may be attacked." The king said, "You do not know the will of Heaven; it is not yet the time to attack him." On the day ping-woo he accordingly withdrew his army. In front the host beat their drums and shouted. Some of the soldiers lowered their spears, and went through their exercise ; with songs in front and dancing behind, they made heaven and earth resound, while they cried out, " Let us never be weary. Heaven is about to raise up a parent for us. The people will have good government and dwell quietly."

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The minister of War was in front. "Now, king Chow listens to the words of his woman ;— he has cut himself off from Heaven; he has destroyed [and ruined all his hopes from heaven or earth or men. He has separated himself from his royal uncles and his maternal relatives. He has cast away the music of his forefathers, and by making dissolute melodies he has changed the correct melodies, to please his woman. On this account I, W, reverently proceed to execute the punishment determined by Heaven. Rouse ye, my heroes! Don't let us need a second effort, or a third. He who deceives those above him, in the interest of those below, dies; he who deceives those below, in the interest of those above, is punished; he who takes counsel on the government of the kingdom, which is of no use to the people, has to retire; he who is in the highest position, and cannot advance the worthy, must be driven out.

"Chow abides squatting on his heels, and will not serve God or spirits. He has cast away, and will not sacrifice to, the spirits of his fathers. He says on the contrary,—' The decree is mine;' and therefore he will not put forth his strength in the duties to them. Heaven allows him to take this course, having thrown him away, and no more preserving him. A mean man sees villainy and cunning, or hears it, without shaking:—his knowledge makes him as guilty as the villain.

Chow has hundreds of thousands and millions of ordinary men, but they are divided in their courses ; I have ten able men who are one in heart and in course. Heaven sees as my people see, and hears as my people hear. My dreams agree with my divinations; the auspi

cious omen is double;—my attack on Shang must succeed. King Wan was like the sun or the moon. He lightened with his shining the four quarters,—the western regions. If I

vanquish Chow, it will not be my prowess;—it will be the faultlessness of my father Wan. If Show vanquishes me, it will not be from any fault of my father Wan, but because I am not good.

"Oh! when the superior man has illustrious virtue, his conduct is grandly displayed. There is a beacon not distant'r--- it is in that king of Yin. He says to men that the decree is his; that reverence should not be practised; that sacrifice is of no advantage; that oppression does not matter. God is not constant, and the empire is passing from him. God is not allowing him, but sending down his ruin with a curse. Our House of Chow is receiving the empire from the great God. The solitary fellow Chow. Chow has hundreds and tens of thousands of ministers, who have hundreds and tens of thousands of hearts. King Woo has three thousand ministers with one heart. My prowess is displayed; I invade his borders, and will take the tyrant.

My punishment of evil will be exhibited more glorious than that of T'ang."

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I. The time was the grey dawn of the day kea-tsze. On that morning the king came to the open country of Muh in the borders of Shang, and addressed his army. In his left hand he carried a battle-axe, yellow with gold, and in his right he held a white ensign, which he brandished, saying, "Far are ye come, ye f\ :£> 0, it, M> 5k "I % Ao fglilfIJo

Tun Name Of Tub Book.—"The Speech at Muh.' Muh [Keang Shing edits instead of Muli] was in the south of the

pres. district of Ke 0^2 Ipjj), dep. of Wei

Jiwuy, Ho-nan. It was a tract of open country,

stretching into the pres. dis. of Keih(^), and

at no great distance from the capital of Shoiv. King Woo had, no doubt, made choice of it as a favourable field for the decisive battle between him and the tyrant. I return here to the

rendering of ^t|£ by 'Speech,' as in the' Counsels

of the great ?u,' p. 20. and other places. It would have been well if the term 'Declaration' had not been used instead of it in the last Book. The Speech at Muh is found in both texts. There is more of the martial spirit in it than in Buy other of the speeches of the Shoo.

Contents. It is the morning of the day of battle, for which the king had prepared his host in the three speeches of the last Book. Once more he addresses the confederate princes, his officers, and his men. He sets forth, much as before, but more briefly, the intolerable wicked Dmi of Show, and then instructs and warns the troops you how they should behave them

selves in the fight. The speech proper begins with the oth paragraph. The four parr, that precede may be considered as forming a preliminary chapter.

