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Direct. viii. “Be painful in your honest callings.' Laziness breedeth a love of sports; when you must please your slothful flesh with ease, then it must be further pleased with vanities. Direct. 1x. “Delight in your relations and family duties and mercies.” If you love the company and converse of your parents, or children, or wives, or kindred as you ought, you will find more pleasure in discoursing with them about holy things or honest business, than in foolish sports. But adulterers that love not their wives, and unnatural parents and children that love not one another, and ungodly masters of families, that love not their duty, are put to seek their sport abroad. Direct. x. ‘See to the sanctifying of all your recreations: when you have chosen such as are truly suited to your need; and go not to them before you need, nor use them beyond your need. See also that you lift up your hearts secretly to God, for his blessing on them; and mix them all along as far as you can with holy things; as with holy thoughts or holy speeches. As for music, which is a lawful pleasure, I have known some think it profaneness to use it privately or publicly with a psalm, that scrupled not using it in common mirth: when as all our mirth should be as much sanctified as is possible. All should be done to the glory of God: and we have much more in Scripture for the holy use of music (public and private), than for any other use of it whatever. And it is the excellency of melody and music, that they are recreations which may be more aptly and profitably sanctified by application to holy uses, than any other. And I should think them little worth at all, if I might not use them for the holy exhilarating or elevating of my soul, or affecting it towards God, or exciting it to duty. Direct. x 1. ‘The sickly and the melancholy (who are usually least inclined to sport) have much more need of recreation than others, and therefore may allow it a much larger time than those that are in health and strength.” Because they take it but as physic to recover them to health, being to abate again when they are recovered. Direct. x11. “Be much more severe in regulating yourselves in your recreations, than in censuring others for
using some sports which you mislike.” For you know not WOL. III. S s
perhaps their case, and reasons, and temptations: but an idle, time-wasting, sensual sporter, every one should look on with pity as a miserable wretch.
Directions against Apparel, and against the Sin therein committed.
Direct. 1. ‘Fit Ness is the first thing to be respected in your apparel to make it answer the end to which it is appointed.” The ends of apparel are, 1. To keep the body warm. 2. To keep it from being hurt. 3. To adorn it soberly so far as beseemeth the common dignity of human nature, and the special dignity of your places. 4. To hide those parts, which nature hath made your shame, and modesty commandeth you to cover. The fitness of apparel consisteth in these things: 1. That it be fitted to your bodies (as your shoe to your foot, your hat to your head, &c.) 2. That it be suited to your sex; that men wear not apparel proper to women, nor wo– men that which is proper to men. 3. That it be suited to your age : the young and the old being usually hereby somewhat distinguished. 4. That it be suited to your estate, or not above it. 5. That it be suited to your place or office. 6. That it be suited to your use and service. As, 1. To cover your nakedness so far as health, or modesty, or decency require. 2. To keep you from cold. 3. And from hurt in your labour (as the shoe doth the foot, the glove the hand, &c.) 4. For sober ornament, as aforesaid. Direct. 11. ‘Among the ends and uses of apparel the greatest is to be preferred: the ornament being the least, is not to be pretended against any of the rest.” Therefore they that for ornament, 1. Will go naked, in any part which should be covered; or 2. Will go coldly to the hurt and hazard of their health (as our semi-Evites, or half-naked gallants do). 3. Or will either hurt our bodies (as our strait-laced fashionists), or disable themselves from their labour, or travel, or fit exercise, lest they should be hurt by their clothes which are fitted more to sight than use, all these cross the ends of clothing. Direct. 111. ‘Affect not singularity in your apparel; that is, to be odd and observably distinct from all those of your own rank and quality: unless their fashions be evil and intolerable (in pride, immodesty, levity, &c.), and then your singularity is your duty.’ An unnecessary affectation of singularity sheweth, 1. A weakness of judgment. 2. A pride of that which you affect. 3. And a placing of duty in things indifferent. And on the contrary, an imitating of proud, or immodest fashions, l. Encourageth others in the sin. 2. Sheweth a carnal, proud, or temporizing mind, that will displease God himself to humour men, and avoid their contempt and disesteem. Direct. iv. “Run not into sordid vileness, or nastiness, or ridiculous, humourous, squalid fashions, under pretence of avoiding pride.” For, 1. This will betray a great weakness of judgment. 2. It will make your judgment, to men that discern it, the more contemptible and useless to them in other things. 3. It will harden them in the excess while they think nothing but humour, folly or superstition doth reprove them. 4. You sin by dishonouring human nature. God hath put a special honour upon man, and would have us do so ourselves: and therefore hath appointed clothing since the fall: as nakedness, so over-sordid, or ridiculous clothing, wrongeth God in his creature. Direct. v. “But be much more suspicious of pride and excess in apparel as the more common and dangerous extreme.” For nature is incomparably more prone to this, than the other ; and many hundreds, if not thousands sin in excess, for one that sinneth in the defect: and this way of sinning is more perilous. Here I shall shew you, 1. How pride in apparel appeareth. 