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of antient marriages". A solemn feast is then held in honour of the nuptials".

Here the poem should have ended. But the poet has thought it necessary to extend his allegory to the death and burial of his hero. Graund Amoure having lived in consummate happiness with his amiable bride for many years, saw one morning an old man enter his chamber, carrying a staff, with which he strikes Amoure's breast, saying, Obey, &c. His name is Old Age. Not long after came Policy or Cunning, and AVARICE. Amoure now begins to abandon his triumphal shows and splendid carousals, and to be intent on amassing riches. At last arrived DEATH, who peremptorily denounces, that he must prepare to quit his wealth and the world. After this fatal admonition, came CONTRITION and CONSCIENCE, and he dies. His body is interred by Mercy and CHARITY; and while his epitaph is written by REMEMBRANCE, FAME appears; promising that she will enroll his name with those of Hector, Joshua, Judas Maccabeus, king Davido, Alexander the Great, Julius Cesar, Arthur, Charlemagne”, and Godfrey of Bul

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* For this custom, see supra, vol. i. nistrantium venustatem?" etc. Hist. p. 273. And the romance of ArroLINE, Angl. sub Hex. iii. p. 406. edit. Tig. ch. xxxiii.

ut supr. Compare another feast de• Which is described thus, ch. xxix. scribed in the same chronicle, much Why should I tary by long continuance writer adds, was more splendid than any

after the same manner; and which, the Of the feast, &c.

feast celebrated in the time of AhasueIn the same manner Chaucer passes rus, king Arthur, or Charlemagne. ibid. over the particularities of Cambuscan's p. 871. feast, Squ. T. y. 83. Urr. And of The • The chief reason for ranking king seus's feast, Kx. T. v. 2199. See also David among the knights of romance MAN OF L. T. v, 704. And Spenser's was, as I have already hinted, because FAIRY Qu. v. iii. 3. (See supr. vol. ii. he killed the giant Goliah : an achievep. 169.) And Matthew Paris, in de- ment here mentioned by Hawes. See scribing the magnificent marriage and supr. p. 52. and .vol. ii. p. 251. coronation of queen Eleanor in 1236, of Arthur and his knights he says, uses exactly the same formulary, and on that their exploits are recorded “ in royall a similar subject, “Quid in ecclesia se- bokes and jestes hystoryall." ch. xliii. rieni enarrem deo, ut decuit, reverenter Sir Thomas Maillorie had now just pubministrantium ? Quid in mensa dapium lished his MORTE ARTHUR, a narrative et diversorum libaminum describam fer. digested from various French romances tilitatem redundantem? Venationis [ve. on Arthur's story. Caxton's printed nison) abundantiam? Piscium varieta- copy of this favourite volume must have tem? Joculatoruin voluptatem? Mi. been known to our poet Hawes, which

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loign. Afterwards Time, and ETERNITIE clothed in a white vestment and crowned with a triple diadem of gold, enter the

appeared in 1485. fol. By the way, in again, and learned the air and words. panegyrising Chaucer, Hawes inentions at the day appointed they hoth appeared it, as a circumstance of distinction, that before the king. Arnaud desired to sing his works were printed. ch. xiiii. first. The minstrel, in a fit of the greatWhose name

est surprise and astonishment, suddenly IN PRINTED bokės doth remayne in fame. cried out, C'est ma chanson, This is my

Song. The king said it was impossible. This was natural at the beginning of the The minstrel still insisted upon it; and typographic art. Many of Chaucer's Arnaud, being closely pressed, ingenupoems were now recently printed by ously told the whole affair. The king Caxton.

was much entertained with this advenWith regard to Maillorie's book, much ture; and ordering the wager to be withif not most of it, I believe, is taken from drawn, loaded them with rich presents. the great French romance of LANCELOT, But he afterwards obliged Arnaud to translated from Latin into French at the give a chanson of his own composition. command of one of our Henrys, a me- Millot, ut supr. tom. ii. p. 491. trical English version of which is now In the mean time I would not be unin Benet library at Cambridge. [Sce a derstood to deny, that Henry the Second specimen in Mr. Naasmith's curious ca- encouraged these pieces; for it partly talogue, p: 54.) I have left it doubtful appears, that Gualter Mapes, archdeacon whether it was the third Henry who or of Oxford, translated, from Latin into dered this romance to be translated into French, the popular romance of Saint Latin, vol. i. p. 118. But, beside the Graal, at the instance of Henry the Seproofs there suggested, in favour of that cond, to whom he was chaplain, about the hypothesis, it appears, that Henry the year 1190. See MSS. Reg.20 D. iii. a ma. Third paid great attention to these com- nuscript perhaps coeval with the translapositions, from the following curious tor; and, if so, the original copy presented anecdote just published, which throws to the king. Maister Benoit, or Benedict, new light on that monarch's character. a rhymer in French, was also patronised

