« הקודםהמשך »
know, that one principal cause of that fury, / we ought to be persuaded that ignorance on which erected scaffolds, and lighted fires in the these subjects cannot be dangerous. The church, that ought to breathe nothing but reason is plain: if God intended we should peace and love, was a rash decision of some see these truths in their full depth and clearquestions which it was impossible for sensible i ness, he would not have involved them in so men to determine? Are you not aware that much obscurity, or he would have given us one of the most odious ideas that can be formed greater abilities, and greater assistances, to of God, one the least compatible with the emi- enable u tz form adequate and perfect ideas nence of his perfections, is, that God requires of them in like manner, in regard to cases of us knowledge beyond the faculties he has ; of conscience, attended with insurmountable given us. I declare I cannot help blushing difficulties, if our salvation depended on the for Christians, and especially for Christians side we take in regard to them, God would cultivated as you are, when I perceive it need- have revealed more clearly what side we ought ful to repeat this principle, and even to use to take. In such cases as these, intention precaution, and to weigh the terms in which supplies the place of knowledge, and probawe propose it, lest we should offend them. To bility that of demonstration. what then are we reduced, Great God, if we So much for clearing the meaning of the have the least reason to suspect that thou wilt Wise Man; now let us put his doctrine to require an account, not only of the talents proof. “ Ponder the path of thy feet, and all which it has pleased thee to commit to us? To thy ways shall be established.” Wouldst thou what am I reduced, if, having only received of take only sure steps, at least as sure as is posthee, my Creator, a human intelligence, thou sible a world where “in many things we wilt require of me angelical attainments? - offend all,” weigh all the actions you intend Whither am I driven, if, having received a body to perform first with the principle from which capable of moving only through a certain space they proceed; then with the circumstances in in a given time, thou Lord, requirest me to which you are at the time; next with the manmove with the velocity of aerial bodies. At ner in wnich you perform them; again with this rate, when thou in the last great day shalt the bounds which restrain them; afterward judge the world in righteousness, thou, Judge with those degrees of virtue and knowledge at of the whole earth, wilt condemn me for not which you are arrived; and lastly, with the preaching the gospel in Persia, the same day different judgments which you yourself form and the same hour in which I was preaching concerning them. it in this assembly! Far from us be such de I. An action good in itself may become testable opinions! Let us adhere to the senti- criminal, if it proceed from a bad principle. ments of St. Paul, God shall judge the Gentile II. An action good in itself may become according to what he has committed to the criminal, if it be performed in certain circumGentile; the Jew according to what he has stances. committed to the Jew; the Christian according III. An action good in itself may become to what he has committed to the Christian. criminal by the manner in which it is perThus Jesus Christ, “Unto whomsoever much formed. is given, of him much shall be required; and to IV. An action good in itself may become whom men have committed much, of him they criminal by being extended beyond its just will ask the more," Luke xii. 48. Thus again limits. Jesus Christ teaches us, that God will require V. An action good in itself, when performed an account of five talents of him to whom he by a man of a certain degree of knowledge gave five talents, of two talents of him to whom and virtue, may become criminal, if it be perhe gave two, and of one only of him to whom ! formed ly a nan of inferior knowledge and he gave but one. What did our Redeemer | virtue. mean when he put into the mouth of the wicked VI. In fine, an action good in itself now, servant this abominable pretext for neglecting may become criminal at another time. to improve his Lord's talent? Lord, I knew These maxims ought to be explained and thee that thou art a hard man,” or, as it may enforced; and here we are going, as I said at be better translated, a barbarous man,“ reaping first, to apply the doctrine of the Wise Man to where thou hast not sown, and gathering where a few subjects, leaving to your piety the care thou hast not strawed.” I return to my sub- of applying them to a great number, which ject. When we have examined two contra- will necessarily occur in the course of your dictory doctrines, and can obtain no reasons lives. sufficient to determine our judgment, our pro I. We ought to ponder our steps in regard per part is, to suspend our judgment of the to the principle from which they proceed. An subject, and not to determine it at all.
action good in itself may become criminal, if It will be said, that, if this be possible in it proceed from a bad principle. The little regard to speculative points; it is not applicable attention we pay to this maxim is one principal to matters of practice. Why not? Such cases cause of the false judgments we make of ourof conscience as are the most embarrassing are selves. Thus many, who allow themselves precisely those which ought to give us the very expensive luxuries, say, they contribute least trouble. This proposition may appear a to the increase of trade. To increase trade, paradox, but I think I can explain and prove and to employ artists, considered in themit. I compare cases of conscience with points selves, are good works I grant; but is it a of speculation; difficult cases of conscience with desire of doing these good works that animates such speculative points as we just now men- you? Is it not your vanity? Is it not your tioned. The most difficult points of specula- luxury? Is it not your desire of sparkling and tion ought to give us the least concern; I mean, shining in the world?
