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"Show has hundreds of thousands and millions of ordinary men, divided in heart and divided in practice;—I have of ministers capable of government ten men, one in heart and one in practice. Although he has his nearest relatives with him, they are not like my virtuous men. Heaven sees as my people see; Heaven hears as my people hear. The people are blaming me, the one man, for my

characters, as to jjj^i here,—namely the occurrence of certain unusual phenomena;—see Ying-ta on the passage of the tjl The editors of Yung-ching's Shoo seem on the whole inclined to favour this view.

P. 6. The greater number of Shoio't host and adherents was no cause for doubt as to the issue. See on the 8th par. of last Part. A" — =-= P: 1 common, ordinary men.'

HI E. ~jr A-^ Con-Aua-'vin

,x- ffl $b-M"~the 8UPerlative adverb, ' most.' The phrase J^J and the whole clause indeed, are difficult. The paraphrase of the ' Daily Explanation' is:—f)?

W J# $2 % S E« 'Althou8h th08e in whom Show rt poses his most intimate confidence are his nearest relatives of the same surname with himself, yet they are all bad men and detectable, helping him and one another in their common wickedness. My ten ministers,'on the other hand, although they are not all my own relatives, are virtuous men, benevolent and generous, fit to rule a country and benefit the age.'

[Confucius said that there was a woman among Woo's ten able ministers;—see the Ana., lac cit. She is generally spoken of as 'mother Wan,' king Woo's mother, the famous j

til. 0tneTM think Woo's wife, S M Blast be intended. It is not easy to belU-ve ' and $f-> interpreted—'It devolves on me, the this.] one man, to teach the people, and correct their

P. 7. The will of Heaven might be seen from the earnest wish of the people that he should destroy

Snow. ^ jH -see Men., V.,Pt.

I., v., 8. It would not be easy to determine the exact meaning of the term 'Heaven' here. The attention of Choo Ho being called to the applicability of the definition of Heaven as meaning 'Reason,'or 'what is Reasonable' here, replied, 'Heaven certainly means •' What is Reasonable "; but it does not mean that only.

It means also "the azure vault"

sj^ ^); and it means too " the Lord and

Ruler who is above" h, ffn -^j ^

^ % rff S 3d- The term " t0 1)8

explained in every place by a consideration of the context. If here you say that it means "what is Reasonable," how can that see and hear? Although the explanations are differen t, there yet is something common in all the usages. If you know that, you will not be startled by the differences; and if you know them, you will see that they are not inconsistent with the common idea.'—See the passage

quoted in the ^ |£. j& % jg,

jfa- f — —Lin Che-k'e takes these words as equivalent to those in the 'Announcement of T-ang,' p. 7, T?

>|^f- —p« ■ ;and most readers will feel

inclined at first to agree with him rich is to

be distinguished, however, from lb, and the

sentiment appropriate to the lips of T'ang, who had vanquished his rival, is not to be expected from Woo, who was only marching to the fight. Gan-kwfi, as if he had T'ang's words before

him, and yet felt the difference between

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8 delay;—I must now go forward. My military prowess is displayed, and I enter his territories, to take the wicked tyrant. My punishment

9 of evil will be shown more glorious than that of T'ang. Rouse ye, my heroes! Do not think that he is not to be feared;—better think that he cannot be withstood. His people stand in trembling awe of him, as if the horns were falling from their heads. Oh! unite your energies, unite your hearts;—so shall you forthwith surely accomplish the work to last for all ages."

P. 9. m rouses his men to prepare for the fight with stern determination, not undervaluing their enemy, but rather overvaluing him. A good part of this paragraph is also found in Menciusp-- see VII., Pt. II, iv. 5. His variations from the present text are, however, greater, and affect the meaning of the several parts of the par. How to account for the differences is a difficult question. To say that our present 'Old Text' is a forgery, is an absurd solution; —the true solution has yet to be found.