Arnaud Daniel, a troubadour, highly by this monarch : at whose command he celebrated by Dante and Petrarch, about compiled a metrical Chronicle of the the year 1240 made a voyage into En- Durts or NormANDY: in which are gland, where, in the court of king Henry cited Isidore Hispalensis, Pliny, and the Third, he met a minstrel, who chal- saint Austin. MSS. Harl. 1717.1. on vellenged him at difficult rhymes. The lum. See fol. 85. 163.192. 236. This old challenge was accepted, a considerable French poem is full of fabulous and rowager was laid, and the rival bards were mantic matter ; and seems to be partly sinut up in separale chambers of the pa- translated from a Latin Chronicle, De lace. The king, who appears to have MORIBUS ET ACTIS PRIMORUM Normanmuch interested himself in the dispute, NIÆ Docum, written about the year allowed them ten days for composing, 1000, by Dudo, dean of S. Quintin's, and fire more for learning to sing, their and printed among Du Chesne's SCRIPrespective pieces : after which, each was TOR. NORMAx. p. 49. edit. 1619. Maister to exhibit his performance in the pre- Benoit ends with our Henry the First. sence of his majesty. The third day, Dudo with the year 996. the English minstrel announced that he 9 With his douseperes, or twelve peers, was ready. The troubadour declared he among which he mentions Rowland and had not wrote a line; but that he had Oliver. tried, and could not as yet put two words * These are the Nine WORTHIES: to together. The following evening he whom Shakespeare alludes in Love's overheard the minstrel practising his LAB Lost. “Here is like to be a good chanson to himself. The next day he presence of WORTHIES. He presents had the good fortune to hcar the sanie Hector of Troys Thc swain, Pompey

temple, and pronounce an exhortation. Last follows an epilogue, in which the poet apologises for his hardiness in attempting to feign and devise this fable.

The reader readily perceives, that this poetical apologue is intended to shadow the education of a complete gentleman; or rather, to point out those accomplishments which constitute the character of true gallantry, and most justly deserve the reward of beauty. It is not pretended, that the personifications display that force of colouring, and distinctness of delineation, which animate the ideal portraits of John of Meun. But we must acknowledge, that Hawes has shewn no inconsiderable share of imagination, if not in inventing romantic action, at least in applying and enriching the general incidents of the Gothic fable. In the creation of allegoric imagery he has exceeded Lydgate. That he is greatly superior to many of his immediate predecessors and cotemporaries, in harmonious versification, and clear expression, will appear from the following


Besydes this gyaunt, upon every tree
I did see hanging many a goodly shielde
Of noble knygtes, that were of hie degree,
Whiche he had slayne and murdred in the fielde:
From farre this gyaunt I ryght well behelde;
And towarde hym as I rode on my way,

On his first heade I sawe a banner gay.“
To this poem a dedication of eight octave stanzas is prefixed,

the Great: The parish-curate, Alexan- mainder of our troubadour's idea of comder: Armado's page, Hercules : The plete happiness in this world. His ampedant, Judas Macchabeus,” &c. Act v. bition can be gratified by nothing less Sc. i. Elias Cairels, a troubadour of than by possessing “ Une si parfaite Perigord, about the year 1240, wishes loyauté, que nul chevalier et nul jonfor the wisdom of Solomon, the courtesy gleur n'aient rien à reprendre en lui; of Roland, the puissance of Alexander, une maitresse jeune, jolie, et decente; the strength of Samson, the friendly at- mille cavaliers bien en ordre pour le tachment of sir Tristram, the chevalerie suivre par tout," &c. Millot, Hist. of sir Gawaine, and the learning of Mer- Litt. des TROUBAD. tom. i. p. 388. (See lin. Though not immediately connected supr. vol. ii. p. 250. with the present purpose, I cannot resist

• Ch. XXXV. the temptation of transcribing the re

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addressed to king Henry the Seventh : in which our author professes to follow the manner of his maister Lydgáte.