Thus our brethren, who resist all the exhor- , ing the motive which engages you to take it. tations that have been addressed to them for Let the glory of God be the great end of all many years, to engage them to follow Jesus our actions; “ whether we eat or drink, or Christ" without the camp,” reply, that were whatsoever we do, let us do all to the glory of they to obey these exhortations, all the seeds God," I Cor. x. 31. A motive so noble and of truth now remaining in the land of their so worthy of that holy calling with which God nativity would perish, and that the remnants has honoured us, will sanctify all our steps, of the reformation would be entirely extirpated. will give worth to our virtues, and will raise Diligently to preserve oven remnants of the those into virtuous actions, which seem to reformation, and seeds of truth, is certainly an have the least connexion with virtue. A bustaction good in itself; but is this the motive ling trade, a sprightly conversation, a wellwhich animates you when you resist all our matched union, a sober recreation, a domestic exhortations' Is it not love of the present amusement, all become virtues in a man aniworld? Is it not the same motive that ani- mated with the glory of God; on the contrary, mated Demas? Is it not because you have virtue itself, the most ardent zeal for truth, neither courage enough to sacrifice for Jesus the most generous charities, the most fervent Christ what he requires, nor zeal enough to prayers, knowledge the most profound, and profess your religion at the expense of your sacrifices the least suspicious, become vices in fortunes and dignities. Thus again they who a man not animated with this motive. are immersed in worldly care tell us, that were II. Let us ponder our steps in regard to the they to think much about dying, society could circumstances which accompany them. An not subsist, arts would languish, sciences de action, good or innocent in itself, may become cay, and so on. I deny this principle. I affirm, criminal in certain circumstances. This maxim society would be incomparably more flourish- is a clue to many cases of conscience, in which ing were each member of it to think continu- we choose to blind ourselves. We obstinately ally of death. In such a case each would con- consider our actions in a certain abstracted sust his own ability, before he determined what light, never realized, and we do not attend to employment he would follow, and then we circumstances which change the nature of the should see none elected to public offices except action. We think we strike a casuist dumb, such as were capable of discharging them; we when we ask him, what is there criminal in should see the gospel preached only by such as the action you reprove? Hear the morality of have abilities for preaching; we should see ar- the inspired writers. mies commanded only by men of experience, It is allowable to attach ourselves to a pious and who possessed that superiority of genius prince, and to push for port. Yet when Barwhich is necessary to command them. Then zillai had arrived at a certain age, he thought the magistrate, having always death and judg- it his duty to flee from court, and to quit his ment before his eyes, would think only of the prince, and he said to David, who invited him public good. Then the judge, having his eye to court, “I am this day fourscore years old, fixed only on the Judge of all mankind, would and can I discern between good and evil? Can regard the sacred trust committed to him, and thy servant taste what I eat, or what I drink? would not consider his rank only as an oppor- Can I hear any more the voice of singing men, tunity of making his family, accumulating and singing women? Let thy servant, I pray riches, and behaving with arrogance. Then thee, turn back again, that I may die in mine the pastor, all taken up with the duties of that own city, and be buried by the grave of my important ministry which God has committed father and of my mother,” 2 Sam. xix. 35. 37. to him, would exercise it only to comfort the It is allowable to erect houses proportional afflicted, to visit the sick, to repress vice, to to our fortunes and rank. Yet the buildings advance the kingdom of that Jesus whose min of the Israelites drew upon them the most ister he has the honour to be, and not officious. mortifying censures, and the most rigourous ly to intrude into families to direct them, to chastisements, after their return from captivity: tyrannize over consciences, to make a parade This was, because, while their minds were all of gifts, and to keep alive a spirit of party. employed about their own edifices, they took
