תמונות בעמוד


周, 有我 有我民親同臣離兆克。

O親 過民視天不德十德夷

天 在聽天視如雖人予人受益

, 人 子百聽自仁有同有離有 - 百

[ocr errors]


[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]


6 “Show has hundreds of thousands and millions of ordinary

men, divided in heart and divided in practice;—I have of ministers capable of government ten men, one in heart and one in practice.

Although he has his nearest relatives with him, they are not like 7 my virtuous men. Heaven sees as my people see; Heaven hears as

my people hear. The people are blaming me, the one man, for my characters, as to # TE here,—namely the P. 7. The will of Heaven might be seen from occurrence of certain unusual phenomena ;-see

the earnest wish of the people that he should destroy Ying-tă on the passage of the # Nr. The

Shou. 天視民聽一se Men, V, Pt.

視 ,-see V.,

I., v., 8. It would not be easy to determine editors of Yung-ching's Shoo seem on the whole

the exact meaning of the term'Heaven' here. inclined to favour this view.

The attention of Choo He being called to the P. 6. The greater number of Show's host and applicability of the definition of Heaven as adherents was no cause for doubt as to the issue, meaning “Reason,' or 'what is Reasonable' here, See on the 8th par. of last Part. l.- Reasonable"; but it does not mean that only.

• What is

replied, X-, common, ordinary men. F It means also “ the azure vault" **

夷 有亂臣十人,一

,-bee Con. Ana., VIII., ##); and it means too “ the Lord and 周親一周一至, the superative Ruler who is above”在上而有主 adverb, mote: The phrase 周親, and the 宰者亦是天), The term is to be whole clause indeed, are difficult. The para- explained in every place by a consideration of phrase of the · Daily Explanation’ is:- pr the context. It bere, you say that it means

“, 親信者,雖有同姓至親,然| hear? Although the explanation are different ,

there yet is something common in all the IN MIT DAT usages. If you know that, you will not be

人醜類,同惡 日遊 ŻFE 7 # Leitern, you will see that they are not inconsis一臣, 盡是我之親

startled by 戚然皆是仁厚有德之人, tent with the common idea.'-See the PT # 11, · Although those in quoted in the # 經邦濟世

集說 百姓有過, whom Show re poses his most intimate confidence #F-1.-Lin Che-k'e takes these

words as equivalent to those in the 'Anwith himself, yet they are all bad men and detestable, helping him and one another in their

nouncement of Trang, p.7 萬方有罪, common wickedness. My ten ministers, on the #F-\; and most readers will feel other hand, although they are not all my own relatives, are virtuous men, benevolent and gen- inclined at first to agree with him is to erous, fit to rule a country and benefit the age.'

be distinguished, however, from JË, and the (Confucius said that there was a woman

sentiment appropriate to the lips of T'ang, who among Woo's ten able ministers ;--see the Ana., had vanquished his rival, is not to be expected loc cit. She is generally spoken of as ☆ from Woo, who

was only marching to the fight. * mother Wăn,' king Woo's mother, the famous Gan-kwó, as if he had Tang's words before #hell. Others think Woo's wife,

him, and yet felt the difference between B must be intended. It is not easy to believe and JL, interpreted— It devolves on me, the i.]

one man, to teach the people, and correct their


[ocr errors]

are his nearest relatives of the same surname

[ocr errors]


定呼懷 用溫
乃! 寧

張取 武
功 執 彼惟



百 我
世。立鳴姓 0 伐之


[ocr errors]

8 delay ;-I must now go forward. My military prowess is displayed,

and I enter his territories, to take the wicked tyrant. My punishment 9 of evil will be shown more glorious than that of T'ang. Rouse ye,

my heroes! Do not think that he is not to be feared ;-better think that he cannot be withstood. His people stand in trembling awe of him, as if the horns were falling from their heads. Oh! unite your energies, unite your hearts;—80 shall


forth with surely accomplish the work to last for all ages. errors.' But this idea is foreign to the occasion. P. 9. He rouses his men to prepare for the Ts'ae's explanation of by , “fault- fight with stern determination, not undervaluing finding,' complaining of,' is very ingenious, and their enemy, but rather overvaluing him. A sound. See the Con. Ana., xx., i., 5, where good part of this paragraph is also found in also we have the conclusion of the last para- | Mencius ;-see VII., Pt. II., iv. 5. His variagraph.

