Introduction to the History of Civilization in England

כריכה קדמית
1904
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Failure of these methods
92
The progress of society is twofold moral and intellectual
99
Convocation first despised and then abolished
101
The diminution of religious persecution is owing to the progress of knowledge 108109
108
And from every branch of literature
109
The interference of politicians with trade has injured trade
112
The three principal ways in which the progress of knowledge has lessened
116
The clergy lost all offices out of the church and their numbers diminished
123
CHAPTER V
130
They have also increased hypocrisy and perjury
159
The church rallied for a moment under Anne
165
A change of religion in any country also tends to corrupt its early history 170173
170
Rapid succession of sceptical controversies
172
This being as yet little understood historians have not collected proper materials
175
Political meetings and publication of parliamentary debates
181
But credulity was still prevalent as is seen in Comines
186
Corresponding change in the style of authors
188
Object of the present work
191
Under James I and Charles I this opposition to authority assumes a political
194
Inasmuch however as these ameliorations were opposed to the habits of
195
For the reasons already stated their efforts were fruitless notwithstanding
203
Under Charles II it takes a frivolous form at court
205
Impetus now given to physical science and attempts of the clergy to oppose
229
The municipal element being thus imperfect the only ally which the Crown
231
Ignorance of George III
236
Comparison of the history of England with that of France
240
The clergy were the only body who could withstand the nobles Causes of
246
This liberal policy on the part of the government was only part of a much larger
247
With that of Germany
250
Also respecting the number of marriages annually
252
Subserviency of Pitt
253
Analogy between Descartes and Richelieu
272
Such failures are the more observable because Spain enjoys immense natural
275
But notwithstanding all this there was a great difference between France
279
With that of the United States of America
294
620
335
CHAPTER IX
346
Influence of religion on the progress of society
347
Effects of this difference between the two countries in the fourteenth century 353355
353
Influence of government on the progress of society
359
Both were opposed by the clergy and nobles Natural alliance between these
367
CHAPTER XIX
370
And respecting the number of letters sent undirected
375
This policy reacted upon England
376
382386
382
887
389
0
390
The truth however was that the theological spirit had taken such hold of
392
But his system of protecting literature is injurious
394
Universal decline of France during the latter part of the reign of Louis xiv 408409
408
18
412
Nor was anything done in botany
414
Reasons why literary men at first attacked the church and not the government 429432
429
Abolition of the Jesuits
486
And in Condillac
493
In England during the same period there was a dearth of great thinkers
502
This alliance was dissolved by the Declaration of Indulgence
516
All these vast results were part of the causes of the French Revolution 517518
517
Influence of the American Rebellion
525
The clergy then united with the dissenters and brought about the Revolution
532
22
536
Philip II notwithstanding his repulsive qualities was loved by the nation 540547
540
Their affection for him was the result of general causes which during several
547
But this sort of progress depending too much upon individuals is necessarily
553
The power of the nobles was still further favoured by the physical structure
581
2329
591
6970
600
PAGE
629
They were too feeble and insignificant to elect their own magistrates
639
In Spain the ruling classes were supreme the people counted for nothing
642
7274
654
Still and notwithstanding these successive failures James IV followed the same
661
As the nobles took the opposite side and as the people had no influence the suc
667
He returned to Scotland in 1559 by which time the struggle was nearly over
674
Thereupon the Protestant preachers said that the nobles were instigated by
680
Violent language used by the clergy against the king and against the nobles 689692
689
CHAPTER XVIII
696
the reaction declared itself and in 1638 the bishops were overthrown
706
But the nobles upheld that institution because they loved inequality for
710
Importance of the Revolution
724
enormous
732
This great democratic and liberating movement was aided by the growth of
737
AN EXAMINATION OF THE SCOTCH INTELLECT DURING THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY
741
This also reacted upon England
747
Hence in the seventeenth century secular interests were neglected and theo
748
The clergy becoming elated indulge in language of extraordinary arrogance 757762
757
The clergy to intimidate the people and bring them completely under control
764
The result was that all mirth all innocent gaiety all demonstrations of happi
785
CHAPTER VIII
792
Hence the secular philosophy of the eighteenth century though new in
797
Comparison between the method of this work and the meth d employed
830
But at the end of the sixteenth century scepticism appeared in France and with
836
In physical philosophy the deductive method was equally prevalent in Scotland
837
He derived great aid from poetry
850
The action of fire and water on the crust of the earth may be studied deductively
855
Assuming however for the purposes of classification that the organic world
863
228
871
His nosology
872
Hunters inquiries concerning the movements of animals and vegetables 879880
879
In pathology his love of deduction was more obvious than in physiology
885
Theology forms the only exception to this rule
893
He supported the new secular scheme of government against the old ecclesiastical
902
788
905
In 1700 when affairs were at their worst the Austrian dynasty was succeeded
910
The first and most essential quality of an historian is a clear perception of

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עמוד 557 - This fortress built by Nature for herself Against infection and the hand of war, This happy breed of men, this little world, This precious stone set in the silver sea, Which serves it in the office of a wall Or as a moat defensive to a house, Against the envy of less happier lands, This blessed plot, this earth, this realm, this England...
עמוד 138 - I have been told by an eminent bookseller, that in no branch of his business, after tracts of popular devotion, were so many books as those on the law exported to the Plantations. The colonists have now fallen into the way of printing them for their own use. I hear that they have sold nearly as many of Blackstone's Commentaries in America as in England.
עמוד 523 - ... whenever any form of government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the right of the people to alter or abolish it, and to institute a new government, laying its foundations on such principles, and organizing its powers in such form, as to them shall seem most likely to effect their safety and happiness.
עמוד 258 - ... that if he were to put all the political information which he had learned from books, all which he had gained from science, and all which any knowledge of the world and its affairs had taught him, into one scale, and the improvement which he had derived from his right honourable friend's instruction and conversation were placed in the other, he should be at a loss to decide to which to give the preference.
עמוד 265 - The storm has gone over me; and I lie like one of those old oaks which the late hurricane has scattered about me. I am stripped of all my honours, I am torn up by the roots, and lie prostrate on the earth!
עמוד 193 - ... it, but to follow like beasts the first in the herd, they know not nor care not whither this were brutish. Again, that authority of men should prevail with men either against or above reason, is no part of our belief. Companies of learned men, be they never so great and reverend, are to yield unto reason...
עמוד 103 - To do good to others ; to sacrifice for their benefit your own wishes; to love your neighbour as yourself; to forgive your enemies ; to restrain your passions ; to honour your parents; to respect those who are set over you : these, and a few others, are the sole essentials of morals; but they have been known for thousands of years, and not one jot or tittle has been added to them by all the sermons, homilies, and text-books which moralists and theologians have been able to produce.
עמוד 260 - In effect, to follow not to force the public inclination, to give a direction, a form, a technical dress, and a specific sanction to the general sense of the community, is the true end of legislature.
עמוד 263 - I do not examine whether the giving away a man's money be a power excepted and reserved out of the general trust of government...
עמוד 263 - America, if she has taxable matter in her, to tax herself. I am not here going into the distinctions of rights, nor attempting to mark their boundaries. I do not enter into these metaphysical distinctions. I hate the very sound of them.

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