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ments of the Ionic order. The wings are elevated on columns, forming piazzas; and the length of the building is 189 feet; its breadth in the middle, 27; and at the west end, 60 feet.'
This year also, Deputy Wren and his Warden Webb finished the Tlieatrum Sheldonium at Oxford, designed and executed at the private expense of Gilbert Sheldon, Archbishop of Canterbury, an excellent architect, and able designer. On the 9th of July 1669, the cape-stone of this elegant building was celebrated with joy and festivity by the craftsmen, and an elegant oration delivered on the occasion by Dr. South.
Deputy Wren, at the same time, built, at the expense of the university, that other master-piece of architecture, the pretty museum, near this theatre.
In 1671, Dr. Wren began to build that great fluted column called the Monument, in memory of the burning and rebuilding of the city of London. This stupendous pillar was finished in 16T7.f
* This building was destroyed by fire a few years ago, and an elegant structure erected in its stead. Em-ron.
t It is 24 feet higher than Trajan's pillar at Rome, and built of Portland stone, of the Doric order. Its altitude, from the ground, is 202 feet; the greatest diameter of the shaft or body of the column, 15 feet; the ground plinth, or bottom of the pedestal, 28 feet square; and the pedestal, 40 feet high. Over the capital, is an iron balcony, encompassing a cone 32 feet high, supporting a blazing urn of gilt brass. Within is a large staircase of black marble, containing 345 steps, each step ten inches and a half broad, and six inches thick. The west side of the pedestal is adorned with curious emblems, by the masterly hand of Mr. Cibber, father to the late poet-laureate Colley Cibber; in which eleven principal figures are done in alto, and the rest in basso relievo. That to which the eye is particularly directed, is a female, representing the City of London, sitting in a languishing posture, on a heap of ruins. Behind her, is Time, gradually raising her up; and at her side, a woman, representing Providence, gently touching her with one hand, while, with a winged sceptre in the other, she directs her to regard two goddesses in the clouds; one with a cornucopia, denoting Plenty; the other, with a palm branch, the emblem of Peace.
The rebuilding of the city of London was vigorously prosecuted, and the restoration of St. Paul's cathedral claimed particular attention. Dr. Wren drew several designs to discover what would be most acceptable to the general taste; and finding persons of all degrees declare for magnificence and grandeur, he formed a design according to the very best style of Greek and Roman architecture, and caused a large model of it to be made in wood; but
At her feet is a bee-hive, to show that, by industry and application, the greatest misfortunes may be overcome. Behind Time, are the Citizens, exulting at his endeavours to restore her; and beneath, in the midst of the ruins, is a dragon, the supporter of the city arms, who endeavours to preserve them with his paw. At the north end, is a view of the City in flames, the inhabitants in consternation, with their arms extended upwards, crying for assistance. Opposite the city, on an elevated pavement, stands the King, in a Roman habit, with a laurel on his head, and a truncheon in his hand ; who, on approaching her, commands three of his attendants to descend to her relief. The first represents the Sciences, with a winged head, and circle of naked boys dancing thereon, and holding Nature in her hand, with her numerous breasts, ready to give assistance to all. The second is Architecture, with a plan in one hand, and a square and pair of compasses in the other. The third is Liberty, waving a hat in the air, and showing her joy at the pleasing prospect of the City's speedy recovery. Behind the King, stands his brother the Duke of York, with a garland in one hand, to crown the rising city, and a sword in the other for her defence. The two figures behind them, are Justice and Fortitude j the former with a coronet, and the latter with a reined lion; while, under the pavement, in a vault, appears Envy gnawing a heart. In the upper part of the background, the re-construction of the city is represented by scaffolds and unfinished houses, with builders at work on them. The north and south sides of the pedestal have each a Latin inscription, one describing the desolation of the city, the other its restoration. The east side of the pedestal has an inscription, expressing the time in which the pillar was begun, continued, and brought to perfection. In one line, continued round the base, are these words: 'This pillar was set up in perpetual remembrance of the most dreadful burning of this Protestant city, begun and carried on by the treachery and malice of the Popish faction, in the beginning of September, in the year of our Lord 1666, in order to the carrying on their horrid plot for extirpating the Protestant religion, and old English liberty, and introducing popery and slavery." On the Duke of York's accession to the crown, this inscription was erased; but was again restored soon after the Revolution. ,
the bishops deciding that it was not sufficiently in the cathedral style, the surveyor was ordered to amend it, and he then produced the scheme of the present structure, which was honoured with the king's approbation. The original model, however, which was only of the Corinthian order, like St. Peter's at Rome, is still kept in an apartment of the cathedral, as a real curiosity.