P. 8. The present enterprise was not less but tions from the present text are, however, greater, more glorious than that of T'ang. Compare and affect the meaning of the several parts of the paragraph as quoted by Mencius, Bk. III., the par. How to account for the differences is Pt. II., v., 6. It will be seen to be rhythmical, a difficult question. To say that our present and this may account for the difficulty which

• Old Text' is a forgery, is an absurd solution ; we find in construing it. 侵于之疆-the true solution has yet to be found. 之

. = 侵入受之疆界, I invade and 夫子一my masters' here='my heroes. enter the boundaries of Show's domain.'于 因或無畏,爭執非敵 場有光一Tsae makes thiston and this 無或以約為不足畏,

爭執 will reflect light on Tang,' i.e., will make hie # # felt like to, as in the


心以為所敵也 mind in attacking Këě more clear. editors of Yung-ching's Shoo say, this is too translation. 百姓懷懷-the people are ingenious. Ts-ae wanted to relieve Woo of a portion of the charge of boastfulness, which is understood to be those of Show's domain, and

the parts of the empire in the east. The urged against the language of this Book ; but foreign students of Chinese history do not feel

next clause represents them as a flock of cattle, the pressure of such a charge. We are content whose horns were being broken. 立定 to take king Woo as we find him, and are not concerned to bring bis character either up or

厥功,一the 立 is best taken adverbially, down to the Chinese idea of a sage.

• forthwith.'




押 彰顯土日誓

土 大 侮今道君鳴 五商厥子呼士六 五 - 。 常王類天我師

王我 O 荒受惟有西王明乃



1 The time was on the morrow, when the king went round

his six hosts in state, and made a clear declaration to all his 2 officers. He said, “Oh! my valiant men of the west, Heaven has

enjoined the illustrious courses of duty, of which the several characters are quite plain. And now Show, the king of Shang treats with contemptuous slight the five constant virtues, and abandons himself

CONTENTS OF THE THIRD Part. On the day | go round and cheer, while the former conveys the after addressing the troops as in the last Part, ideas of marshalling and warning. This is very Woo had a grand review of all the hosts, and

doubtful. declared his sentiments more particularly to

* Biti is used, like I, throughthe officers. He sets forth, as before, the crimes out the Book, by anticipation. According to of Show against God and men, as sufficiently the subsequent statutes of the Chow dyn., the imjustifying their enterprise, and urges the officers perial forces consisted of six armies or brigades, to support him with all their energies that he while those of a great State were only three. In might do his work thoroughly, and utterly reality the hosts now collected on the banks destroy the tyrant. Having set before them of the Ho were an imperial force, and so they the prospect of rewards and punishments, he are denominated the six hosts.' 明誓 concludes with a humble but encouraging reference, to his father Wån.

象士一眾士, all the officers;-GanP. 1. The time and occasion of the Declaration, | kwo says they were all from centurions upwith the parties addressed. The day was that wards.' immediately following that on which the last P. 2. That Show, violating the laws of Heaven, address was delivered, -the Ke-wei day of the had set both Heaven and men against him. calendar. It is supposed that the army was 西土君子,'princely men of the western now about to march to meet or seek the enemy. 大巡大師,一大巡,“vent greatly

regions. # F is appropriate as addressed

to the officers, though Lin Che-k'e shows that about. Lew Ying-ts-ew ( R ) says it might be employed also to designate the comthat I differs from 1, the latter meaning to mon soldiers. 天有顯道,厥類

上技修囚點 四心涉結点


自 作
弗 廟正保崇威腔于
) 屏


繁 O絕 降婦作社典回毒人新品

勤于 時人奇不剂放痛之朝天

to wild idleness and irreverence. He has cut himself off from

Heaven, and brought enmity between himself and the people. 3 “He cut through the leg-bones of those who were wading in

the morning; he cut out the heart of the worthy man. By the use of his power killing and murdering, he has poisoned and sickened all within the four seas. His honour and confidence are given to the villainous and bad. He has driven from him his instructors and guardians. He has thrown to the winds the statutes and penal laws. He has imprisoned and enslaved the upright officer. He neglects the sacrifices to Heaven and Earth. He has discontinued the offerings in the ancestral temple. He makes contrivances of wonderful device and extraordinary cunning, to please his woman. —God will no longer indulge him, but with a curse is sending down H-it seems most proper to explain these thought their legs had a wondrous power of

enduring cold, and had them cut off through clauses by what is said below that Show had

the shank-bone, that he miglit see their Diarrow. violated the five virtues.' The illustrious ways of Heaven,' therefore, are the various 剖賢人之心,-this refers to the relationships, of society, and their characters,' are the duties severally belonging to them.

