תמונות בעמוד

Though they may often coincide, they are, in their nature, perfectly distinct Emphasis sometimes controls those inflections.

The regular application of the rising and falling inflections, consers so much beauty on expression, and is so necessary to be studied by the young reader,

we a tention to the subject. In these instances, all the inflections are not marked. Such only are distinguished, as are most striking, and will best serve to show the reader their utility and importance.

“Manufactures', trade, and agriculture', certainly employ more than nineteen parts in twenty of the human species."

“He who resigns the world, has no temptation to envy', hatred), malice, anger; is in constant possession of a serene mind; he who follows the pleasures search of care, solicitude', remorse', and confusion!" w To advise the ignorant', relieve the needy', comfort the afflicted', are dulies that fall in our way almost every day of our lives.".

"Those evil spirits, who, long custom, hayc contracted in the body habits of lust' and scnsuality, malice', and revenge'; an aversion to every thing that is good', just', and laudable', are naturally seasoned and prepared for pain and misery." d I am

nor things present', nor things to come!; nor height', nor depth'; nor any other creature', shall be able to separate 'us from the lore of God!."

The reader who would wish to see a minute and ingenious inrestigation of the nature of these inflections, and the rules by which they are governed, may consult Walker's Elements of Elocution.


Manner of reading Verse. ** WHEN we are reading verse, there is a peculiar difficulty in making the pauses justly. The difficulty arises from the melody of verse which dictates to the ear panses or rests of its own; and to adjust and compound these properly with the pauses of the sense, so as neither to hurt the ear, nor offend the understanding, is so very nice a matter, that it is no wonder we so seldoin meet with good readers of poetry. There are two kinds of panses that belong to the melody of verse: one is the pause at the end of the line ; and the other, the cæsural pause in or near the middle of it. With regard to the pause at the end of the line, which marks that strain or verse to be finished, rhyme renders this always sensible ; and in some measure compels us to observe it in our pronunciation. In respect to blank verse, we ought also to read it so as to make every line sensible to the ear; for, what is the use of melody, or for what end has the poet composed in verse, is, in reading his lines, we suppress his numbers, by omitting the final pause ; and degrade them, by our pronunciation, into mere prose? At the same time that we attend to this pause, every appearance of sing-song and tone, must be carefully guarded against. The close of the line where it makes no panse in the meaning, ought not to be marked by such a tone as is used in finishing a sentence ; bus, without either fall or elevation of the voice, it shonld be denoted onló by so slight a suspension of sound, as may distinguish the passage from one line to another, without injuring thc meaning.

The other kind of melodious pause, is that which falls somewhere about the middle of the verse, and divides it into two hemistichs; a pause, not so great as that which belongs to the close of the line, but still sensible to an ordinary car. This, which is called the cæsural pause, may fall, in English heroic verse, after the 4th, 5th, 6th, or 7th, syllable in the line. Where the verse is so constructed, that this cæsural pause coincides with the slightest pause or division in the rerise, the line can be read easily; as in the two first verses of Pope's Messiah :

“ Ye

* To heav'nly themes", sublimer strains felong.” But if it should happen that words which have so strict and intimate a connesion, as net to bear even a momentary separation, are divided from one and ther by this cæsurul pause, ive tnej food a sort of siruggic betrticcn ticeense and the sound, which renders it difficult to read such linen harmoniously The rule of proper pronunciation in such cases, is to regard only the pauce which the sense forms; and to read the line accordingly. The neglect of the corsural pause may make the line sound somewhat unharnioniously; but the etfect would be much worse, if the sense were sacrificed to the sound. For instance, in the following lines of Milton :

" What in me is dark,

“ Illumine ; what is low, raise and support." The sense clearly dictates the pause after illumine, at the end of the 3d sylla ble, which in reading, ought to be made accordingly, though, if the melody only were to be regarded, illumine should be connected with what follows, and the pause not made till the fourth or sixth syllable. So in the following ling: of Pope's Epistle to Dr. Arbuthnot.

I sit, with sad civility I read." The ear plainly points out the cæsural pause as falling after sad, the 4th cyllable. But it would be very bad reading to make any pause there, so as to separate sad and civility. The sense admits of no other pause than aster the second syllable sit, which therefore must be the only pause made in reading this part of the sentence.

There is another mode of dividing some verses, by introducing what may be called demi-cæsuras, which require very slighit pauses; and which the rea. der should manage with judgment, or he will be apt to fall into an affectci sing-song mode of pronouncing verses of this kind. The following lines.es. emplify the demi-cæsura :

“ Warms' in the sun", refreshes' in the breeze,
“ Glows' in the stars'', and blossoms' in the trees;
" Lives through all life' ; extends' through all extent,

“ Spreads' undivided", operates' unspent.'
Before the conclusion of this introduction, the complier takes the liberty
to recommend to teachers, to exercise their pupils in discovering and explain
ing the cmphatic words and the proper tones and pauscs, of every portion at
signed them to read, previously to their being called out to the performance.
These preparatory lessons, in which they should be regularly examined, will
improve their judgment and taste; prevent the practice of reading without
attention to the subject; and establish a habit of readily discovering the mente
ing, force, and beauty of what they perue.


