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Alway he drinketh, and yet alway is drye,
The poet adds, that when the noble Howard had long boldly contended with this hideous monster, had broken the bars and doors of the castle, had bound the porter, and was now preparing to ascend the tower of Virtue and Honour, FORTUNE and Death appeared, and interrupted his progress'.
The first modern Latin Bucolics are those of Petrarch, in number twelve, written about the year 13508. The Eclogues of Mantuan, our author's model, appeared about the year 1400, and were followed by many others. Their number multiplied so soon, that a collection of thirty-eight modern bucolic poets in Latin was printed at Basil, in the year 1546". These writers judged this indirect and disguised mode of dialogue, consisting of simple characters which spoke freely and plainly, the most safe and convenient vehicle for abusing the corruptions of the church. Mantuan became so popular, as to acquire the estimation of a classic, and to be taught in schools. Nothing better proves the reputation in which this writer was held, than a speech of Shakespeare's pedant, the pedagogue Holofernes. “ Fauste, precor, gelida quando pecus omne sub ulmo', and so forth. Ah, good old Mantuan! I may speak of thee, as the traveller doth of Venice, Vinegia, Vinegia, chi non te vedi, ei non te pregia, Old MANTUAN! Old MANTUAN! Who understandeth thee not, loveth thee notk.” But although Barklay copies Mantuan, the recent and separate publication in
f Egl. iv.
printed in England before the year 8 BUCOLICORUM ECLOCÆ XII.
1600. Viz. B. Mantuani Carmelitæ 1 Viz. xxxviii. AUTHORES BUCOLICI, theologi AvOLESCENTIA seu BUCOLICA, Basil. 1546. 8vo.
With the commentary of Jodocus BaOne of Mantuan's lines. Farnaby dius. Excud. G. Dewes and H. Marshe, in his Preface to Martial says, that 1584. 12mo. Again, for the same, the Fauste precor gelida, was too often pre same year, 12mo. Again, for Robert ferred to Arma virumque cano. I think Dexter, 1598. 12mo. With Arguments there is an old black letter translation to the Eclogues, and Notes by John of Mantuan into English. Another Murmelius, &c. translation appeared by one Thomas Love's LAB. L. Act iy. Sc. 3, Harvey, 1656. Mantuan was three times
England of Virgil's bucolics, by Wynkyn de Worde', might partly suggest the new idea of this kind of poetry.
With what avidity the Italian and French poets, in their respective languages, entered into this species of composition, when the rage of Latin versification had subsided, and for the purposes above mentioned, is an inquiry reserved for a future period. I shall only add here, that before the close of the fifteenth century, Virgil's bucolics were translated into Italian, by Bernardo Pulci, Fossa de Cremona, Benivieni, and Fiorini Buoninsegni.
! BUCOLICA Virgilii cum commento Fiorino Buoninsegni de Sienna: Epifamiliari. At the end, Ad juvenes hujus stole di Luca Pulci. In Firenze, per Maroniani operis commendatio. Die vero Bartolomeo Miscomini, 1484. A dediviii Aprilis. 4to. And they were reprint- cation is prefixed, by which it appears, ed by the same, 1514 and 1516. that Buoninsegni wrote a PISCATORY
* Viz. LA BUCOLICA DI VIRGILIO per ECLOGUE, the first ever written in Italy, Fratrem Evangelistam Fossa de Cre- in the year 1468. There was a second mona ord. servorum. In Venezia, 1494. edition of Pulci's version, LA BUCOLICA 4to. But thirteen years earlier we find, di VIRGILIO tradotta per Bernardo Bernardo Pulci nella BUCOLICA di Vir- Pulci con l'Elegie. In Florenza, 1494, gilio: di Jeronimo BENIVIENI, Jacopo
is not the plan of this work to comprehend the Scotch poetry. But when I consider the close and national connection between England and Scotland in the progress of manners and literature, I am sensible I should be guilty of a partial and defective representation of the poetry of the former, was I to omit in my series a few Scotch writers, who have adorned the present period, with a degree of sentiment and spirit, a command of phraseology, and a fertility of imagination, not to be found in any English poet since Chaucer and Lydgate : more especially as they have left striking specimens of allegorical invention, a species of composition which appears to have been for some time almost totally extinguished in England.
The first I shall mention is William Dunbar, a native of Salton in East Lothian, about the year 1470. His most celebrated poems are The THISTLE AND THE Rose, and THE GOLDEN TERGE.
