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not written by Cato the censor, nor by Cato Uticensisd: although it is perfectly in the character of the former, and Aulus Gellius has quoted Cato's poem DE MORIBUS. Nor have I the gravity of the learned Boxhornius, who in a prolix and elaborate dissertation has endeavoured to demonstrate, that these distichs are undoubtedly supposititious, and that they could not possibly be written by the very venerable Roman whose name they bear. The title is DISTICHA DE MORIBUS AD FILIUM, which are distributed into four books, under the name of Dionysius Cato. But he is frequently called MAGNUS CATO.
This work has been absurdly attributed by some critics to Seneca, and by others to Ausoniusf. It is, however, more antient than the time of the emperour Valentinian the Third, who died in 4558. On the other hand, it was written after the appearance of Lucan's PHARSALIA, as the author, at the beginning of the second book, commends Virgil, Macer", Ovid, and Lucan. The name of Cato probably became prefixed to these distichs, in a lower age, by the officious ignorance of transcribers, and from the acquiescence of readers equally ignorant, as Marcus Cato had written a set of moral distichs. Whoever was the author, this metrical system of ethics had attained the highest degree of estimation in the barbarous ages. Among Langbain's manuscripts bequeathed to the university of Oxford by Antony Wood, it is accompanied with a Saxon paraphrase'. John of Salisbury, in his POLYCRATICON, mentions it as the favourite and established manual in the education of boys'.
• See Vignol. Marville. Miscell. tom. i. RUM, under the name of Macer, now ex
tant, was written by Odo, or Odobonus, e Noct. Att. xi. 2.
a physician of the dark ages. It was i It was printed under the name of translated into English, by John LelarAusonius, Rostoch. 1572. 8vo. moner, or Lelamar, master of Hereford
& Ex Epistol. Vindiciani Medici, ad school, about the year 1373. MSS. Valent. They are mentioned by Not- Sloane. 29. Princ. Apium, Ache is kerus, who flourished in the tenth cen- hote and drie." There is Macer's Here tury, among the Metrorum, Hymnorum, bal, ibid. 48. This seems to have been Epigrammatumque conditores. Cap. vi. printed, see Ames, p. 158. DE ILLUSTRIB. Vir. etc. printed by Fa i Cod. 12. [8615.] bric. M. Lat. v. p. 904.
· Polycrat. vii. 9. p. 373. edit. Lugd. The poem DE VIRTUTIBUS HERBA- Bat. 1595. It is cited, ibid. p. 116.
To enumerate no others, it is much applauded by Isidore the old etymologist", Alcuine", and Abelardo: and we must acknowledge, that the writer, exclusive of the utility of his precepts, possesses the merit of a nervous and elegant brevity. It is perpetually quoted by Chaucer. In the Miller's Tale, he reproaches the simple carpenter for having never read in Cato that a man should marry his own likeness P: and in the MarCHAUNT's Tale, having quoted Seneca to prove that no blessing is equal to an humble wife, he adds Cato's precept of prudently 321. 512. In the Art of VERSIFICA- amandi, entitled Pamphilus, published TION, a Latin poem, written by Eber- by Goldastus, Catalect. Ovid. Francof. hardus Bethuniensis, about the year 1610. 8vo. (See supra, vol. ii. p. 442. ] 1212, there is a curious passage, in which Geta, or Hosidius Geta, who has left a all the classics of that age are recited ; tragedy on Medea, printed in part by or the best authors, then in vogue, and Pet. Scriverius, Fragm. Vett. Tragic. whom he recommends to be taught to Lat. p. 187. [But see supr. vol. ii. p. 65.] youth. [Leyser. Poet. Med. æv. p. 825.] Dares Phrygius, on the destruction They are, Cato the moralist._THEODU- of Troy. Macer (See supra.] MarLUS, the author of a leonine Eclogue, a BODEUS, a Latin poet on Gems. (See dialogue between Truth and Falshood, supra, vol. ii. p. 214.] PETRUS DE RIGA, written in the tenth century, printed canon of Rheims, whose AURORA, or among the Octo MORALES, and by Gol- the History of the Bible allegorised, in dastus, Man. Bibl. 1620. 8vo. MSS. Latin verses, some of which are in rhyme, Harl. 3093. 