But, not to carry these reflections any fur- no thought about rebuilding the temple. “Is ther, you say, society could not subsist, sciences it time for you,” said the prophet Haggai, " Is would languish, and arts decay, if men thought it time for you, O ye, to dwell in your ceiled much about dying. Very well. I agree. But houses, and this house lie waste?" chap. i. 4. I ask, is this the motive which animates you It is allowable, sometimes, to join in good when you turn away your eyes from this company, and to taste the pleasures of the object? Is it fear lest the arts should decay, table and society; yet Isaiah reproached the science languish, society disperse? Is it this Jews of his time in the most cutting inanner, fear which keeps you from thinking of death? for giving themselves up to these pleasures, at Is it not rather because an idea of this "king a time when recent crimes, and approaching of terrors" disconcerts the whole system of calamities should have engaged them to acts your conscience, stupified by a long habit of of repentance. “In that day did the Lord sin; because it urges you to restore that ac- God of hosts call to weeping, and to mourncursed acquisition, which is the fund that sup- ing, and to baldness, and to girding with sackports your pageantry and pride; because it re- cloth; and behold, joy and gladness, slaying quires you to renounce that criminal intrigue oxen, and killing sheep, eating flesh, and drinkwhich makes the conversation of all compa- ing wine. And it was revealed in mine ears nies, and gives just offence to all good men? by the Lord of hosts; surely this iniquity shall
My brethren, would you always take right not be purged from you till ye die, saith the steps: Never take one without first examin- Lord God of hosts,” Isa. xxii. 12, &c.
It is allowable to eat any thing, without re- in those of his children, and all in a million gard to the Levitical law. Yet St. Paul de- of their brethren. clares, “If meat make my brother to offend, I Age, again, is another circumstance conwill eat no flesh while the world standeth,” i verting an innocent to a criminal action. This Cor. viii. 13.
I conclude from the example of Barzillai. Let How many circumstances of this kind might a young man, just entering into trade, be all I add? Let us retain what we have heard, and attention and diligence to make his fortune; let us make these the basis of a few maxims. he should be so: but that an old man, that a
The case of scandal is a circumstance which man on the brink of the grave, and who has makes a lawful action criminal. I infer this already attained the age which God has markfrom the example of St. Paul just now men- ed for the life of man, that such a man should tioned. What is scandal? Of many defini- be all fire and flame for the success of his trade, tions I confine myself to one.
just as he was the first day he entered on it; A scandalous or offensive action is that that he should, so to speak, direct his last sigh which must naturally make a spectator of it towards money and the increase of his trade, commit a fault. By this touchstone examine is the shame of human nature; it is a mark of resome actions, which you think allowable, be- probation, which ought to alarm all that bear it. cause you consider them in themselves, and Let a young man in the heat of his blood, a you will soon perceive that you ought to ab- youth yet a novice in the world, and who may stain from them. By this rule, it is not a ques- promise himself, with some appearance of tion only, when it is agitated as a case of con- truth, to live a few years in the world, somescience, Is gaming criminal or innocent The times lay aside that gravity, which, however, question is not only, what gaming is to you, so well becomes men whose eyes are fixed on who can afford to play without injuring your the great objects of religion; let him, I say, I family or fortune; the question is, whether you forgive him; but that an old man, whom long ought to engage another to play with you, experience should have rendered wise, that he who will ruin his. When a case of conscience should be fond of pleasure, that he should is made of this question-Can I, without make a serious affair of distinguishing himself wounding my innocence, allow myself certain by the elegance of his table, that he should go freedoms in conversationThe question is not every day to carry his skeleton, wan and totonly whether you can permit yourself to do so tering, into company employed in the amusewithout defiling your innocence, but whether ments of youth; this is the shame of human you can do so without wounding the innocence nature, this is a mark of reprobation, which of your neighbour, who will infer from the lib- ought to terrify all that bear it. erties you take, that you have no regard to III. Would we have all our ways establishmodesty, and who perhaps may avail himself ed? Let us examine the manners that accomof the license you give him.
