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he disavowed having made any conces- voted to science, which is indebted to him sions to the court, and was, in conse- for many improvements. He was the first quence, ordered by Charles to depart from to determine the difference of refraction the kingdom. On the accession of Jaines in summer and winter. He corrected the II, Monmouth, finding himself pursued tables of the sun, and the catalogues of the by the king's severity, was induced, con- stars, fixed with greater accuracy the intrary to his judgment and inclination, by clination of the ecliptic, and ascertained the impatience of some of his partisans, the elevation of the pole at Paris. He to attempt an invasion of England. He introduced into France the transit-instruarrived at Lime with hardly a hundred ment constructed by Graham, and pointed followers (June, 1685); but his numbers out the irregularities in the motion of were soon increased, and he assumed the Saturn, produced by the attraction of Jutitle of king, and asserted the legitimacy piter. He died in 1799. Of his numeof his birth. His forces were deteated at rous works, his Histoire Céleste and his Sedgemore Bridgewater, and the duke Théorie des Comètes deserve to be parhimself was made prisoner, having been ticularly mentioned. found in the disguise of a peasant, lying MonochORD (from the Greek); an anat the bottom of a ditch, overcome with cient instrument, or machine, so called, behunger, fatigue and anxiety. He refused cause it is furnished with only one string. to betray bis accomplices, and conducted Its use is to measure and adjust the ratios himself with much firmness on the scaf- of the intervals, which it effects by the fold, where his head was severed from his means of movable bridges, calculated to body, after four unsuccessful blows. The divide the chord at the pleasure of the people, of whom he was still the favorite, speculatist. The monochord appears to believed that the person executed was not have been in constant use with the anMonmouth, but one of his friends, who cients, as the only means of forming the resembled him so nearly as to pass him- ear to the accurate perception, and the self off for the duke, and suffer in his voice to the true intonation, of those stead. It was probably this belief which minute and difficult intervals which were has led some to conjecture that the famous then practised in melody. Iron Mask was the duke of Monmouth. MonochROME (Gr. movos, single, and

Monnier, Pierre Charles Le ; astrono- xpwa, color), in ancient painting ; a paintmer, member of the academies at Paris, ing with one single color. This descripLondon and Berlin, was born at Paris in tion of art is very ancient, and was known 1715, and early displayed a decided in- to the Etruscans. The first specimens of clination for astronomical studies. In his the art of painting were of one tint only, sixteenth year, he made observations on which was most commonly red, made Saturn, and in his twentieth year commu- either with cinnabar or minium. Instead nicated to the academy of sciences in Par- of red, white paint was sometimes used. is his Nouvelle Figure de la Lune, avec la Quintilian says of Polygnotus, and Pliny Description des Taches. The academy of Zeuxis, that their performances of this admitted him into their number, and, in kind were of the latter description. The 1735, he went with Maupertuis to Lap- antique tombs of the Tarquins, in the land. In 1748, Monnier observed the an- neighborhood of Corneto, offer several nular eclipse of the sun, in Scotland, and figures painted in white upon a dark was the first who measured the moon's ground. The first four plates in the first diameter on the sun's disk. In 1750, volume of the paintings of Herculaneum Louis XV employed him to run a meridi- contain several monochromes upon maran line through the castle of Bellevue. ble. The most numerous monuments Lalande, with whom he was afterwards existing of this kind of painting are on on unfriendly terms, was his pupil, and terra cotta. always spoke of him with the highest es- MONOCRAT has been used by a few teem. Lemonnier wus of an impetuous writers to designate with one word an aband capricious temper; and after his death solute monarch. They object to autocrat, several valuable works were found among as not sufficiently precise, since there his papers, which, in spite of all entrea- might be also an autocratic' body, that is, ties, he had obstinately refused to publish, several or many persons who govern withand which he threatened to burn. Among out any dependence on those who are them was a catalogue of fixed stars, the governed. plan of which he had exhibited to the MONODRAMA ; a drama in which only academy in 1741. He was indefatigable one person plays. in his labors, and his whole life was de- MONOGRAM (novos, single, or only, and



ypappa), in archæology ; a character or in bis Table générale des Monogr., Chiffres, cipher composed of one, two, or more let- &c. (Munich, 1820). ters interwoven, being a sort of abbrevia- Monograph (novos, only, single, ypaser ) ; tion of a name, anciently used as a seal, a treatise on a single subject in literature badge, arms, &c. They were used on or science ; thus we say, a monograph on