Ch. I. Pp. 1—4. The Time And CircumStances Of Thk 8PKF.cn. 1. The time; and the appearance of the ling. flt^p f|5 Jjj^

M, —the day E|3 "4- was six days later than

mow-woo ('The Great Speech' Pt. ii., p. 1), which was. we saw, the 28tli of the 1st month. The speech at Muh, therefore, is held to have been spoken on the 4th day of the second month.

iflc-l^, 'dark;' H-lfJ, 'li*ht'' Ma

^Jjf, 'the dark and the light,' ■= the grey dawn.

^ = ^p, 'to hold in the hand.' Its

tone in this sense was diffr. at one time from that which it had in its more common signification of 'a staff.' It now seems to be used only

with the 3d tone. SK, (from a hand grasping

stalks of grain) is of similar signification to it The 'axe' is supposed to be called 'yellow,' from its having been ornamented with gold. The ensign consisted (according to the figures

^ flip Ij£ 3E«

2 men of the western regions!" He added, "Ah! ye hereditary rulers of my friendly States; ye managers of affairs, the ministers of instruction, of war, and of public works: the many officers subordinate to them: the master of my body-guards: the captains of thousands,

3 and captains of hundreds; and ye, O men of Yung, Shuh, Keang,

4 Maou, Wei, Loo, P'ang, and Po;—lift up your lances, join your shields, raise your spears:—I have a speech to make."

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of it, which agree with the component parts of
the character) of several ox-tails, suspended as
streamers from a staff. By means of this Woo
could intimate his wishes as to the order of their
position, &c., to the troops, and therefore he car-
ried it in his right hand. Gan-kwfi says the
axe was in the left hand and the flag in the right,
to show that Woo considered his work was not so
much to kill as to teach. This is being absurdly
ingenious. We may be sure that Woo had his
axe in his right hand in the battle. 5^ =
'far,''distant.' The 'Daily Explanation'
paraphrases the clause thus:— g? jJEj

j^i. Ts'ae observes that he spoke thus to
comfort the men under their long travel.
Pp. 2, 3. The different parties addressed.

the last Book, Pt. i., p. 2. The 'managers of
affairs' were the officers immediately after
specified, belonging to Woo's own govt.,—to
the State of Chow. The T0\ rill
and pj y^V,, were three of the 'six ministers

(■^j jj^jj) under the imperial govt, of Chow,

when the dynasty was fully established, and whose duties are described in Bk. xx, parr. 7—18. A great State, such as Chow was before the extinction of the Shang dyn., had only three principal ministers, whose names are here given. But we may inquire what the ministers of instruction and works had to do in the camp. Ying-tS say3 that the former superintended all orders given to the troops, and the latter all

the business of intrenchments. Ts'ae seems to have thought that they were there as the generals of the three armies of the State. This is not likely;—see Ch'in Sze-k'ae, in loc. We can only form a vague idea on this, as on many

other points in the Shoo. Bi JjSiC'-UI* ■=3^' 'secondary,' 'of inferior rank'; Jp^"= 'multitude,' 'many.' I do not find it possible to say whether we are to understand by these characters the 'multitude of inferior officers' generally, or two distinct classes of such. Gan-kwO had the former view. He

■% *The

phrase denotes all the great officers, whose posts were inferior to those of the ministers.' Ts'ae on the other hand supposes that the tffi were the or 'great officers,' below,

but next in rank to, the ministers, and five of whom filled up the space between each minister and his or 'officers,' of whom there were

M, denoted in the text by the term gt.

—'the Instructor.' The functions of an officer thus designated are given at length in the 13th Book of the Chow Le (j^J ^ fj] t/|3Jj>7 Hl/^*^*)- Hewasata-fooorgreatof

ficer of the second grade, and the Tutor of the heirapparent, at the same time executing various duties about the sovereign, and specially having charge of the guard of foreign—barbarian—mercenaries who kept watch outside the royal gate. In time of war, or when the sovereign went abroad for any other cause, he followed in attendance, with the whole or a portion of that guard. It must have been in this capacity

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