4. Wynkyn de Worde was never printed entire. He has left printed this piece under the title of Theo- also Speculum Ecclesia, with other pieces, doli liber, cum commento satis proliro au in Latin poetry. He flourished about toris cujusdam Anglici qui multa Angli- the year 1130. Sedulius. PROSPER. cana ubique miscuit. 1515. 4to. It was ARATOR. PRUDENTIUS. BOETHIUS. ALAfrom one of Theodulus's Eclogues, be- nus, author of the Anticlaudian, a poem ginning Æthiopum terras, that Field, in nine books, occasioned by the sceptimaster of Fotheringay college about the cism of Claudian. (See supr. vol. ii. year_1480, sette the versis of the book caul- p. 227.] Virgil, HORACE, Ovid, LUCAN, lid Æthiopum terras, in the glasse win- STATIUS, JUVENAL., and Persius. JOHN dowe, with figures very neatly. Leland. HANVILLE, an Englishman who wrote Itin. i. fol. 5. (p. 7. edit. 1745.] This the ARCHITRENIUS, in the twelfth censeems to have been in a window of the tury, a Latin hexameter poem in nine new and beautiful cloister, built about books. Philip GUALTIER, of Chatillon, that time. Flavil's Avianus, a writer who wrote, about the same period, the of Latin fables, or apologues, Lugd. ALEXANDREID, an heroic poem on AlexBat. 1731. 8vo. Æsop, or the Latin ander the great. SOLYMARIUS, or Gunfabulist, printed among the Octo Mo- THER, a German Latin poet, author of RALES, Lugd. Bat. 150. 4to. MAXIMIA- the SOLYMARIUM, or Crusade. GalFRI'NUs, whose six elegies, written about the Dus, our countryman, whose Nova Por. seventh century, pass under the name of TRA was in higher celebrity than HoGallus. Chaucer cites this writer; and race's Art of Poetry. (See vol. i. Digin a manner, which shews his elegies had sertat. ii.] Matthæus, of Vendosme, not then acquired the name of Gallus. who in the year 1170 paraphrased the COURT OF L. v. 798. “MAXIMINIAN Book of Tobit into Latin elegiacs, from truely thus doeth he write." PAMPHILUS "the Latin bible of saint Jerom, under MAURILIANUS, author of the hexametri- the title of the TOBLAD, sometimes called cal poem de Vetula, and the elegies de Arte the TREBAID, and first printed among
bearing a scolding wife with patience. It was translated into Greek at Constantinople by Maximus Planudes, who has the merit of having familiarised to his countrymen many Latin classics of the lower empire, by metaphrastic versions?: and at the restoration of learning in Europe, illustrated with a commentary by Erasmus, which is much extolled by Luthers. There are two or three French translations'. That of Mathurine Corderoy is dedicated to Robert Stephens. In the British Museum, there is a French translation by Helis de Guincestre, or Winchester; made, perhaps, at the time when our countrymen affected to write more in French than English". Chaucer
the Octo MORALES. ALEXANDER DE subject. Chaucer quotes PHYSIOLOGUS, VILLA Dei, whose DOCTRINALE, or whom I by mistake have supposed to be Grammar in Leonine verse, superseded Pliny, “ For PuISIOLOGUS says sikerly.” Priscian about the year 1200.
It was Nonnes PR. Tale. v. 15277. [See supr. first printed at Venice, fol. 1473. And vol. ii. p. 255.] SIDONIUS, who wrote a by Wynkyn de Worde, 1503. He was metrical dialogue between a Jew and a a French frier minor, and also wrote the Christian on both the Testaments. And ARGUMENTS of the chapters of all the books a SIDONIUS, perhaps the same, regis qui of either Testament, in two hundred and fingit prælia. To these our author adds twelve hexameters. With some other his own GRECISMUS, or a poem in hexaforgotten pieces. MarcianUS CAPELLA, meters on rhetoric and grammar; which, whose poem on the MARRIAGE OF MER as Du Cange [Præf. Lat. Gloss. S CURY WITH PHILOLOGY rivalled Boethius. XLV.) observes, was antiently a com[See supra, vol. ii. p. 384.] JOANNES DE mon manual in the seminaries of GARLANDIA, an Englishman, a poet and France, and!, I suppose, of England. grammarian, who studied at Paris about Etymol. V. OFFICIPERDA. the year 1200. The most eminent of his " Contra Elipand. lib. ii. p. 949. numerous Latin poems, which croud our • Lib. i. Theol. Christ. p. 1188. libraries, seem to be his EPITHALA
p V. 3227.