; coins, standards, walls and tapestry, seals violets, a monograph on Egyptian mumand documents; first on coins, latest on mies. The advantage of a treatise of this documents, in which they were employed nature is, that it allows more minuteness not only by princes and ecclesiastical dig- of detail in reference to all the properties nities, but also by magistrates and notaries. and relations of the subject of the monoTheir use particularly as arms is ancient, graph. Papers in the memoirs or transacas appears from Plutarch, and from some tions of literary and scientific societies, and Greek medals of the time of Philip of in periodical journals, are often monoMacedon, and Alexander, his son. The graphs, and have contributed much to the Roman labarum bore the movogram of progress of modern science. Jesus Christ, which consisted of two let- Monolithic (from movos, single, and ters, an p placed perpendicularly through dedos, stone); consisting of a single stone. the middle of a x, as we find it on many According to Herodotus, there was a unedals of the age of Constantine, these monolithic sanctuary attached to a temple being the two first letters of the word at Sais, dedicated to Minerva, 21 cubits XPIETOE. Under the Eastern empire, it long, 14 wide, and 8 high, which was is usual to find MIK, which form the brought from Elephantine. The carriage monogram of Mary, Jesus, Constantine. of it employed 2000 men three years. The use of monograms was exceedingly Some striking specimens of monolithic common upon Greek coins; and many temples are still found in Egypt, and, like antiquarians have bestowed much time the monolithic obelisks, bear testimony to and attention in the effort to decipher the wonderful application of mechanical them—a useless labor, since a great num- power among the ancient Egyptians. (See ber of these monograms were, without Obelisks.) doubt, of a conventional nature, and un- Moxologue (noros, single, doves, disderstood only by a few, even in the course); in distinction from dialogue times at which the coins were current. (9. v.), in the drama; the same as soliloAfter the time of Charlemagne, who quy. (See Soliloquy.) made much use of them, and improved MONOMANY (from novos and varia); the their form, monograms became very com- name given, by some physicians, to that mon in all the countries which had be- form of mania, in which the mind of the longed to the Frankish empire, but after patient is absorbed by one idea ; for inthe twelfth century, gradually went out stance, if the patient believes that he is of use. The use of them remained God, or Christ, an emperor, &c. (See longest in Germany, where it was formally Mental Derangement.) abolished by the diet of forms, in 1495. MOXONGAHELA ; a river which rises The knowledge of monograms of this from the Laurel mountains, in Virginia, public kind is of great importance for the runs north into Pennsylvania, and unites illustration of the monuments and docu- with the Alleghany, at Pittsburg, to form ments of the middle ages, and therefore the Ohio. It is navigable for batteaux forms a particular branch of diplomatics. and barges 32 miles, to Brownsville, and The term was subsequently applied to all still further for lighter boats. Its length sorts of ciphers and signs, with which is about 300 miles. artists, particularly painters and engravers, MoxoruysITES; the members of the were accustomed to designate their works. party who, according to the language These have often been counterfeited. adopted in the fifth century, maintain that The ancients called every outline, every there is but one nature in Christ, that is, simple sketch, a monogram. Montfau- that the divine and human natures were con, in his Paléographie Grecque, has so united as to form but one nature, yet given a very extensive catalogue of mon- without any change, confusion or mixture ograms taken from medals of various of the two patures. They were con. kinds. John Fr. Christ's collection of demned as heretics, at the council of figures of monograms, accompanied by ex- Chalcedon, in 451, which maintained that planations, - Anzeige und Auslegung der in Christ two distinct natures were united Monogrammatum (Leipsic, 1747),—is valu- in one person, and that without any change, able ; also Brouillot's celebrated Dict. des mixture or confusion. This distinction Monogrammes, completed and corrected, without a difference gave rise to a violent

