« הקודםהמשך »
非 关誕 良。惟脫罪惟克受惟方照
進, , 子文受胺受多我顯臨, 小考克文非方有于光
and influence of the sun and moon. His brightness extended over the four quarters of the empire, and shone signally in the western
region. Hence it is that our Chow has received the allegiance of 6 inany States.
States. If I subdue Show, it will not be my prowess, but the faultless virtue of my deceased father Wăn. If Show subdue me, it will not be from any fault of my deceased father Wăn, but because I, who am a little child, am not good.” would all be Woo's own. 5. The greater | hand. The 'Daily Explanation,' expanding bis part of this pare appears in Mih-tsze (兼愛, construction, says:一文考之德其所 下篇) thus :一太誓,文王若及如此是以人心戴之关 太
大 西土惟我有周誕受多受多方而有天下, Thus far
'. 71,I have translated this in the indicative reaching was the virtue of my father Wan:
the hearts of men cherished him, and the decree mood, as historical narrative. Such is the view of Heaven fell to him. Right it is that our of Gan-kwổ who explains ;-*I hat, the many regions, and possess the empire. I
House of Chow should receive the allegiance of 故受眾方之國,三分天下, must prefer to construe with the older Scholar 故之國
6. The whole of this par. is found with 而有其二,“The virtue of king Win the verbal variation of for 受,in the La was so great, that he received the allegiance of the States of many quarters, and had two thirds Ke, Book Its C. p. 16. In FE TE FT. of the empire.' Ts'ae found in the language an we must take T lightly, as merely – A. auspice of Woo's success in the enterprise in l.fault,''error.'
I annex here the “Great Declaration,” as it appears in Keang Shing's 尚書集註音號: He has been at great pains to gather up, and put together, the fragments of the Book, as it was when current in the Han dynasty. Wang Ming-shing, or Wang Kwang-luh (E * 祿), gives a much briefer edition of it in his 尚書後案,and arranges many of the sentences, moreover, differently. The fragments give us now in many passages but a farrago of absurdities. We may be sure that a Book containing such things never received the imprimatur of Confucius :
孜鼓 孜鼓日召以事、天俱至墓發、蒼受信發周維 事
·咒典 拜 無課未來公以見O王成舟咒師、公O手日月 天公
書、永 天 期報年以王流休流尔尚畢無首。孟子 將招, 同語傳勸喜之哉。
知 有前未時,于于之 為0
O魚、府、 左賞以乃予上 立歌可不
雕至入與罰先告聞祭 父後伐謀王窮恐 夫其于于黄 祖司古于 母舞、維同動不恃皆色五王舟 成定之
之徒先畢、 民極内 色天之喜赤日,舟楫、
有王 有上王日0大正公聲火跳至白于臣司 政天還受八律。日魄自取者推先左定 律
五 居。地前伐諸使立哉至復滨O號之小凡之 居
復滨 O咸師矣,侯上功茂以于以太日遗。子太上。 矣以
還齊 日乃王不附立哉殼下寮子蒼O予栗子O In the fourth month, Fă, the eldest son and successor, went up and sacrificed at [or, to] Peih, and then proceeded to the neighbourhood of Mång-tsin.
The duke of Chow said, “Oh! exert yourself. I have heard the excellent words of the wise and ancient kings.” The prince Få bowed with his face to his hands, and his head to the ground.
He then addressed the minister of Instruction, the minister of War, and the minister of Works, with all the other appointed officers,—"Be reverent, firm, and sincere. I am without know. ledge, but I look to the virtuous ministers of my fathers to help me, who am bat a little child. I have received the achieved work of the dukes my predecessors, and will exert my strength in rewards and punishments, to accomplish whatever they have left undone." On this he put the host in motion. The grand Tutor, Father Shang, carrying in his right hand an axe yellow with gold, and in his left a white flag, to give out his orders, said, “The hoary wild bull! The hvary wild bull! Lead on all your multitudes. There are your boats and oars. The last come shall be beheaded!”
As the prince Få had got to the middle of the stream in his boat, a white fish entered it. The king knelt down and took it up. He then went on the bank, and burned it, in sacrifice to Heaven. All the dukes said, “This is auspicious!”
On the fifth day there was a ball of fire which descended from above, till it came to the king's house, and there dissolved into a crow. Its colour was red; its voice was calm and decided ; five times it canje bringing a stalk of grain. The king was glad, and all his officers also. The duke of Chow said, “ Be strenuous! Be strenuous! Heaven has showed this to encourage vs. But let us trust in it with dread.” “Examining into antiquity, it is by accomplishing merit and accomplishing business, that one can transmit his work to perpetual generations, and magnity the laws of Ileaven.” They sent up this to be joined to the writing of the duke of Chow, and reported to the king, who was moved, and his countenance changed.
