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貫 義同 有帝受子順

予 盈 惟萬受力 泉宜命小天 天 心有度

展于文子厥 心,予臣德

、凤 有億同 之土類夜惟之商萬德

惟 二、 罰。以于銷予罪三惟度

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8 “"Where the strength is the same, measure the virtue of the parties;

where the virtue is the same, measure their righteousness.'' Show has hundreds of thousands and myriads of ministers, but they have

hundreds of thousands and myriads of minds; I have three thousand 9 ministers, but they have one mind. The iniquity of Shang is full.

Heaven gives command to destroy it. If I did not comply with

Heaven, my iniquity would be as great. 10 “I, who am a little child, early and late am filled with apprehensions. I have received charge from my deceased father Wån; I

Wăn have offered special sacrifice to God; I have performed the due services to the great Earth ;—and I lead the multitude of you to 有過用其心乎, how dare I use | 100,00. The subject of Show's more nume

用 my own mind too much ?' Such is the inter

rous host comes up again in the next Part, p.

6. We may admit it as a fact, and it ex. pretation of Ts'ae ;-atele like this, is 'to go plains the rising and troubles which disturbed beyond what is right with-in accordance with the dynasty of Chow after the death of king -my own wishes. The dict. follows Gan-kwo Woo. It is difficult, at the same time, to

reconcile it with, the representations of the in defining the here by , to put away.'

general disaffection to the emperor, and of two My purpose is to destroy the tyrant for the thirds of the empire having been for years good of the people. Whether he be guilty or devoted to the House of Chow. See the not guilty, I will smite him. I will not let go note on this paragraph in the # It is that, my proper purpose. This is evidently in

instructive, though not conclusive in favour of P. 8. He auspices success from the righteous- the author's views. 9. It was woe to Woo ness of his cause, and the harmony of mind among himself if he proceeded not to destroy Shang. his followers, though they were comparatively few. Compare the 'Speech of Tsang, pp. 1, 2; and

The two first clauses are supposed to be the · Announcement of T'ang,' p. 4. 商 a current saying used against each other by contending parties ;-Lin Che-k'e has adduced J T - the crimes of Shang are strung from the t two examples of similar cou- together and full’ 10. Woo's caution ana plets. The second clause is not so intelligible conscientiousness in proceeding with his enterprise. as the first. We can understand how when 予小子风夜恐懼,一comp. parties were matched in strength, the struggle should be expected to terminate in favour of the Announcement of T'ang,' p. 6. 受 the more virtuous; but it is difficult to perceive how'virtue' and 'righteousness 'can be set

|命 文考,類于上帝,宜于 against each other. 受有臣億萬,家土一家一大“great;家土, the -"Ts'ae says here that he denotes • a hundred great earth,'- Tit 'the altar dedicated myriads,' or a million. This was probably a to the great spirit of the Earth.' The sacrifice slip of his pencil. l, - ten myriads, or at this altar was called It WIFE

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清 尚欲秒

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In the Le


11 execute the punishment appointed by Heaven. Heaven compas

sionates the people. What the people desire, Heaven will be found to give effect to. Do you aid me, the one man, to cleanse for ever all within the four seas. Now is the time!-it may not be lost.'

-see the Canon of Shun,' p. 6. Ke, Bk. I #1), Pt. ii., 17, we find-# F at Kan, p.3.

一comp. 恭行天之罰,in the Spech *FETİ Fhite proof of the compassion of Heaven for the people,

and he summons all the princes and officers to stre乎:When the emperor is about to go forth, nuous cooperation with him. he offers special sacrifice to God, performs the year of duke Seang, and in another place of the due services at the altar of the Earth, and goes #N, we find the passage-É Z HIT


民之所 to all these observances ; and it must have been in het Ź, quoted from the Great at the shrine of his father, that he somehow Declaration. It is also found in the understood himself to receive,' as he says here, 爾尚強子一人一 "charge to attack Chow. FŹ, of Tang, 'p. 4.