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dispute. The Asiatic and Egyptian cler- religious constitution, formed the indegy were inclined to the Monophysites, and pendent churches of the Jacobites and were unanimous in maintaining the unity Armenians (9. v.), which separated from of nature as well as of person in Jesus, the Greeks as well as the Romans, and while the Western contended for the de- have, for that reason, been able to maincree of the council. The edict called tain themselves since the seventh century, Henoticon, issued by the emperor Zeno, in even under the dominion of the Moham482, was not able to quiet the combatants, medans. Excepting their peculiar docand, after long and often bloody contests, trine of one nature in Christ, they cointhe orthodox church, by its sentences of cide, in the main points of belief, with the excommunication, occasioned a formal se- Greek church; their worship also resemcession on the part of the Monophysites. bles the Greek, rather than the Roman, This separation took place in the first half but has, from their national character and of the sixth century, when the protection their superstition, received variations, which the Monophysites had bitherto re- which are most striking in the religious ceived at times from the court at Constan- constitution of the Egyptian Jacobites. tinople, necessarily ceased from the close These Copts are in communion with the union of the emperor Justinian with the Syrian Jacobites, but have their own Roman church. Neither did they re- patriarch at Cairo, the patriarch of main united among themselves. In 483, Alexandria, who has ten bishoprics under the Acephali (q. v.) had already seceded, him. The Bible and liturgical books and formed the real strength of Monophy- they possess in the old Coptic language, sitism. In 519, new controversies arose which is the same as the Egyptian current among them respecting the question under the Ptolemies, at the time of the whether the body of Christ is corruptible dominion of the Greeks, and has, thereor not. The Severites, adherents of a fore, some similarity with the Greek, but deposed patriarch of Antioch, Severus, is now a dead language. They bapwho belonged to the Acephali

, answered tize their children always in the church, in the affirmative; the Julianists, or Ga- and never till they are forty days old, and janites, adherents of the bishops Julianus, frequently not till they are seven years of or Gajanus, in the negative. The former age; but immediately after baptism, they were, therefore, called Phthartolatrians receive the wine of the eucharist. The (Corrupticole, servants of corruptibility); Lord's supper they celebrate only in the the latier, Aphthartodocetæ (teachers of in- great fasts, use, in the celebration, leavencorruptibility), or Phantasiasts, who again ed bread, which is broken, and taste the divided respecting the question whether wine with spoons. According to a custhe body of Christ was created, and tom that had its origin in times of perseformed the parties of Actisteta, those who cution, they attend divine worship in the held it increate, and the Ctistolatrians, night, between Saturday and Sunday. It who believed it created. The Severites, consists merely of service at the altar, of also called, from one of their bishops, singing, prayer, and reading by the priests, Theodosians, acquired the superiority, and who are, moreover, extremely ignorant, pronounced excommunications against the and cannot preach. The patriarch preachAgnoëta, who also arose among them (so es but once a year. Relics, poorly execalled, because they denied the omnis- cuted, images in their churches, the worcience of Christ as a man). About 560, ship of saints, &c., they have in common a Monophysite, Askusnages, and after him with the Greeks. Circumcision is cusPhiloponus, the greatest Christian philoso- tomary only with the Copts in Upper pher of that century, conceived the idea Egypt. In their thinly-peopled convents, of styling the three persons of the Deity monks reside with women and children. three Gods. These tritheists and their A fourth Monophysite church is the Abysadherents, even in the eyes of the Mo- sinian, which receives its spiritual head nophysites, were the rankest heretics, from the Copts. (See Abyssinia.) Conand were the occasion of many Monophy- nected with the Monophysite controversy sites turning Catholics. In Égypt, Syria was the question started in the beginning of and Mesopotamia, the Monophysite con- the seventh century, whether, in Christ, the gregations, however, remained the strong- united divine and human nature had but est, had patriarchs at Alexandria and one, or two wills. This gave rise to a disAntioch, existing, without interruption, by pute, which the emperor Constans tried in the side of the imperial or orthodox patri- vain to appease, by his edict, called Typus. archs; and, after the Syrian, Jacob Bara- The decision of the Trullan council, at dæus, who died 588, had established their Constantinople, in 680, that there were



MONOPHYSITES-MONOPTERAL TEMPLES. iwo wills in Christ, because he had two sanctioned by the laws, not only of the natures, made the Monothelites (advocates U. States, but of all countries that have of the doctrine of one will) heretics, but made any advances in the arts, namely, could not prevent the formation, from their the exclusive right of an invention or imremains of the sect of the Maronites. (q. v.) provement for a limited number of years.