In 1673, the foundation-stone of this magnificent cathedral, designed by Deputy Wren, was laid in solemn form by the King,' attended by Grand Master Rivers, his architects and craftsmen, in the presence of the nobility and gentry, the lord mayor and aldermen, the bishops and clergy, &c. During the whole time this structure was building, Dr. Wren acted as master of the work and surveyor, and was ably assisted by his wardens, Mr. Edward Strong and his son.
St. Paul's cathedral is planned in the form of a long cross; the walls are wrought in rustic, and strengthened, as well as adorned, by two rows of coupled pilasters, one over the other; the lower Corinthian, and the upper Composite. The spaces between the arches of the windows, and the architecture of the lower order, as well as those above, are filled with a variety of enrichments.
The west front is graced with a most magnificent portico, a noble pediment, and two stately turrets. There is a grand flight of steps of black marble that extend the whole length of the portico, which consists of twelve lofty Corinthian columns below, and eight of the Composite order above; these are all coupled and fluted. The upper series support a noble pediment, crowned with its acroteria; and
* The mallet with which the King levelled this foundation-stone was deli rered by Sir Christopher Wren to the oid Lodge of St. Paul, now the judge of Antiquity, where it is still preserved as a great curiosity.
in this pediment is an elegant representation in bas relief of the conversion of St. Paul, executed by Mr Bird, an artist whose name, on account of this piece alone, is worthy of being transmitted to posterity The figures are well executed; the magnificent figure of St. Paul, on the apex of the pediment, with St. Peter on his right, and St. James on his left, produce a fine effect. The four Evangelists, with their proper emblems, on the front °of the towers, are judiciously disposed, and skilfully finished; St. Matthew is distinguished by an angel; St. Mark, by a lion; St. Luke, by an ox; and St. John, by an eagle. _
To the north portico, there is an ascent by twelve circular steps of black marble, and its dome is supported by six grand Corinthian columns. Upon the dome is a well-proportioned urn, finely ornamented with festoons; over the urn is a pediment, supported by pilasters in the wall, in the face of which are carved the royal arms, with the regalia supported by angels. Statues of five of the apostles are placed on the top, at proper
The south portico answers to the north, and, like that, is supported by six noble Corinthian columns;' but as the ground is considerably lower on this side of the church than the other, the ascent is by a flight of twenty-five steps. This portico has also a pediment above, in which is a phoenix rising out of the flames, with the motto, Kesurgam,*
* A curious accident is said to have given rise to this device, which was particularly observed by the architect as a favourable omen When Dr. Wren was marking out the dimensions of the building, and had fixed on the centre of the great dome, a common labourer was ordered to bring him a flat stone from among the rubbish, to leave as a direction to the Masons. The stone which the man brought happened to be a piece of a gravestone, with nothing remaining of the inscription but this single word.m large capitals RESURGAM; and this circumstance left an impression on Dr. Wren's mind, that could never afterwards be erased.
underneath it; as an emblem of rebuilding the church. On this side of the building are likewise five statues, which correspond with those on the apex of the north pediment.
At the east end of the church is a sweep, or circular projection, for the altar, finely ornamented with the orders, and with sculpture; particularly a noble piece in honour of King William III.
The dome, which rises in the centre of the whole, is superlatively grand. Twenty feet above the roof of the church is a circular range of thirty-two columns, with niches placed exactly against others within. These are terminated by their entablature, which supports a handsome gallery, adorned with a balustrade. Above these columns is a range of pilasters, with windows between; and from the entablature of these, the diameter decreases very considerably; and two feet above that, it is again contracted. From this part the external sweep of the dome begins, and the arches meet at 52 feet above. On the summit of the dome, is an elegant balcony, and from its centre rises the lantern, adorned with Corinthian columns. The whole is terminated by a ball, on which stands a cross, both of which are elegantly gilt.
This noble fabric is surrounded, at a proper distance, by a dwarf-stone wall, on which is placed the most magnificent balustrade of cast iron perhaps in the universe, four feet six inches in height, exclusive of the wall. In this enclosure are seven beautiful iron gates, which, together with the balustres, in number about 2500, weigh 200 tons and 85 pounds.
In the centre of the area of the grand west front, on a pedestal of excellent workmanship, stands a statue of Queen Anne, formed of white marble, with proper decorations. The figures on the base represent Britannia, with her spear; Gallia, with