pany them. An action good in itself, yea, Another circumstance, which makes a law. more, the most essential duties of religion beful action criminal, is taken from the passage come criminal, when they are not performed of Isaiah just now mentioned. I fear suppress with proper dispositions. One of the most esing a sense of present sins and of approaching sential duties of religion is to assist the poor; calamities. I wish, when we have had the yet this duty will become a crime, if it be perweakness to commit such sins as suspend the formed with haughtiness, hardness, and concommunion of a soul with its God, I wish we straint. It is not enough to assist the poor; the had the wisdom to lay aside for some time, not duty must be done with such circumspection, only criminal, but even lawful pleasures. I humanity, and joy, as the apostle speaks of, wish, instead of going into company, even the when he says, “God loveth a cheerful giver, most regular, we had the wisdom to retire. I2 Cor. ix. 7. Another most essential duty of wish, instead of relishing then the most lawful religion is to interest one's self in the happirecreations, we had the wisdom to mourn for ness of our neighbour; and if he turn aside our offending a God whose law ought to be from the path of salvation, to bring him back extremely respected by us. To take the oppo- again. “Thou shalt in any wise rebuke thy site course then, to allow one's self pleasure, neighbour, and not suffer sin upon him:" thus innocent indeed in happier times, is to discover God spoke by his servant Moses, Lev. xix. 17. very little sense of that God whose commands “ Exhort one another daily:" this is a precept we have just now violated; it is to discover of St. Paul, Heb. iii. 13. To this may be addthat we have very little regard for our salva- ed the declaration of St. James: “ If any of tion, at a tiine when we have so many just you do err from the truth, and one convert causes of doubting whether our hope to be him, let him know, that he which converteth sa ved be well-grounded.
the sinner from the error of his way, shall save The afflicted state of the church is another a soul from death, and hide a multitude of circumstance, which may make an innocent sins," chap. v. 19, 20. But this duty would action criminal: So I conclude, from the pas become a crime, were we to rebuke a neighsage just now quoted from Haggai. Dissipa- bour with bitterness, were the reproof inore tions, amusements, festivals, ill become men, satire than exhortation, were we to assume airs who ought to be "grieved for the afflictions of haughtiness and discover that we intended of Joseph;” or, to speak more clearly, less still less to censure the vices of others, than to disbecome miserable people whom the wrath of play our own imaginary excellencies. It is God pursues, and who, being themselves “as not enough to rebuke a neighbour; it must be firebrands” hardly "plucked out of the burn- done with all those charitable concomitants, ing,” are yet exposed to the flames of tribula- which are so proper to make the most bitter tion, one in the person of his father, another i censures palatable; it must be done with that
modesty, or, may I say, with that bashfulness the terror of the Lord, we persuade men,” 2 which proves that it is not a spirit of self-suffi- Cor. v. 11. I know, the surest method to ciency that reproves our neighbour, but that it strengthen our virtue is to distrust ourselves, is because we interest ourselves in his happi- according to this expression. “Let him that ness, and are jealous of his glory.
thinketh he standeth take heed lest he fall," 1 IV. Our fourth maxim is, that an action Cor. x. 12. good in itself may become criminal by being However, it is certain, some fears of God extended beyond its proper limits. It was said proceed rather from the irregularity of the of a fine genius of the last age, that he never imagination, than from a wise and well directquitted a beautiful thought till he had entirely ed piety. Fear of the judgment of God is disfigured it. The observation was perfectly sometimes a passion, which has this in common just in regard to the author to whom it was with all other passions, it loves to employ itself applied; the impetuosity of his imagination about what favours, cherishes, and supports it; made him overstrain the most sensible things it is reluctant to approach what would diminbe advanced, so that what was truth, when he ish, defeat, and destroy it. Extremes of vice began to propose it, became an error in his touch extremes of virtue, so that we have no mouth by the extreme to which he carried it. sooner passed over the bounds of virtue, than In like manner, in regard to a certain order of we are entangled in the irregularities of vice. Christians, virtue becomes vice in their prac V. We said in the fifth place, that each tice, because they extend it beyond proper ought to ponder his path with regard to that bounds. Their holiness ought always to be degree of holiness at which the mercy of God restrained, and after they have been exhorted has enabled him to arrive. An action good to righteousness and wisdom, it is necessary to in itself when it is performed by a man arrivsay to them with the Wise Man, “Be noted at a certain degree of holiness, becomes righteous overmuch, neither make thyself over- criminal, when it is done by him who has only wise," Eccles. vii. 17; an idea adopted by St. an inferior degree. There never was an opinPaul, Rom. xii. 3.