-see the 'Speech


Under the 32nd

to the shrine of his father. Woo had attended

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1 On the day mow-woo, the king halted on the north of the River.

When all the chiefs with their hosts were assembled, the king re-
2 viewed the hosts, and made the following declaration, saying, "Ah!
ye multitudes of the West, listen all to my words.

CONTENTS OF THE SECOND Part. Since the decided by this fixing of the relation between
delivery of the first address, the army has the two dates. Ts-ae will still have the month
crossed the Ho, w!len Woo reviews it, and to be the first of the Hea year,--really the first
makes this speech, which is more especially | month of spring; Gan-kw and others will
addressed to the troops. He makes Show and have it to be the first month of the Chow year,
Këě, Töang and himself, all pass before his men,

the second month of winter. 次于河
showing that Show was more wicked than Këč,
and that his punishment of him would be more 76,-*-11, 'to stop," "to be stationed.

glorious than Tang's had been of Këě. Heaven
will surely crown their enterprise with success;

In the interval, therefore, between the two ad-
and he therefore in conclusion urges them all dresses, the army had crossed the Ho.
to go into battle, not despising the tyrant, but
with united hand and heart, to accomplish a

Bili,-1) (3d tone) = 1, "to go about.
work that should last for ages. The whole is Hwang Too explains it from the phrase Hit
divided into 9 paragraphs.

Pp. 1, 2. The time, place, and occasion of the W 'to cheer and animate. “To review'ex-

address; and the parties addressed. The time presses the meaning accurately enough. Per-

was the day mow-woo, which we are able to haps we are to understand that the king first

determine, from the 1st par. of the Completion crossed the river and encamped; and then,

of the War,' to have been the 28th day of the 1st wlien all the princes with their troops, had

month. We are there told that Woo began his pitched their tents around him, he went through

march to attack Chow on the day jin-shin,

2. 西

which was the 2d of the 1st month. Calculating the host and addressed the soldiers.

on to the day mow-woo, we ascertain that it

土有泉-Woo and his father had both

was the 28th of the same moon. The con-

troversy, described on the 1st par. of the

been Chiefs of the West,'- viceroys orer that

lust Part, co the term 'spring,' however, is not part of the enspire.

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天, 日

蘭 佑克民 天作 酗播足、团聞

播 凶骨 命若惟積仇肆棄今人吉


, 「 湯流奉彰權臣老王

臣 不為 降毒天聞相下昵受善善


0 复 复國賓惟無之罪行日

無之 惟

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3 “I have heard that the good man, doing good, finds the day

insufficient, and that the evil man, doing evil, likewise finds the day insufficient. Now Show, the king of Shang, with strength pursues his lawless way.

He has cast away the time-worn sires, and cultivates intimacies with wicked men. Dissolute, intemperate, reckless, oppressive, his ministers have become assimilated to him; and they form parties, and contract animosities, and depend on the emperor's power to exterminate one another. The innocent cry to

Heaven. "The odour of such a state is plainly felt on high. 4 “ Heaven loves the people, and the sovereign should reverence

this mind of Heaven. Këě, the sovereign of Hea, could not follow the example of Heaven, but sent forth his poisonous injuries through the States of the empire:—Heaven favoured and charged T'ang, the

P 3. The dreadful wickedness of Show. <charge to Yue p.5;比, as in the 'Instructions 吉人,因人,一comp. the unse of 吉 and

of E,' p. 7. 朋家作仇各立 Jin the Coungels of Yu, p5. Here however, 朋黨互為仇警, 脅權,一 we are to take the terms in their purely moral signification. This use of them shows the deep as in the Punitive Expedition of Yin,' conviction that goodness and prosperity, evil p. 6,= 16. 'to press,' 'to force.' The phrase and calamity, ought always to be found together. | here = they make forcible use of-press upon 播渠犁老一 :-comp. in the Vis

with-the power of the emperor.' 籲天 count of Wei, p. 3. 毫遜于荒播一告天 or 呼天, appeal to Heaven. is here explained by the very nearly synony- The Pub, their filthy, fætid deeds.” 泰犁 is most simply explained See on the • Pwan-kăng.' Pt. ii., p. 8.