To folowe the trace and all the perfytness
Of my maister Lydgate, with due exercise,
Such fayned tales I do fynder and devyse:
For ûnder coloure a truthe may aryse,
As was the guyse, in old antiquitie,
Of the poetes olde a tale to surmyse,

To cloake the truthe. In the course of the poem he complains, that since Lydgate, the most dulcet sprynge of famous rhetoryke, that species of poetry which deals in fiction and allegoric fable, had been entirely lost and neglected. He allows, that some of Lydgate's successors had been skilful versifiers in the balade royall or octavé stanza, which Lydgate carried to such perfection: but adds this remarkable restriction,

They fayne no fables pleasaunt and covert :-
Makyng balades of fervent amytie,

As gestes and tryfles.“ These lines, in a small compass, display the general state of poetry which now prevailed.

Coeval with Hawes was William Walter, a retainer to sir Henry Marney, chancellous of the duchy of Lancaster : an unknown and obscure writer whom I should not have named, but that he versified, in the octave stanza, Boccacio's story, so beautifully paraphrased by Dryden, of Sigismonda and Guiscard. This poem, I think, was printed by Wynkyn de Worde [1532], and afterwards reprinted in the year 1597, under the title of THE STATELY TRAGEDY of GUISCARD and SIGISMOND.

t invent.

* Viz. “ Certaine worthye manuscript u Ch. xiv. So Barklay, in the Ship or poems of great antiquitie, reserved long Foolks, finished in 1508, fol. 18. a. edit. in the studie of a Northfolke gentleman, 1570. He is speaking of the profane now first published by J. S. Lond. R. D. and improper conversation of priests in 1597.” 12mo. In this edition, beside the choir.

the story of SIGISMUNDA, mentioned in And all of fables and jestes of Robin the text, there is “ The Northern MoHood,

ther's Blessing, written nine yeares beOr other trifles.

fore the death of G. Chaucer. And

It is in two books. He also wrote a dialogue in verse, called the Spectacle of Lovers y, and the History of Titus and Gesippus, a translation from a Latin romance concerning the siege of Jerusalem

About the year 1490, Henry Medwall, chaplain to Morton archbishop of Canterbury, composed an interlude, called NATURE, which was afterwards translated into Latin. It is not improbable, that it was played before the archbishop. It was the business of chaplains in great houses to compose interludes for the family. This piece was printed by Rastel, in 1538, and entitled, “ NATURE, a goodly interlude of nature, compylyd by mayster Henry Medwall, chaplayn to the right reverent father in God, Johan Morton, sometyme cardynall, and archebyshop of Canterbury."

In the year 1497, Laurence Wade, a Benedictine monk of Canterbury?, translated, into English rhymes, THE LIFE OF THOMAS A BECKETT, written about the year 1180, in Latin', by Herbert Bosham. The manuscript, which will not bear a citation, is preserved in Benet college in Cambridge, The original had been translated into French verse by Peter Langtofta. Bosham was Becket's secretary, and present at his martyrdom. “ The Way to Thrift.”. This collection rejected. Vid. infra, Sect. XXXIII.is dedicated to the worthiest Poet Mais- Enir.) TER EpsoxD SPENSER.

z Professed in the year 1467. CATAL. y Begins the PROLOGUE, « Foras. Mon. Cant, inter MSS.C.C.C.C. N. 7. muche as ydelness is rote of all vices.' • VITA ET RES GESTE THOMR EriThis and the following piece are also scop CANTUARIENSIS, published in the printed in quarto, by Wynkyn de Worde. QUADRILOGUS, Paris. 1495. 4to. (He likewise compiled “ A lytell con • See supr. vol. i. travers dialogue bytwene love and coun MSS. Coll. C.C. Cant. CCCXCVII. 1, sell, with many goodly argumentes of Beginn. Prol. “Oye vertuous soversyns good women and bad, very compendyous spirituall and temporall." to all estates."- Ritson.)

& Pits. p. 890. APPEND, * (This opinion Warton afterwards

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