ion more absurd and more dangerous than “Be not righteous overmuch, neither make that of some mystics, known by the name of thyself over-wise” in regard to the mysteries Molinists. They affirmed, that when the soul of religion. As people sometimes lose their was lodged at I know not what distance from lives by diving, so sometimes people become the body; that when it was in, I know not unbelievers by believing too much. It is not what state which they called abandonment, it uncommon to see Christians so eager to eluci- partook no more of the irregularities of the date the difficulties of the book of Revelation, body which it animated, so that the most imas not to perceive clearly the doctrine of evan- pure actions of the body could not defile it, begelical morality.
cause it knew how to detach itself from the body. “Be not righteous overmuch, neither make What kind of extravagance can one imathyself over-wise" in regard to charity. The gine, of which poor mankind hath not given laws of equity march before those of charity; an example? Yet the apostle determines this or rather, the laws of charity are founded on point with so much precision, that one would those of equity. To neglect to support a think it was impossible to mistake it. “Unto family and to satisfy creditors, under pretence the pure, all things are pure; but unto them of relieving the poor, is not charity, and giving that are defiled and unbelieving, nothing is alms; but it is rapine, robbery, and iniquity. pure," Titus i. 15. I recollect the sense which
Be not righteous overmuch, neither make a celebrated bishop in the isle of Cyprus gave thyself over-wise” in regard to closet devotion. these words in the first ages of the church. I So to give one's self up to the devotion of the speak of Spiridion. A traveller, exhausted closet, as to lose sight of what we owe to with the fatigue of his journey, waited on him society; to be so delighted with praying to God on a day which the church had set apart for as not to hear the petitions of the indigent; to fasting. Spiridion instantly ordered some redevote so much time to meditation as to reserve freshment for him, and invited him by his own none for an oppressed person who requires our example to eat. No, I must not eat, said the assistance, for a widow who beseeches us to stranger, because I am a Christian. And bepity the cries of her hungry children; this is cause you are a Christian, replied the bishop noi piety, this is vision, this is enthusiasm, this to him, you may eat without scruple; agreeais sophism of zeal, if I'may express myself so. bly to the decision of an apostle, “ Unto the
“Be not righteous overmuch, neither make pure all things are pure.” We cannot be igthyself over-wise” in regard to distrusting norant of the shameful abuse which some have yourselves, and fearing the judgments of God. made of this maxim. We know some have I know, the greatest saints have reason to extended it even to the most essential articles tremble, when they consider themselves in of positive law, which no one can violate with some points of light. I know Jobs and Davids out sin. We know particularly the insolence have exclaimed," If I should justify myself, with which some place themselves in the list mine own mouth shall condemn me. If thou, of those pure persons, of whom the apostle Lord, shouldst mark iniquities, O Lord, who speaks, although their gross ignorance and shall stand?” Job ix. 20; Ps. cxxx. 3. I know, novel divinity may justly place them in the opone of the most powerful motives which the posite class. But the abuse of a maxim ought inspired writers have used, to animate the not to prevent the lawful use of it. There are hearts of men with piety, is fear, according to some things which are criminal or lawful, acthis exclamation of Solomon, "Happy is the cording to the degree of knowledge and holiman that feareth alway,” Prov. xxviii. 14; and ness of him who performs them." Unto the according to this idea of St. Paul, “Knowing 'pure all things are pure; but unto them that
are defiled and unbelieving, nothing is pure." | sin; they slew oxen, they killed sheep, they Would you then know how far to carry your gave themselves up to unbridled intemperscruples in regard to some steps Examine ance, and they said, "Let us eat and drink, sincerely, and with rectitude, to what degree for to-morrow we shall die.” you are pure in this respect. I mean, exam This is precisely the maxim of our liberine sincerely and uprightly, whether you be tines. Youth is the season for pleasure, and so far advanced in Christianity, as not to en we should improve it; opportunities of enjoydanger your faith and holiness by this step. ment are rare; we should be enemies to our
Do you inquire whether you may, without selves not to avail ourselves of them. Would scruple, read a work intended to sap the foun- not one say, on hearing this language, that an dation of Christianity? Examine yourself. A old man, going out of the world, must needs man arrived at a certain degree of know- regret that he did not give himself up to plealedge is confirmed in the faith, even by the ob- sure in his youth. Would not one suppose jections which are proposed to him to engage that the sick, in beds of infirmity and pain, him to renounce his religion. “Unto the pure must needs reproach themselves for not spendall things are pure.” If you answer this de- ing their health, and strength in luxury and scription, read without scruple Lucretius, Spi- debauchery? Would not one imagine, that noza, and all the other enemies of religion. the despair of the damned through all eternity, The darkness with which they pretend to co- will proceed from their recollecting that they ver it, will only advance its splendour in your checked their passions in this world? eyes. The blows which they gave it, will On the contrary, what will poison the years only serve to convince you that it is invulnera- of your old age, should you arrive at it; what ble. But if you be get a child in understand will aggravate the pains, and envenom the ing, as an apostle speaks, such books may be disquietudes inseparable from old age, will be dangerous to you; poison without an antidote, the abuse you made of your youth. will convey itself into your vitals, and destroy So in sickness, reproaches and remorse will all the powers of your soul.
