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his cavern, is lulled asleep by the whistling of the winds among the rocks, and the beating of the tide. He then has the following vision.

He sees a lady of great beauty, and benignity of aspect; who says, she comes to sooth his melancholy by shewing him some new spectacles. Her name is REMEMBRANCE. Instantaneously she carries him into the centre of the earth. Hell is here laid openb; which is filled with popes, cardinals, abbots, archbishops in their pontifical attire, and ecclesiastics of every degree. In explaining the causes of their punishments, a long satire on the clergy ensues.

With these are joined bishop Caiphas, bishop Annas, the traitor Judas, Mahomet, Chorah, Dathan, and Abiram. Among the tyrants, or unjust kings, are Nero, Pharaoh, and Herod. Pontius Pilate is hung up by the heels. He sees also many duchesses and countesses, who suffer for pride and adultery. She then gives the poet a view of purgatory.

o It was a part of the old mundane Bellovacensis, lil). xxvii. cap. 88. He system, that hell was placed in the centre is called Fundalus in a manuscript of of the earth. So a fragment, cited by this piece, Bibl. Bodl. NE. B. 3. 16. Hearne, GLOSSARY Rob. Glouc. ii. 583. He lived in the year 1149. Ware, ut Ryght so is hell-pitt, as clerkes telles,

supr. p. 55. I believe this piece is in Amyde the erthe and no where elles.

the Cotton library, under the name of

TUNDALE, MS. Calig. A. 12. f. 17. So also an old French tract, L'IMAIGE See what is said in Froissart, of the DU Mondr, or Image of the world, visions of a cave in Ireland, called saint “ Saches que en la terre est enfer, car Patrick's Purgatory. tom. ii. c. 200. enfer ne pourrait estre en si noble lieu Berners's Translat. comme est l'air," &c. ch. vii.

(There is a manuscript, Of a knight, * See above, p. 32. seq. I have there called Sir OwEYN, visiting saint Pamentioned a Vision of Hell, under the trick's Purgatory, Bibl. Bodl. MSS. title of Owayne MILES. One Gilbertus Bodl. 550. MSS. Cott. Nero. A. vii. 4. Ludensis, a monk sent by king Stephen [See ad p. 33.] This piece was written into Ireland, where he founded a mo. by Henry, a Cistercian monk of Saltry nastery, with an Irish knight called Oen, in Huntingtonshire. See T. Messingwrote De Oens Visione in Purgatorio. ham, Florileg. p. 86. seq. In the See Wendover, apud Mat. Paris, sub Catalogue of the library of Sion monasann. 1158. Reg. Stephan. According tery, which contained fourteen hundred to Ware, Gilbertus flourished in the volumes, in Bennet library, it is falsely year 1152. SCRIPTOR. HIBERN. p. 111. attributed to Hugo de Saltereia. MSS. Among the manuscripts of Magdalene C.C.C.C. XLI. The French have an college in Oxford, are the VJSIONES of antient spiritual romance on this favorite Tundal, or Tungal, a knight of Ireland. expedition, so fertile of wonders, entitled, “ Cum anima mea corpus exueret." “ Le Voyage du Puys Saint Patrix, MSS. Coll. Magd. 53. It is printed in auquel lieu on voit les peines du PurTinmouth's SANCTILOGIUM. And in the gatoire et aussi les joyes de Paradis, SPECULUM I ISTOKIALE of Vincentius Lyon, 1506. 4to."- ADDITIONS. ]

A lytill above that dolorous dungeoun,
We enterit in ane cuntre full of cair;
Quhare that we saw mony ane legioun
Greitand and gowland with mony ruthfull rair“.
Quhat place is this, quod I, of blis so bair?
Scho answerit and said, Purgatorie,

Qhuilk purgis saulis or thay cum to glorie. After some theological reasonings on the absurdity of this intermediate state, and having viewed the dungeon of unbaptized babes, and the limbus of the souls of men who died before Christ, which is placed in a vault above the region of torment, they reascend through the bowels of the earth. In passing, they survey the secret riches of the earth, mines of gold, silver, and precious stones. They mount, through the ocean, which is supposed to environ the earth : then travel through the air, and next through the fire. Having passed the three elements, they bend towards heaven, but first visit the seven planets'. They enter the sphere of the moon, who is elegantly styled,

Quene of the sey, and bewtie of the nicht.
The sun is then described, with great force.