Pp. 4, 5. Heaven will always overthrow wickby taking it as for black and yellow,' the edness and tyranny :-illustraied in the case of colour of old men's faces. Mih-tsze says of

Këč and T'ang, and now in that of Show, who was Chow that he 播棄黎老 where 黎is

worse than Këč, and himself. 4. 惠。愛 probably intended for the character in the text to love.' 有夏桀 is not s there WE H JE N-MT (neih). as in the was Ke of Hea, but 有夏之君柴


mous with


襲民王惟 惟謂足有賊于命。

足命 于 天 不暴行天虐柴O

( 休夢其遠無謂命練惟。 祥協以在傷祭 輔喪受 我胖子彼欧 之

敬謂元罪 商 下、又复鑒 不已良、浮


5 Successful, to make an end of the decree of Hea. But the crimes

of Show exceed those of Këě. He has stript and degraded the greatly good man; he has behaved with cruel tyranny to his reprover and helper. He says that his is the decree of Heaven; he says that a reverent care of his conduct is not worth observing; he says that sacrifice is of no use; he says that tyranny is no matter. The case for his inspection was not remote ;-—in that king of Hea. It would seem that Heaven is going by means of me to rule the people. My dreams coincide with my divinations; the auspicious omen is double. My attack on Shang must succeed. 'Këč, the ruler who held Hea.' 流毒暴無傷,一無傷,一se Men I. Pt, pil:

, , ., vii." 下國三流毒于下國Howed out ,國, (18. 歌 次鑒云云,

,--see the quotation his poison upon the lower States. Këč is con- from the She King in Mencius, IV., Pt. I., ii., ceived of on the throne of the empire, as being 1 5. 天其以子民-observe the raised on high, above his own and all the feudal

降黜夏命一降 force of 其联夢協联下,襲 "to bring down and put away. Comp. the F# F M --We have no expression in the 55th note of the Preface, - hito other intimation of Woo's being encouraged in

a dream to act against Show; his divination 王鼎殷命 5. T F may have been before the shrine of his father

, -Y, comp. on the 'Pwan-kang," Pt. ii., referred to in the last Part, p. 10. 襲 3. Here it is evidently-勝 or 過, to 重: double repeated. 冀于休祥 exceed.' 獎元長一剎 to tear, —both agree in being auspicious,' 7 to peel,' - 'to degrade'; ele is L 'to pon,' here='to attack with weapons. lose one's office,' used, here in a hiphil sense.

to the interpretation thus indicated, which is is supposed that this clause has reference to after Ts'ae, the omens were only two, which the viscount of Wei, whose withdrawal from united in being favourable. In the court, it would thus appear, was preceded by violence and oppression on the part of Show however

, T, the passage is quoted, The next clause一賊虐練輔, where the speaker is treating of the agrement

of three omens, and he adds to the passage-is referred to Pe-kan. 謂天

謂已有天以三襲也,On thieview,襲于休 命,

以也于 1,-see the “Conquest of Le,' p. 5.

祥'agree with the 休群,whatever this 敬不足行,一reverence is not worth being | was Lin Che-kre adopting this construction,

祥practised.' We had better understand the re- refers to the 24th chap. of the Doctrine of the verence' with reference to his own conduct, and Mean,' where it is said that when a nation or a to the business of the State. E frit family is about to flourish, there will be TT, this was the cry of the wicked Jews in the seen in the milfoil and tortoise, &c. There, a time of Malachi,"It is vain to serve God.' | substantive meaning may be given to those two

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