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DILIGENCE, industry, and proper improvement of time,

are material duties of the young. The acquisition of knowledge is one of the most honour. able occupations of youth.

Whatever useful or engaging endowments we possess, vir. lue is requisite, in order to their shining with proper lustre.

Virtuous youth gradually brings forward accomplished and Nourishing manhood. ht. Sincerity and truth form the basis of every virtue.

Disappointments and distress are often blessings in diso guise.

Change and alteration form the very essence of the world.

True happiness is of a retired nature and an enemy to pomp and noise.

In order to acquire a capacity for happiness, it must be our first study to rectify inward disorders.

Whatever purifies, fortifies also the heart.

From our eagerness to grasp, we strangle and destroy pleasure.

A temperate spirit, and moderate expectations, are excellent safeguards of the mind, in this uncertain and changing state.

There is nothing, except simplicity of intention, and purity

NOTE.-In the first chapter, the compiler has exhibited sentences in a great variety of construction, and in all the diversity of punctuation. Il well practised upon, he presumes they will fully prepare the young reader for the various pauses, inflections, and modulations of voice, which the succeeding pieces require.


of principle, that can stand the test of near approach and strict examination.

The value of any possession is to be chiefly estimated, by the relief which it can bring us in the time of our greatest need.

No person who has once yielded up the government of his mind, and given loose rein' to his desires and passions, can tell how far they may carry,

him, Tranquillity of mind is always most likely to be attained, when the business of the world is tempered with thoughtful and serious retreat.

He who would act like a wise man, and build his house on the rock, and not on the sand, should contemplate human life, not only in the sunshine, but in the shade.

Let usefulness and beneficence, not ostentation and vanity, direct the train of your pursuits.

To maintain a steady and unbroken mind, amidst all the shocks of the world, marks a great and noble spirit.

Patience, hy preserving composure within, resists the impression which trouble makes from without.

Compassionate affections, even when they draw tears from our

eyes for human misery, convey satisfaction to the heart. They who have nothing to give, can often afford relief to others, by imparting what they feel.

Our ignorance of what is to come, and of what is really good or evil, should correct anxiety about worldly success.

The veil which covers from our sight the events of succeed. ing years, is a veil woven by the hand of mercy,

The best preparation for all the uncertainties of futurity, consists in a well-ordered mind, a good conscience, and a cheerful submission to the will of heaven.

SECTION II. THE chief misfortunes that befall us in life, can be traced to some vices or follies which we have committed.

Were we to survey the chambers of sickness and distress, we should often find them peopled with the victims of intem. perance and sensuality, and with the children of vicious indolence and sloth.

To be wise in our own eyes, to be wise in the opinion of the world, and to be wise in the sight of our Creator, are three things so very different, as rarely to coincide.

Man, in his highest earthly glory, is but a reed floating on the stream of time, and forced to follow every new direction of the current.

The corrupted temper, and the guilty passions of the bad,

frustrate the effect of every advantage which the world confers jon them.

The 'external misfortunes of life, disappointments, poverty, and sickness, are light in comparison of those inward distresses of mind, occasioned by folly, by passion, and by guilt.

No station is so high, no power so great, no character so unblemished, as to exempt men from the attacks of rashness, malice, or envy.

Moral and religious instruction derives its efficacy, not so 1. much from what men are taught to know, as from what they are brought to feel.

He who pretends to great sensibility towards men, and yet nas no feeling for the high objects of religion, no heart to admire and adore the great Father of the universe, has reason to distrust the truth and delicacy of his sensibility.

When, upon rational and sober enquiry, we have established our principles, let us not suffer them to be shaken by the scoffs of the licentious, or the cavils of the sceptical.

When we observe any tendency to treat religion or morals with disrespect and levity, let us hold it to be a sure indication of a perverted understanding, or a depraved heart.

Every degree of guilt incurred by yielding to temptation, tends to debase the mind, and to weaken the generous and benevolent principles of human nature.

Luxury, pride, and vanity, have frequently as much influence in corrupting the sentiments of the great, as ignorance, bigotry, and prejudice, have in misleading the opinions of the multitude.

Mixed as the present state is, reason and religion pronounce that, generally, if not always, there is more happiness than misery, more pleasure than pain, in the condition of man.

Society, when formed, requires distinctions of property, diversity of conditions, subordination of ranks, and a multiplicity of occupations, in order to advance the general good.

That the temper, the sentiments, the morality, and, in general, the whole conduct and character of men, are influenced by the example and disposition of the persons with whom they associate, is a reflection which has long since passed into a proverb, and been ranked among the standing maxims of human wisdom, in all ages of the world.

SECTION III. THE desire of improvement discovers a liberal mind, and is connected with many accomplishments, and many virtues.

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