MONOPOLY is an exclusive right, secured The exclusive right of an author to the to one or more persons, to carry on some publication of his own work, is hardly a branch of trade or manufacture, in con- monopoly, but rather a right of property, tradistinction to a freedom of trade or resting upon the same principle as the manufacture enjoyed by all the world, or right to lands or chattels. The law, thereby all the subjects of a particular country. fore, by giving an author the exclusive Thus the East India trade is a monopoly right to the publication of his own work, in England, as far as it is confined, by for a limited number of years, makes no law, to the East India company, though grant; it is only allowing him what is his foreigners are allowed to trade to the own, for a limited time. But the excluBritish East Indies; but the West India sive right to the use of an invention or trade, as far as it is open to all British improvement, is a monopoly, since it de. subjects

, is not a monopoly, though for- prives others, for that period, of the eigners may be (as they, indeed, hereto- chance of the advantage of making the fore have been) excluded from it. The same improvement, discovery or invenmost frequent monopolies, formerly grant- tion themselves. It is taking away a right ed in Europe, were the right of trading to which they before had. The reason for certain foreign countries, the right of im- this is, the encouragement of inventions porting or exporting certain articles, and and improvements, in the policy of which that of exercising particular arts or trades, all the world concur. This is the only in certain towns or boroughs. These kind of monopoly recognised in the t. species of monopoly are now generally States, and the only one generally acunderstood to be injurious. They still knowledged, in Europe, to be useful and subsist, however, to a very considerable expedient. extent in Europe, but they have never MONOPTERAL TEMPLES. (See Archibeen introduced into the U.States. There tecture, vol. I, p. 341.) is, however, one species of monopoly


Louis XII, king of France from 1498 to mother, Valentina Visconti, to the duchy 1515, called by his subjects le père du peuple, of Milan, against Louis Sforza, called Moro was born in 1462. Before his accession to (see Sforza), he sent, in 1499, an army the throne, which took place after the death over the Alps, which conquered the of Charles VIII, he was duke of Orleans, duchy of Milan within twelve days; after and first prince of the blood. The lessons which Genoa also surrendered to him. of his German mother, Mary of Cleves, In vain did Louis Moro attempt to mainand the misfortunes which he underwent tain himself by the assistance of the Swiss ; at a later period, corrected the faults of he was taken prisoner, in 1500, at Novara, his education, which had been purposely and died, in 1510, in confinement at neglected, in compliance with the will Loches in France. In 1500, Louis XII of Louis XI. (9. v.) On ascending the concluded a treaty with Ferdinand the throne, he pardoned the wrongs which he Catholic, by which the kingdom of Nahad suffered before his accession. “ The ples was divided between them. King king of France,” said he, “must not Frederic of Naples proceeded to France, revenge the injuries done to the duke of where Louis gave him a considerable Orleans." He showed himself grateful to- annuity. But Ferdinand possessed himward his friends. The ambitious Georges self of the whole kingdom of Naples, and d'Amboise, his minister, archbishop of retained it by the treaty of 1505, Louis Rouen and cardinal legate, enjoyed his had promised to marry his daughter full confidence. After the death of this Claude to the grandson of the German minister, in 1510, Louis took the reins emperor, Charles of Luxemburg, afterhimself. He reëstablished discipline in wards Charles V (q. v.), and to give her the army, and brought the turbulent stu- Brittany, Burgundy and Milan as a dowry. dents of Paris to order-a task which was But the estates assembled in 1506 at not without difficulty, on account of their Tours, begged on their knees the father great number, and the privileges which of his people, as they called him, to marry they enjoyed. He much improved the his daughter to Francis, count of Angouadministration of justice, lessened the lème, of the family of Valois. Louis taxes, and would never consent to in- consented; the estates declared the first crease them, though he was engaged in contract of marriage void, and contrary to many wars. The expense of these he the fundamental laws of the realm, and supplied by making a number of offices Francis married Claude. Louis now devenal, and selling some crown estates. voted himself particularly to the education He united the duchy of Brittany for ever of this prince, who was to succeed him with the crown, by marrying, in 1499, the (see Francis I), but at first with so little widow of Charles VIII, the beautiful success, that on one occasion he sorrowAnne, duchess of Brittany, the object of fully exclaimed, “ Nous travaillons en vain ; his love even before his separation from ce gros garçon gâtera tout. The league the excellent, but extremely plain Jeanne, of Cambray (see League), established by daughter of Louis XI, whom he had been pope Julius II against Venice, in 1508, forced to marry, and who had borne him involved France in a new war. Louis no children. In order to enforce the now commanded the army in person, and rights which he inherited from his grand- was victorious over the Venetians, an

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