-^p",—' my masters,' here =' my heroes.'

translation. j^^£|*^Sj|,—the people are

understood to be those of Show's domain, and the parts of the empire in the east. The next clause represents them as a flock of cattle,

whose horns were being broken. Ti yjg

Jj^ ~X}},—the Jj^ is best taken adverbially, =' forthwith.'

But this idea is foreign to the occasion.

Ts'ae's explanation of by 'fault

finding,' 'complainingof,'is very ingenious, and sound. See the Con. Ana, xx, i, 5, where also we have the conclusion of the last paragraph.

P. 8. The present enterprise was not less but more glorious than that of T-ang. Compare the paragraph as quoted by Mencius, Bk. Ill, Pt. II, v, 6. It will be seen to be rhythmical, and this may account for the difficulty which

we find in construing it. |[||

A 51? *L IS ■!?•>11 invade ami

enter the boundaries of Show's domain.'

^ ^ Ts'ae makes this to =' and this

will reflect light on T'ang,' i.e., will make his mind in attacking Ke6 more clear. As the editors of Yunp-ching's Shoo say, this is too ingenious. Ts'ae wanted to relieve Woo of a portion of the charge of boastfulness, which is urged against the language of this Book ; but foreign students of Chinese history do not feel the pressure of such a charge. We are content to take king Woo as we find him, and are not concerned to bring his character either up or down to the Chinese idea of a sage.

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*t ft* ^ M Ti

1 The time was on the morrow, when the king went round his six hosts in state, and made a clear declaration to all his

2 officers. He said, "Oh! my valiant men of the west, Heaven has enjoined the illustrious courses of duty, of which the several characters are quite plain. And now Show, the king of Shang treats with contemptuous slight the five constant virtues, and abandons himself

Contents Of The Third Part. On the day after addressing the troops as in the last Part, Woo had a grand review of all the hosts, and declared his sentiments more particularly to the officers. He sets forth, as before, the crimes of Show against God and men, as sufficiently justifying their enterprise, and urges the officers to support him with all their energies that he might do his work thoroughly, and utterly destroy the tyrant. Having set before them the prospect of rewards and punishments, he concludes with a humble but encouraging reference, to his father Wan.

P. 1. The time and occasion of the Declaration, with the parties addressed. The day was that immediately following that on which the last address was delivered,—the Ke-wei day of the calendar. It is supposed that the army was now about to march to meet or seek the enemy.

M. frfi "A 'went

about.' Lew Yiag-ts'ew (|g|J a ^) says that ffif differs from the latter meaning to

go round and cheer, while the former conveys the ideas of marshalling and warning. This is very

doubtful. is used, like E, through

out the Book, by anticipation. According to the subsequent statutes of the Chow dyn., the imperial forces consisted of six armies or brigades, while those of a great State were only three. In reality the hosts now collected on the banks of the Ho were an imperial force, and so they

are denominated the 'six hosts.' EjJ^ ^&

4$. i'1& i' 'a11 the officers;'—Gankw8 says they were all 'from centurions upwards.'

P. 2. That Show, violating the laws of Heaven, had set both Heaven and men against him.

rj|j -J- —' princely men of the western

regions' -jp* is appropriate as addressed to the officers, though Lin Che-k'e shows that it might be employed also to designate the comn.ou soldiers. ^ A jg. J$ M'

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to wild idleness and irreverence. He has cut himself off from Heaven, and brought enmity between himself and the people. 3 "He cut through the leg-bones of those who were wading in the morning; he cut out the heart of the worthy man. By the use of his power killing and murdering, he has poisoned and sickened all within the four seas. His honour and confidence are given to the villainous and bad. He has driven from him his instructors and guardians. He has thrown to the winds the statutes and penal laws. He has imprisoned and enslaved the upright officer. He neglects the sacrifices to Heaven and Earth. He has discontinued the offerings in the ancestral temple. He makes contrivances of wonderful device and extraordinary cunning, to please his woman. —God will no longer indulge him, but with a curse is sending down