2. What is the sinfulness of it. 1. Pride appeareth in apparel, when the matter of it is too costly. 2. When in the fashion you are desirous to be imitating those that are above your estate or rank; and when you so fit your apparel, as to make you seem some higher or richer person than you are. 3. When you are over curious in the matter, shape or dress, and make a greater matter of it than you ought: as if your comeliness were a more desirable thing than it is, or as if some meanness or disliked fashion were intolerable. 4. When your curiosity taketh up more time in dressing you, than is due to so small a matter, while far greater matters are neglected. 5. When you make too great a difference between your private and your public habit: going plain when no strangers see you, and being excessively careful when you go abroad, or when strangers visit you. These shew that pride which consisteth in a desire to appear either richer or comelier than you are. Besides these, there is a pride which maketh men desirous to seem more learned than they are: which sheweth itself in affecting as the titles, so the habits of the learned: which hath some aggravations above the former. And there is a pride which consisteth in a desire to seem more grave and reverend than you are: thus Christ blameth the Pharisees’ affectation of long garments: when you shall wear a habit of more gravity than you have, it is hypocrisy. And there is a pride which consisteth in a desire to seem more mortified than you are, and more holy ; and so to affect those discriminating vestments which signify more of these than you have, is proud hypocrisy: and thus vile clothing is often the effect of pride. And if men fall into that sort of pride, as to desire to be noted as most mortified persons, this is as suitable a badge for them, as bravery is for those that are proud of their comeliness, and grave clothing of those that are proud of their gravity. Quest. 1. “But may we as easily discern this sort of pride in clothing as the other?' Answ. No : because the mean, and plain, and cheap clothing is commonly worn by persons really mortified and sober, and necessarily by the poor, and grave clothing by persons that are really grave : and therefore we are bound to judge them to be that, which they seem by their apparel to be, unless by some other evidences than their apparel, their pride and hypocrisy appear: but when we judge a person vain that weareth vain clothing, and proud of their comeliness that are inordinately careful in setting it out, we judge but according to the first and proper signification of their clothing. Hypocrisy is a thing unseen to man. It is the visible signs according to their proper significations that we must judge by. And therefore when we see persons wear vain and curious attire, we may judge thereby that they are vain and curious: and if we be mistaken, it is long of them that signified it: and when we see persons wear grave or humble clothing, we must judge by it that they are grave and humble, till the contrary appear.
Quest. 11. “But how else will pride of gravity or mortifiedness appear?' Answ. When they boast of these in themselves, and are insolent in censuring and reproaching those that differ from them ; when their discourse is more against those fashions which they avoid, than against any faults of their own; when they affect to be singular in their apparel, even from the grave and humble persons of their rank: but especially when they make a noise and stir in the world with their fashions, to be taken notice of, and to become eminent, and persons talked of and admired for their mortified garb. Thus many sects amongst the Popish friars go by agreement or vow in clothes so differing from all other persons in seeming humility and gravity, which must be the badge of their order in the eye of the world, that the boast and affectation is visible and professed. And thus the Quakers that by the notoriety of their difference from other sober persons, and by their impudent bawling in the streets and churches, and railing against the holiest and humblest ministers and people that are not of their sect, and this in the face of markets and congregations, do make a plain profession or detection of their pride. But where it is not openly revealed, we cannot judge it. Quest. 111. “Is it not lawful for a person that is deformed, to hide their deformity by their clothing? And for any persons to make themselves (by clothing, or spots, or painting) to seem to others as comely and beautiful as they can o' Answ. The person, and the matter, and the end and reasons, the principle and the probable consequents, must all be considered for the right answering this question. It is lawful to some persons, by some means, for good ends and reasons, when a greater evil is not like to follow it, to hide their deformities, and to adorn themselves so as to seem more comely than they are: but for other persons, by evil means, for evil ends and reasons, or when it tendeth to evil consequents, it is unlawful. 1. A person that is naturally deformed, may do more to hide it by their ornaments, than one that hath no such deformity may do to seem more comely: because one aspireth no higher than to seem somewhat like other persons; but the other aspireth to seem excellent above others. And a person that is under government, may do more in obedience to their governors, than any other may do that is at their own choice. 2. If the matter of their or