9 V. 9261. MIUM on the Virgin Mary in ten books " It occurs often among the Baroccian of elegiacs. MSS. Cotton. Claud. A. x. manuscripts, Bibl. Bodi. viz. 64, 71, And De TriumPHIS ECCLESIÆ, in eight bis. 95. 111. 194. The first edition of books, which contains much English Cato, soon followed by many others, I history. MS. ibid.
Some of his pieces, believe, is August. A.D. 1485. The both in prose and verse, have been print- most complete edition is that of Christ. ed. BERNARDUS CARNOTENSIS, or Syl- Daumius, Cygn. 1672. 8vo. Containing vesler, much applauded by John of Salis- the Greek metaphrases of Maximus bury, who styles him the most perfect Planudes, Joseph Scaliger, Matthew Platonic of that age. Metallog. iv. Zuber, and John Mylius, a German verc. 35. His MEGACOSM and Microcosm, sion by Martinus Apicius, with annoa work consisting both of verse and prose, tations and other accessions. It was beis frequently cited by the barbarous wri- fore translated into German rhymes by ters. He is imitated by Chaucer, Man Abraham Morterius, of Weissenburgh, of I.. Tale, v. 4617. “In sterres many Francof. 1590. 8vo. a winter," &c. PHYSIOLOGUS, or Theo Colloqu. Mensal. c. 37. BALDUS Episcorus, who wrote in Latin t One by Peter Grosnet, Les mots verse De Naturis rü. animalium, MSS. dorees du sage Caton. Paris. 1543. Harl. 3093. 5. He is there called Ita U MSS. Harl. 4388. This manuscript licus. There is also a Magister FLORINUS, is older than 1400.
Du Cange quotes styled also PHYSIOLOGUS, on the same a Cato in French rhymes. Gl. Lat, V.
constantly calls this writer Caton or Cathon, which shews that he was more familiar in French than in Latin. Caxton in the preface to his aforesaid translation affirms, that Poggius Florentinus, whose library was furnished with the most valuäble authors, esteemed CATHON GLOSED, that is, Cato with hotes, to be the best book in his collection ". The glossarist I take to be Philip de Pergamo, a prior at Padua; who wrote à most elaborate MORALISATION on Cato, under the title of Speculum REGIMINIS, so early as the year 1380*. In the same preface, Caxton observes, that it is the beste boke for to be taught to yonge children in scole. But he supposes the author to be Marcus Cato, whom he duly celebrates with the two Scipios and other noble Romaynes. A kind of supplement to this work, and often its companion, under the title of Cato Parvus, or Facetus, or Urbanus, was written by Daniel Churche, or Ecclesiensis, a domestic in the court of Henry the Second, LECator. See MSS. Ashmol. 789. 2. SCRIPTOR. RER. ITAL. Mediolan. 1726. (6995.)
- Additions.) [Jn Bennet college library, there is a Many of the glossed manuscripts, so copy of the French Cato by Helis of common in the libraries, were the copies Winchester, MSS. ccccv. 24. fol. 317. with which pupils in the university atIt is entitled and begins thus. Les Di- tended their readers, or lecturers; from stiches Morales de Caron mises en vers par whose mouths paraphrastic notes were Helis de Guyncestre.
interlined or written in the margin, by Ki vout saver la faitement
the more diligent hearers. In a Latin Ki Catun a sun fiz a prent,
translation of some of Aristotle's philoSi en Latin nel set entendre,
sophical works, once belonging to RoJci le pot en rumainz' aprendre,
chester priory, and transcribed about the Cum Helis de Guyncestre
year 1350, one Henry de Rewham is Ki deu met a se destre
said to be the writer ; and to have glossed La translate si fatemente.