Eight hundred princes came of theinselves without being called; they came at the same time without previous agreement; without consultation they all spoke to the same effect, saying, "Show may be attacked.” The king said, “ You do not know the will of Heaven; it is not yet the time to attack him.” On the day ping-woo he accordingly withdrew his army. In front the host beat their drums and shouted. Some of the soldiers lowered their spears, and went through their exercise ; with songs in front and dancing behind, they made heaven and earth resound, while they cried out, " Let us never be weary. Heaven is about to raise up a parent for us. The people will have good government and dwell quietly.”
乘 死毁 湯夫以命子晕照联自億而厥位附天乃壤馬
自 有約。亡謂 約光灣我兆弗先上罰為其
O余巧吾 再聲、 為皇子我聽。有乃有約國不以父用
有 鑑惟克商O亂開命夷政,可悦母其 商
悦 約必民十不居 三婦弟婦 现有無遠 遠, 非克之人言 。
D 人,乃人 于周傷在子予所同也其肯 附故斷之
长、 殺之帝殷民。惟王天同皇天 民而台其自 伐大不王O展若必德 王,
銷。 亦帝者發,先絕 用帝。常,謂惡文日從OO縱鬼退上維祖于
天之在襲、 The minister of War was in front. “Now, king Chow listens to the words of his woman ;he has cut himself off from Heaven; he has destroyed sand ruined all his hopes from heaven or earth or men. He has separated himself from his royal uncles and his maternal relatives. He has cast away the music of his forefathers, and by making dissolute melodies he has changed the correct melodies, to please his woman. On this account I, Få, reverently proceed to execute the punishment determined by Heaven. Rouse ye, my heroes! Don't let us need a second effort, or a third. He who deceives those above him, in the interest of those below, diez ; he who deceives those below, in the interest of those above, is punished; he who takes counsel on the government of the kingdom, which is of no use to the people, has to retire; he who is in the highest position, and cannot advance the worthy, must be driven out.
“Chow abides squatting on his heels, and will not serve God or spirits. He has cast away, and will not sacrifice to, the spirits of his fathers. He says on the contrary, The decree is mine;' and therefore he will not put forth his strength in the duties to them. Heaven allows him to take this course, having thrown him away, and no more preserving him. A mean man sees villainy and cunning, or hears it, without speaking :-his knowledge makes him as guilty as the villain.
Chow has hundreds of thousands and millions of ordinary men, but they are divided in their courses ; I have ten able men who are one in heart and in course. Heaven sees as my people see, and lears as my people hear. My dreams agree with my divinations; the auspicious omen is double ;-my attack on Shang must succeed. King Wån was like the sun or the moon.
He lightened with his shining the four quarters,—the western regions. If I vanquish Chow, it will not be my prowess ;-it will be the faultlessness of my father Wån. If Show vanquishes me, it will not be from any fault of my father Wăn, but because I am not good.
“Oh! when the superior man has illustrious virtue, his conduct is grandly displayed. There is a beacon not distant ;—it is in that king Yin. He says to men that the decree is his; that reverence should not be practised; that sacrifice is of no advantage; that oppression does not matter. God is not constant, and the empire is passing from him. God is not allowing him, but sending down his ruin with a curse. Our House of Chow is receiving the empire from the great God. The solitary fellow Chow. Chow has hundreds and tens of thousands of ministers, who have hundreds and tens of thousands of hearts. King Woo has three thousand ministers with one heart. My prowess is displayed; I invade his borders, and will take the tyrant, My punishment of evil will be exlıibited more glorious than that of T'ang."
THE BOOKS OF SHANG.
BOOK II. THE SPEECH AT MUH.
STANCES OF THE SPEECHI.
1 1. The time was the grey dawn of the day këă-tsze. On
that morning the king came to the open country of Muh in the borders of Shang, and addressed his army. In his left hand he carried a battle-axe, yellow with gold, and in his right he held a white ensign, which he brandished, saying, “Far are ye con
come, ye The Name of the Book.-# #The Nelves in the fight. The speech proper begiris
with the . that Speech at Muh.' Muh (Keang Shing edits precede may be considered as forming a prelimiinstead of Muh] was in the south of the nary chapter.
