« הקודםהמשך »
come deep with mud. Whatever the object of this excavation may have been, the presence of these numerous fragments of Roman pottery, both above and below the layer of stone, justify us, I think, in allotting it to the Roman period. Outside, and 200 yards north of the angle formed by the two banks, were found, nine years ago, two square, solidly-built stone wells, the walls resting on wooden frames. For their careful examination I again availed myself of the assistance of Mr. Irvine, whose technical as well as archæological knowledge I felt would be of special value in determining the age to which they belonged. He satisfied himself that these wells were Roman work, and he made the drawings which are on the table.
A workman employed in the work which led to the uncovering and destruction of these wells, said that he had found fragments of Roman pottery in the bottom of one of them; but as he could not point out these fragments among others, which with coins had been taken from the soil around, I cannot vouch for the truth of his statement. The embankments and trenches, the wells, and the pit in which the fragments of pottery are found are the only structural remains of the “Castrum Æstivum, if such it were, which have been brought to light ; but the numerous skeletons, the coins, and the personal ornaments found, have been held by competent judges to confirm the theory that this was the site of a summer camp. At least forty skeletons have been found in the space from which the limestone has been dug out, outside the eastern bank and north-east angle of the inclosure, but no relics except shreds of pottery and a few coins were found with them. Outside the northern vallum comparatively few skeletons have been exhumed, but with them have usually been found personal ornaments and other interesting objects. The bones are wonderfully preserved; the skeleton, a photograph of which, as it lay in the ground, is on the table, was almost perfect, and the various objects obtained from the graves are many of them quite so; the brooch-pins still attached and in working order, the ornamental details still distinct. Mr. Bodger is exhibiting a large number of coins and other
interesting objects, taken out twelve years since from an excavation 300 yards nearer the river, but within the angle formed by the two banks; and I have coins, a bangle, and other objects from the same spot. These are, no doubt, relics of the same settlement to which all the other objects I have described pertain ; the total area of the space where these remains have been discovered is about 800 yards long and 300 wide. Perhaps the most interesting, because the most unique, of Mr. Bodger's contribution to the exhibition are the tiles which it is conjectured may have formed part of a grave. One of the skeletons found near the north bank of the inclosure was
that of a body buried in a wooden coffin, as surrounding it were the iron nails which had held the wood together. Many of the skeletons were found in, or closely adjoining, a trench shown on the plan running to the north of, but not parallel with, the bank of this trench (Plate V is a section). The beautiful design of some of the ornaments will commend itself to those who examine them ; but I must especially draw your attention to the little
equestrian figure of a knight or hero (Plate VI), which is unique, inasmuch as no other Roman statuette representing a mounted horseman, or indeed a horse, has been found in Great Britain. Rough and shapeless as is the figure of the