the book, during the time he heard it
explained by a public reader in the Cod. membran. 4to. The transcript schools of Oxford. “ Et audivit in schois of the fourteenth century. Compare lis Oxonie, et emendavit et GLOSAVIT Verdier, Bibl. Franc. tom. iii. p. 288. audiendo." MSS. Reg. 12 G. ii. 4to. edit. 1772. In the Latin Chronicle of In the mean time, I am of opinion, that Anonymus Salernitanus, written about the word reader originally took its rise the year 900, the writer mentions à de- from a paucity of books : when there was scription in Latin verse of the palace of only one book to be bad, which a profesthe city of Salerno, but laments that it sor or lecturer recited to a large audience. was rendered illegible through length * Printed, August. 1475. In Exeter of time: “ Nam si unam paginam fuis- college library, there is Caro MORALISAsemus nacti, comparare illos (versus) pro- TuS, MSS. 37. (837.] And again at All fecto potuissemus Maroni in voluminibus, Souls, MSS. 9. (1410.] Compare MSS. CATONIQUE, sive profecto aliis Sophistis. More, 35. (9221.) And Bibl. Coll. Trin. cap. xxviii. col. 195. B. tom. ii. P. i. Dublin. 651. 14. And MSS. Harl. 6294,
'in romance; in French.
a learned prince and a patron of scholars, about the year 11804. This was also translated by Burghe; and in the British Museum, both the Catos of his version occur, as forming one and the same work, viz. Liber MINORIS Catonis, et MAJORIS, translatus a Latino in Anglicum per Mag. Benet Borugh 2. Burghe's performance is too jejune for transcription; and, I suspect, would not have afforded a single splendid extract, had even the Latin possessed any sparks of poetry. It is indeed true, that the only critical excellence of the original, which consists of a terse conciseness of sentences, although not always expressed in the purest latinity, will not easily bear to be transfused. Burghe, but without sufficient foundation, is said to have finished Lydgate's GOVERNAUNCE OF Princisa.
About the year 1481, Julian Barnes, more properly Berners, sister of Richard lord Berners, and prioress of the nunnery of Sopewell, wrote three English tracts on Hawking, Hunting, and Armory, or Heraldry, which were soon afterwards printed in the neighbouring monastery of saint Alban's. From an abbess disposed to turn author, we might more reasonably have expected a manual of meditations for the closet, or select rules
Y MSS. Coll. Trin. Dublin. 275. CATONIS are a different work from either And Bibl. Eccles. Vigorn. sub Tit. of these, written in hexameters by MarURBANUS, MSS. 147. One Tedbaldus, bodeus, Opp. Hildebert. p. 1634. Paris of the same age, is called the author, 1708. fol. from a manuscript cited, Giornal, Lett. 2 MSS. Harl. 116. 2. See also, 271. 2. d'Ital. iv. p. 181. In Lewis's CAXTON, * See supr. LYDGATE. There is a in a collection of Chaucer's and Lyd- translation of the Wyz Cato, and Æsop's gate's poems by Caxton, without date, Fables, into English dogrell, by one are recited 3. PARVUS CATHO. 4. Mag- William Bulloker, for Edm. Bollifant. NUS Cato. p. 104. What these transla- 1585. This W. Bulloker wrote a Pamtions are I know not. Beside Caxton's phlet for grammar, for the same, 1586. Cato, mentioned above, there is a sepa- 12mo. rate work by Caxton, “ Hic incipit PAR • There was a strong connexion bevus Caton,” in English and Latin. No tween the two monasteries. In that of date. Containing thirty-seven leaves in saint Alban's a monk was annually apquarto. I find Parvus Cato in English pointed, with the title of Custos monialium rhyme, MSS. Vernon. Bibl. Bodl. fol. de Sopewelle. Registr. Abbat. Wallingcccx. (See supr. vol. i. p. 15.] The ford, (sub an. 1480. ] MSS. Bibl. Bodi. Latin of the lesser Caro is printed MSS. Tanner. among AUCTORES OCTO MORALES, Lugd. In the year 1486. fol. Again, at 1538. Compare MSS. Harl. 2251. iii. Westminster, by W. de Worde. 1496. fol. 174. 112. fol. 175. A translation 4to. The barbarism of the times strongly into English verses of both Caros, per- appears in the indelicate expressions haps by Lydgate. See also MSS. Coll. which she often uses; and which are Trin. Dublin. V. 651. The PROVERBIA equally incompatible with her sex and