rise out of a recollection of crimes committed Would you know whether you may, with when you was well, and will change your out scruple, mix with the world? Examine death-bed into an anticipated hell. Then, yourself. “ Unto the pure all things are pure.” thou miserable wretch, who makest thy belly A man arrived at a certain degree of holiness, thy God, the remembrance of days and nights derives, from an intercourse with the world, consumed in drunkenness, will aggravate every only pity for the world. Examples of vice pain which thine intemperate life has brought serve only to confirm him in virtue. If you upon thee. Then, thou miserable man, who answer this description, go into the world with incessantly renderest an idolatrous worship to out scruple; but if your virtue be yet weak, thy gold, saying to it, in acts of supreme if intercourse with the world disconcert the adoration, “ Thou art my confidence," then frame of your mind, if the pleasures of the will the rust of it be a witness against thee, world captivate your imagination, and leave and eat thy flesh, as it were with fire. Then, impressions which you cannot efface; if, after unhappy man, whose equipages, retinue, and you have passed a few hours in the world, palaces, are the fruits of oppression and inyou find it follows you, even when you wish justice, then “the hire of the labourers which to get rid of it, then what can you do so pro- have reaped down thy fields, which is of thee per as to retreat from an enemy dangerous to kept back by fraud, will cry, and the cries of virtue? “Unto the pure all things are pure; the reapers will enter into the ears of the Lord but unto them that are defiled, nothing is of Sabaoth;” then “the stone shall cry out of pure.”
the wall, and the beam out of the timber shall VI. In fine, if we wish our ways should be answer it.” Then, miserable wretch, thou established, let us weigh them with the differ- who makest" the members of Christ the mement judgments which we ourselves form con- bers of a harlot;" then, that Drusilla, who cerning them. The meaning of the maxims, now fascinates thine eyes, who seems to thee the substance of what we daily hear in the to unite in her person all manner of accomworld, and which the writings of libertines plishments; that Drusilla who makest thee forhave rendered famous, that youth is the sea- get what thou owest to the world and the son for pleasure, and that we should make the church, to thy children, thy family, thy God, most of it; that fit opportunities should not and thy soul, that Drusilla will appear to thee be let slip, because they so seldom happen, as the centre of all horrors; then she, who and that not to avail ourselves of them, would always appeared to thee as a goddess, will bediscover ignorance of one's self; the substance come as dreadful as a fury; then, like that of this sophism (shall I say of infirmity or im- abominable man, of whom the holy Scriptures piety?) is not new. If some of you urge this speak, who carried his brutality so far as to now, so did the Jews in the time of Isaiah. offer violence to a sister, whose honour ought This prophet was ordered to inform them, that to have been to him as dear as his own life; they had sinned to the utmost bounds of the then will “ the hatred wherewith thou hatest patience of God; that there remained only her, be greater than the love wherewith thou one method of preventing their total ruin, that hadst loved her,” 2 Sam. xiii. 15. was fasting, mourning, baldness, and girding The same in regard to the damned; what with sackcloth; in a word, exercises of lively will give weight to the chains of darkness with and genuine repentance. These profane peo which they will be loaded, what will augment ple, from the very same principle on which the the voracity of that worm which will devour prophet grounded the necessity of their con- them, and the activity of the flames which will version, drew arguments to embolden them in consume them in a future state, will be the