Than past we to the spheir of Phebus bricht,
That lustye lamp and lanterne of the hevin ;
And glaider of the sterris with his licht ;
And principal of all the planetis sevin,
And set in middis of thame all full evin :
As roys royall rolling in his spheir
Full plesandlye into his goldin chair.-

e Signat. D. iii. three elementary spheres, fire, air, and : The planetary system was thus di. water. Milton, in his Elegy on the vided. i. The Primum Mobile, or first DEATH OF A FAIR INFANT, makes a very motion. ii. The cristalline heaven, in poetical use of the notion of a primuun which were placed the fixed stars. mobile, where he supposes that the soul iii. The twelve signs of the zodiac. of the child hovers iv. The spheres or circles of the planets in this order: viz. Saturn, Jupiter, Mars,

-Above that high risT MOVING Sol, Venus, Mercury, and lastly the Or in th' Elysian fields, &c. moon, which they placed in the centre of universal nature. Again, they sup. St. vi. v. 39. See Parad. I.. iii. 483. posed the earth to be surrounded by 8 to bo pronounced dissyllabically.





For to discryve his diademe royall,
Bordourit with precious stanis schyning bricht,
His goldin cart, or throne imperiall,

The foure steidis that drawith it full richt, &c. h They now arrive at that part of heaven which is called the CHRYSTALLINE', and are admitted to the Empyreal, or heaven of heavens. Here they view the throne of God, surrounded by the nine orders of angels, singing with ineffable harmony.k

n Signat. E. i.

39. And again, in his Hymne of Heai Most of this philosophy is immedi- VENLY LOVE. See also Sannazarius, DE ately borrowed from the first chapters of Part. VIRGIN. iii. 241. Milton perhaps the Nuremburgh Chronicle, a celebrated is the last poet who has used this popubook when Lyndesay wrote, printed in lar theory. PARAD. L. v. 748. the year 1493. It is there said, that of the waters above the firmament which Regions they pass'd, and mighty regen: were frozen like crystal, God made the

cies crystalline heaven, &c. fol. iv. This Of Seraphim, and Potentates, and idea is taken from Genesis, i. 4. See

Thrones, also saint Paul, ii. Epist. Cor. xii. 2. In their TRIPLE DEGREES. The same system is in Tasso, where And it gives great dignity to his arrangethe archangel Michael descends from ment of the celestial army. See ibid. heaven, Gier. LIB. C. ix. st. 60. seq. supr. 583. And in Milton, PARAD. L. iii. 481.

Th' empyreal host They pass the planets seven, and pass of angels, by imperial summons callid, the fixed,

Innumerable before th' Almighty's And that crystallin sphere, &c.


Forthwith from all the ends of heaven Because the scriptures have mentioned several degrees of angels, Diony. Under their HIERARCHIES in ORDERS

appear'd, sius the Areopagite, and others, have divided them into nine orders; and

bright.those they have reduced into three hierar- Ten thousand thousand ensigns high chies. This was a tempting subject for Standards and gonfalons, twixt van and

advanc'd, the refining genius of the school-divines : and accordingly we find in Thomas Stream in the air, and for distinction Aquinas a disquisition, De ordinatione Angelorum secundum Hierarchias et Or. dines. QUÆST. cviii. The system, which

Of HIERARCHIES, of ORDERS, and Deperhaps makes a better figure in poetry than in philosophy, has been adopted by Such splendid and sublime imagery has many poets who did not outlive the in- Milton's genius raised on the problenis Auence of the old scholastic sophistry. of Thomas Aquinas! See also ibid. See Dante, PARAD. C. xxviii. Tasso v. 600. Hence a passage in his Hymn mentions, among La grande oste del cicl, on THE MORNING OF Christ's NATIVITY

is to be illustrated. St. xiii. v. 131. TRE FOLTE SQUADRE, et ogni squadra instrutta

And with your ninefold harmony IN TRE ORDINI gira, &c.