*J^: —it seems most proper to explain these clauses by what is said below that Show had violated the 'five virtues.' The 'illustrious ways of Heaven,' therefore, are the various relationships, of society, and 'their characters,' are the duties severally belonging to them. This view is advocated by Ying-ta, who is followed by Ts'oe. Lin Che-k'e, on the other hand, understood by the 'illustrious ways,' Heaven's love of virtue and hatred of vice, and by 'their characters,' the good and evil which severally attend them;—making reference to * the use of the phrase in the 'Counsels

of Yu,' p. 21, and in the 'Announcement of
T'ang,' p. 8. This interpretation is in-

genious and not without merit; but the other is
preferable. =
or jjjg,' 'easily 'lightly," ^ j$f[=' slights
and contemns.' Rf —see on jJlL,
'Can. of Shun,' p. 2.

P. 8. An enumeration of Show's wickednesses, and summons to the officers tr. support the kin;/ in

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thought their legs had a wondrous power of enduring cold, and had them cut off through the shank-bone, that he might see their marrow.

Pill W A —this refers to the

case of Pe-kan. ^ ffi
-» m 1 to be sick'; here, 'to make sick.'
gr lEJHBl-2ffi °r ft. <the crooked,'
—' the bad.' |7J jjj ^fc,—t,li8 was
the case of the count of Ke. ^jjj^,—see

on the 'Doctrine of the Mean,' xix. 6. ht

—this refers to Take. History has not preserved an account of the cunning contrivances referred to. Ts'ae says that since Show contrived 'the punishment of Roasting' to make her laugh, we can well understand that he tasked his ingenuity to the utmost in other things to please her. flj^ H$ c- ^) |}f|,—Gan-kw6 defines by (up. 2d tone),'to cut off-,'' to make an end of.' Ts'ae, misunderstanding for the same chair, in the H IT.8. ft * ^ Bt JW S.»


*5vfl 7* * 18 tf. ^Wiii^ SM^on him this ruin. Do ye support with untiring zeal me, the one man, reverently to execute the punishment appointed by Heaven. The ancients have said, 'He who soothes us is our sovereign; he who oppresses us is our enemy.' This solitary fellow Show, having exercised great tyranny, is your perpetual enemy. It is said again, 'In planting a man's virtue, strive to make it great; in putting away a mans wickedness, strive to do it from the root.' Here 1, who am a little child, by the powerful help of you, all my officers, will utterly exterminate your enemy. Do you, all my officers, march forwards with determined boldness, to sustain your prince. Where there is much merit, there shall be large reward. Where you advance not so, there shall be conspicuous disgrace. "Oh! the virtue of my deceased father Wan was like the shining

of the day like the first two. The former of them appears, slightly varied, as 'an old saying,'

JpL gt, —the union of H and 'jpj. to express earnest exhortation, has occurred more than once. T^L^j^fc' 't() advance.' -jjl and H£ are both defined by a and Fr A, 'determined.' It is said-gfc H j| '|g is the intensest determination.' M ~pj

,~'§fc'= 1&' 'to comPlete-' The 'Daily Explanation' brings the meaning out by say

Jjjjf, 'to accomplish the work of your ruler in

consoling the people and smiting the criminal.'

Pp. 5, 6. The virtue of King Wen, and its effects. Success in the present enterprise would be owing to him; failure, if failure there, should be,

J££ J§ determ'ned'y sending down

this ruin.' But like the Hebrew barak is a vox media, and may be used for 'to curse' as well as 'to bless.' ^BC=' w'tn ur*"

w earied efforts.'

P. 4. Show had shown himself the enemy of the people, never to be forgiven; and Woo calls his troops to support him in making root and branch

work with the tyrant. —"''9

was certainly very strong language, applied to Show who was still occupying the throne. See the reference to it by Mencius, I., Pt. IL, viii. It is much in his style. Seun-tsze has quoted

it as from the 'Great Declaration,' in his g||

-E (iii. —'an hereditary enemy,' one whose memory must be held in detestation in all the future. jjs|J ^&

Jj£ ^Sk,—tncsc clauses are probably sayings

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