Ch, I. Pp. 1–4. THE TIME AND CIRCUMpres. district of Ke (895), dep: of Wei
1. The time ; and hwuy, Ho-nan. It was a tract of open country, the appearance of the king. 時甲子昧 stretching into the pres. dis. of Keih (), and
爽,一the day 甲子 was six days later than at no great distance from the capital of Show, King Wou had, no doubt, made choice of it as a
mow-woo (“The Great Speech' Pt. ii., p. 1), favourable field for the decisive battle between The speech at Muh, therefore, is held to have
which was, we saw, the 28th of the 1st month. him and the tyrant. I return here to the
been spoken on the 4th day of the second month. rendering of ti by Speech,' as in the Counsels
- dark;' ], light;' ## of the great Yu,' p. 20, and other places. It would have been well if the term • Declaration , 'the dark and the light,' = the grey dawn. had not been used instead of it in the last Book. The Speech at Muh is found in both texts, that=##, “to hold in the hand.' Its There is more of the martial spirit in it than in tone in this sense was difft. at one time from any other of the speeches of the Shoo.
that which it had in its more common significaCONTENTS. It is the morning of the dry of tion of a staff.' It now seems to be used only battle, for which the king had prepared his host with the 3d tone. # (from a hand grasping in the three speeches of the last Book. Once more he addresses the confederate princes, his stalks of grain) is of similar signification to tit officers, and liis men. He sets forth, much as The 'axe’ is supposed to be called .yel. before, but more briefly, the intolerable wicked. nees of Show, and then instructs and warns low,' from its having been ornamented with gold. the troops on how they should behave them. The te ensigu cousisted (according to the figuren
王 誓干 擊長氏馬君日
。 君 稱微 千司御医 王嘉爾爾盧及夫空事我
2 men of the western regions!” He added, “Ah! ye hereditary !
. rulers of my friendly States; ye managers of affairs, the ministers of instruction, of war, and of public works: the many officers subordinate
to them: the master of my body-guards: the captains of thousands, 3 and captains of hundreds; and ye, O men of Yung, Shuh, Këang, 4 Maou, Wei
, Loo, P'ang, and Po;—lift up your lances, join your shields, raise your spears :-I have a speech to make."
: . of it, which agree with the component parts of the business of intrenchments. Ts'ae seems the character) of several ox-tails, suspended as to have thought that they were there as the streamers from a staff. By nieans of this Woo generals of the three armies of the State. This could intimate his wishes as to the order of their is not likely ;--see Ch‘in Sze-k'ae, in loc. We position, &c., to the troops, and therefore he car- can only form a vague idea on this, as on many ried it in his right hand. Gan-kwo says the | other points in the Shoo. 亞旅一亞 axe was in the left hand and the flag in the right, to show that Woo considered his work was not so -* “secondary,' 'of inferior rank’; tife much to kill as to teach. This is being absurdly ingenious. We may be sure that Woo had his , 'multitude," “many.' I do not find it posaxe in his right hand in the battle. 逃 - sible to say whether we are to understand by
these characters the multitude of inferior 'far," distant.' The Daily Explanation officers' generally, or two distinct classes of
such. Gan-kw had the former view. He paraphrases the clause thus :- PE 土之人,我以伐暴救民
Bays:一架大夫,其位次卿,“The + ŹN, HH Ź phrase denotes all the great officers, whose 故率爾至此其行亦已遠 posts were interior to those of the ministern. '
Ts'ae on the other hand supposes that the 矣, Tsine observes that he spoke thus to
亞 were the 大夫 or great officers, below,
, comfort the men under their long travel. Pp. 2, 3. The different parties addressed.
but next in rank to, the ministers, and five of
whom filled up the space between each minister 2. 我友邦家君御事,
and his 士, • officers,' of whom there were the last Book, Pt. i., p. 2. The managers of affairs' were the officers immediately after 27, denoted in the text by the term tribe. specified, belonging to Woo's own govt., to fiti #the Instructor. The functions of the State of Chow. The 司徒,司馬, an officer thus designated are given at length and 司空 were three of the six ministers" | in the 13th Book of the Chow Le (地官司
top) under the imperial govt. of Chow, tŹ). He was a ta-foo or great ofwhen the dynasty was fully established, and ficer of the second grade, and the 'Tutor of the heirwhose duties are described in Bk. XX., parr. apparent, at the same time executing various 7---13. A great State, such as Chow was before duties about the sovereign, and specially having the extinction of the Shang dyn., had only three charge of the guard of foreign-barbarian--merprincipal ministers, whose names are here given. cenaries who kept watch outside the royal gate. But we may inquire what the ministers of in. In time of war, or when the sovereign went struction and works had to do in the camp. abroad for any other cause, he followed in atYing-tă says that the former superintended all tendance, with the whole or a portion of that orders given to the troops, and the latter all guard. It must have been in this capacity