Make up full concert to the angelike

symphony GIER. LIB. Xviii. 96. And Spenser speaks of the angels singing in their That is, the symphony of the nine orders TRINALL TRIPLICITIES. Fair. Qu. i. xii. of

to be answered by the





Next the throne is the Virgin Mary, the queen of queens, So well cumpanyit with ladyis of delyte." An exterior circle is formed by patriarchs, prophets, evangelists, apostles, conquerors in the three battles of the world, of the flesh, and of the devil, martyrs, confessors, and doctours in divinitie, under the command of saint Peter, who is represented as their lieutenant-general.

Milton, who feigns the same visionary route with very different ideas, has these admirable verses, written in his nineteenth year, yet marked with that characteristical great manner which distinguishes the poetry of his maturer age. He is addressing his native language.

Yet I had rather, if I were to chuse,
Thy service in some graver subject use;
Such as may make thee search thy coffers round,
Before thou clothe my fancy in fit sound:
Such, where the deep-transported mind may soar
Above the wheeling poles; and at Heaven's door
Look in, and see each blissfull deitie
How he before the thunderous throne doth lie,
Listening to what unshorn Apollo sings
To th’ touch of golden wires, while Hebe brings
Immortal nectar to her kingly sire.
Then passing through the sphears of watchfull fire,
And mistie regions of wide air next under,
And hills of snow, and lofts of piled thunder,
May tell at length how green-eyed Neptune raves,

In heaven's defiance mustering all his waves." REMEMBRANCE and the poet, leaving heaven, now contemplate the earth, which is divided into three parts. To have mentioned America, recently discovered, would have been nine-fold music of the spheres. One at London, 1635. See also Jonson's Thomas Haywood, a most voluminous ELEGIE ON MY Muse, in the UNDERWOOD, dramatic poet in the reign of James the p. 260. edit. fol. Lond. 1640. First, wrote a long poem with large notes on this subject, called The HIE m At a VACATION EXERCISE, &c. RARCHIE OF ANGELS, printed in folio, Newton's Milt. ii. p. 11.

1 Ibid.

heresy in the science of cosmography; as that quarter of the globe did not occur in Pliny and Ptolemy. The most famous cities are here enumerated. The poet next desires a view of Paradise ; that glorious garth, or garden, of every flower. It is represented as elevated in the middle region of the air, in a climate of perpetual serenity.' From a fair fountain, springing in the midst of this ambrosial garden, descend four rivers, which water all the east. It is inclosed with walls of fire, and guarded by an angel.

The cuntre closit is about full richt,
With wallis hie of hote and birnyng fyre,

And straitly keipit be ane angell bricht.” From Paradise a very rapid transition is made to Scotland. Here the poet takes occasion to lament, that in a country so fertile, and filled with inhabitants so ingenious and active, universal poverty, and every national disorder, should abound. It is very probable, that the poem was written solely with a view of introducing this complaint. After an enquiry into the causes of these infelicities, which are referred to political mismanagement, and the defective administration of justice, the COMMONWEALTH OF SCOTLAND appears, whose figure is thus delineated.

We saw a bousteous berne 9 cum ovir the bent',
Buts hors on fute, als fast as he micht go;
Quhose rayment was all raggit, revin', and rent,
With visage lene, as he had fastit Lent:
And fordwart fast his wayis he did advance,

With ane malicious countenance: • For the benefit of those who are * « Paradisus tantæ est altitudinis, making researches in antient cosmogra quod est inaccessibilis secundum Bephy, I observe that the map of England, dam; et tam altus, quod etheream rementioned by Harrison and Hearne, gionem pertingat," &C CHRON. Nur. and belonging to Merton college library, ut supr. f. viii. b. appears to have existed at least so early Sakat. E. iü. m the year 1512. For in that year, it 4 boisterous fellow, strong, powerwas lent to the dean of Wells, William ful.) Cosyn, with a caution of forty shillings coarse grass, (also, an open field, or Registr. Vet. Coll. Mert: fol. 218. b. plain.) See its restitution, ibid. fol. 219. b.



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