The THISTLE AND THE ROSE was occasioned by the marriage of James the Fourth, king of Scotland, with Margaret Tudor, eldest daughter of Henry the Seventh, king of England: an event, in which the whole future political state of both nations was vitally interested, and which ultimately produced the union of the two crowns and kingdoms. It was finished on the ninth day of May in the year 1503, nearly three months before the arrival of the queen in Scotland: whose progress from Richmond to Edinburgh was attended with a greater magnificence of parade, processions, and spectacles, than I ever remember to have seen on any similar occasion. It may be
* See a memoir, cited above, in Le- notice, that during this expedition there land's COLL tom. iii. APPEND. edit. was in the magnificent suite of the prin1770. p. 265. It is worthy of particular cess a company of players, ander the
pertinent to premise, that Margaret was a singular patroness of the Scotch poetry, now beginning to flourish. Her bounty is thus celebrated by Stewart of Lorne, in a Scotch poem, called LERGES OF THis New YEIR DAY, written in the year 1527.
Grit God relief MARGARET our quene!
Scho wald be lerger of lufrayd
For lerges of this new-yeir day. Dunbar's THISTLE AND Rose is opened with the following stanzas, which are remarkable for their descriptive and picturesque beauties.
Quhen Merche wes with variand windis past,
Had maid the birdis to begyn thair houris!, direction of one John Inglish, who is Bodl. Oxon. Froissart, who is most sometimes called Johannes. “ Amonge commonly prolix in describing pompous the saide lordes and the qweene was in ceremonies, might have greatly enriched order, Johannes and his companye, the his account of the same royal wedding, minstrells of musicke,” &c. p. 267. See from this valuable and authentic record. also, p. 299. 300. 280. 289. In the midst See his Cros. tom. iv. p. 226. ch. 78, of a most splendid procession, the prin- B. penult. Paris, 1574. fol. Or lord cess rode on horse-back behind the king Berners's Translation, vol. ii. f. 275. into the city of Edinburgh, p. 287. cap. ccxvi. edit. Pinson, 1523. fol. Afterwards the ceremonies of this stately [The presents at this marriage ascer, marriage are described; which yet is not tain a doubtful reading in Chaucer, viz, equal, in magnificence and expence, to “ Un NOUCHE pr. ece. livr.it. un riche that of Richard the Second with Isabell NOUCHE.-Un NOUCHE priz de cynk centz of France, at Calais, in the year 1997. marcz." In the CLERKE's Tale, GriThis last-mentioned marriage is recorded silde has a crown “full of ouchis grete with the most minute circumstances, and smale." The late editor acquaints the dresses of the king and the new us, that the best manuscripts read nouchis. queen, the names of the French and En- ADDITIONS.). glish nobility who attended, the presents, great God help, &c. one of which is a collar of gold studded • If she continues to do as she has with jewels, and worth three thousand done. d bounty. Pr. l'offre. pounds, given on both sides, the ban any other I could speak of. quets, entertainments, and a variety of f largess, bounty. other curious particulars, in five large when, Qu has the force of w. vellum pages, in an antient Register of i taken leave.
k mother. Merton priory in Surry, in old French. " Mattin orisons. From Hure in the MSS. LAUD, E. 54. fol. 105. b. Bibl. missal. So again in the GOLDEN TERGE,
8 St. X.
Amang the tendir odouris reid and quhyt,
Quhil al the house illumynit of her lemys." May then rebukes the poet, for not rising early, according to his annual custom, to celebrate the approach of the spring ; especially as the lark has now announced the dawn of day, and his heart in former years had always
glaid and blissful bene Sangis u to mak undir the levis grene. St. ii. Where he also calls the birds the Suppose the geis and hennis suld cry chapel-clarkes of Venus, St. iii. In the alarum, COURTE OF LOVE, Chaucer introduces And we sall serve secundun usum Sathe birds singing a mass in honour of May. Edit. Urr. p. 570. v. 1953. seq.
* hailed. On May-day, when the larke began to
° with good will.
From Chaucer, MILLER'S TALE, He begins the service with Domino labia,
v. 147. p. 25. Urr. The
eagle sings the Venite. The popin Full brightir was the shining of hir hewe jay Cæli enarrant. The peacock Dominus Than in the Towre the noble forged regnavit. The owl Benedicite. The Te Deum is converted into Te Deum i brightness
songs. Axonis, and sung by the thrush, &c. &c. * St. iv. See Chaucer's KNIGHT'S Skelton, in the BokE or PHILIP SPARE TALE, V. 1042. p. 9. Ur. Row, ridicules the missal, in supposing She was arisin, and all redie dight, various parts of it to be sung by birds. For May will have no sluggardy annight: p. 226. edit. Lond. 1739, 12mo. Much The season prikkith every gentill herte; the same sort of fiction occurs in Sir And makith it out of his slepe to sterte, David Lyndesay's ComplayNT OF THE And sayth, Aryse, and do May obserParyNGO, edit. ut infr. Signat. B. ii.