毒痛四海一痛 This view is advocated by Ying-tă, who is fol. = 73, * to be sick”; here, ' to make sick.

-keon the hand, understood by the illustrious ways, les,-lej = B or tlf, the crooked,

曲 Heaven's love of virtue and hatred of vice, and by their characters,' the good and evil which

= 'the bad.' 囚奴正士,一this was severally attend them ;-making reference to

the case of the count of Ke. 郊社一 * the use of the phrase # G in the “Counsels

on the 'Doctrine of the Mean,' xix. 6. 婦 of Yu,' p. 21, and in the · Announcement of Tang, p. 3. This interpretation is in- ,-this refers to Ta-ke. History has not genious and not without merit;

but the other is preserved an account of the cunning contrivances preferable. Top 10 Preferred to. Ts'ae says that since show con狎侮五常一押

trived the punishment of Roasting' to niake 2,"easily “lightly; J. The slights her laugh, we can well understand that he and contemns.' Th

' 五常一

;-see on 1. #

tasked his ingenuity to the utmost in other

五典 • Can. of Shun,' p. 2.

things to please her. 税降時(一 P. 3. An enumeration of Show's wickednesses, D.-Gan-kwð defines TX by K (up. and summons to the officers to support the king in

2d tune), to cut off,' • to make an end of? Ts'ae, punishing him. 新朝涉之肥,

misunderstanding leiar for the same char. in the Gan-kwo tells us that Chow, one winter's day, soeing some people wading through a stream, 3d tone, explains the clause by ATM

case of Pe-kan.

[ocr errors]

- see




世 鳴有迪珍肆雙夫撫行爾

迪建 呼厚果殲予樹受我天其 鐵

我 惟賞毅乃 小德洪則罰孜

罰 我不以響子務惟后O孜 文迪登爾誕滋作虐古古 文

作 考有乃泉以除威我人子 有

我 若顯辟士爾寇乃則有 顯

則 日戮 功其眾務次彎言人



on him this ruin. Do ye support with untiring zeal me, the one

man, reverently to execute the punishment appointed by Heaven. 4 The ancients have said, "He who soothes us is our sovereign; he

; who oppresses us is our enemy.' This solitary fellow Show, having exercised great tyranny, is your perpetual enemy. It is said again, 'In planting a man's virtue, strive to make it great; in putting away a man's wickedness, strive to do it from the root.' Here I, who am a little child, by the powerful help of you,


my officers, will utterly exterminate your enemy. Do you, all my officers, march forwards with determined boldness, to sustain your prince. Where there is much merit, there shall be large reward.

Where you advance not so, there shall be conspicuous disgrace. 5 “Oh! the virtue of my deceased father Wăn was like the shining Et, 'is determinedly sending down of the day like the first two. The former of

them appears, slightly varied, as an old saying,' thie ruin.” But TÖR, like the Hebrew barak is a in the

ETC #mi

左傳哀元年,其 vox media, and may be used for “to curse'as

孜孜="with unwell as to bless.'

-the union of and fin. to express (

earnest exhortation, has occurred more than P. 4. Show had shown himself the enemy of the

一進, to advance' 果 and people , never to be forgivenj and outcome

obsahom te are both defined by and #de

and branch work with the tyrant.


,-this termined. It is said-致果為報·報 was certainly very strong language, applied to is the intensest determination.' 登乃 Show who was still occupying the throne. See the reference to it by Mencius, I., Pt. II., viii

. ht:-=, 'to complete. The Daily It is much in his style. Seun-tsze has quoted Explanation' brings the meaning out by say. it as from the Great Declaration, in his 議 jing:一以成爾君民伐罪之 兵篇 世警,一-an

- an hereditary ene- Ih, 'to accomplish the work of your ruler in my,' one whose memory must be held in consoling the people and smiting the criminal.' detestation in all the future. 樹德... Pp. 5, 6. The virtue of King Wăn, and its

effects. Success in the present enterprise would be 務本-the

#I ;

,- these clauscs are probably sayings owing to him ; failure, it failure there should be,

wearied efforts.'



[ocr errors]
« הקודםהמשך »