« הקודםהמשך »
W. DE GRAY Birch, Esq., V.-P., F.S.A., ETC., IN THE CHAIR.
The following Members were duly elected :
Miss Bentley, 100, Oxford and Cambridge Mansions, N.W.
Thanks were ordered by the Council to be returned to the donors of the following presents for the library :To the Sussex Archæological Society for “ Archæological Collections,”
vol. xlii, 1899. Royal Archäological Institute for “ Journal,” June, 1899,
vol. ii, No. 2.
Cambrensis," July, 1899.
Magazine,” June, 1899.
tember, 1899. Bristol and Gloucester Archäological Society for “Trans
actions," vol. xxi, Part II.
Livr. II, Avril, 1899.
• Feet of Fines for Essex,” 1899.
To the Cambridge Antiquarian Society for “Parker MS.," by M. R.
James, M.D., 1899.
1900 ; “ Journal,” vol. vi, 1st and 4th quarterly parts.
A paper was read by Mr. C. H. Compton, « On the Recent Discoveries at the Tower of London.” He said these discoveries were made last spring in the course of excavations for the new buildings for the use of the garrison, and include a quantity of stone, lead and iron shot embedded in masonry ; a flask of wine, supposed to be canary; many paving-tiles, a block of Roman masonry, and four lengths of the flue of a hypocaust. At the time of the discovery it was suggested that the shot were relics of Sir Thomas Wyatt's rebellion in the first year of Queen Mary's reign (1553), but an examination of the contemporary historians, Holinshed, Grafton and Stow, shows conclusively that Wyatt never attacked the Tower, and that Harrison Ainsworth's account in his Tower of London of the siege by Wyatt was purely imaginary, and that the shot were more probably the result of the attack on the Tower by the Earls of March, Salisbury, and Warwick in 1460, during the Wars of the Roses. The latter supposition was rather strengthened by an examination of one of the cast-iron shot (brought with some of the other relics for exhibition), which bears, sunken within a circle, but somewhat defaced, the letter H, surmounted by a crown. This might identify the shot as belonging to the reign of Henry VI. The shot is of cast-iron, about the size of a cricket ball. The Roman remains discovered were partly on the site of the Cold Harbour Tower, on the south-west side of the White Tower; and, taken in conjunction with the portion of the Roman wall which was discovered near by in 1881 on the south-east, are a valuable confirmation of the tradition that there was a Roman occupation of the site of the present Tower of London. The relics were found at a depth of 9 ft. 6 in. below the surface, and about 16 ft. west of the White Tower
Mr. Allen S. Walker read a paper upon the “Guildhall Porch,” in the course of which he said a Guildhall was thought to have been in existence in the time of Edward the Confessor; if so, it was situated most probably in Aldermanbury, where the Guildhall was prior to the fifteenth century. The arms of the Confessor figure in the crypt and porch of the Guildhall. The present building was commenced in 1411, and completed in 1437. The porch was built in 1425-6. The Great Fire of 1666 left the walls of the great hall standing ; also the porch, which is a fine specimen of Perpendicular Gothic, having panelled walls and groined and vaulted roof, the filling in between the ribs being of chalk. The bosses at the intersections of the ribs bear the arms of Edward the Confessor and Henry VI. At the present time the porch may be seen in much the same condition as it was left after the Great Fire, the stonework showing distinctly the marks of the flames. It is to be hoped that the contemplated
restoration,” at an estimated cost of £250, will not obliterate these interesting memorials. It is said that during the fire the interior of the porch burned “like a bright shining coale, as if it had been a palace of gold, or a great building of burnished brass."
Mrs. Collier submitted for exhibition a boxwood nutmeg-grater, nicely carved in the form of a lady's shoe, the sole being of metal, forming the scraper. It is of foreign make, and of the latter half of the last century.
Mr. G. Patrick, Hon. Secretary, announced that Mr. C. Lynam had accepted the office of Hon. Treasurer of the Association, vacated by the resignation of Mr. Blashill.
The Rev. H. J. D. Astley, Hon. Sec., gave a brief résumé of the antiquarian discoveries during the recess.
WEDNESDAY, NOVEMBER 15TH.
Thos. BLASHILL, Esq., V.-P., in the Chair.
S. W. Kershaw, Esq., F.S.A., The Library, Lambeth Palace.
Honorary Corresponding Member :
Rev. C. J. Cox, M.A., L.L.D., F.S.A. Mr. A. 0. Collard exhibited several interesting objects recently discovered, and read some notes descriptive of them. One of the most curious was the iron point of a broken spearhead, which was found in August last embedded in an inch plank of Honduras mahogany, by one of the employés of Messrs. Tims and Sons, boat-builders, of Staines. The plank was 2 ft. wide and 28 ft. long, one of a log already sawn up for use by them in boat-building. The object was first noticed in making a cross-cut with the saw, there being no external evidence whatsoever on the plank to show the iron was buried in it. Oxidized fragments of the wood still adhere tightly to the iron. The head, as found, measures 4, ins. long, 2 ins. wide, and about } in. in thickness.
Other exhibits comprised a spear-head of bronze, dredged up from the Thames at Staines; Alint implements from Beauvais ; a Dutch pocket tinder-box (shaped like a nutmeg) and steel; and a portion of the oak casing, with oak pulley-wheels, of a window-sash from Hayes Place House, Kent, date 1694.
The Rev. R. I. Woodhouse exhibited a curious collection of articles, all found recently and close together in the grounds of the rectory at Merstham, in Surrey. They consisted of Roman pottery and coins and the ashes of a Roman burial ; mingled with bits of swords, iron spear-heads, and pottery of medieval date; also a coin of James I, of the Tun mint.
Mr. Fisher exhibited a moidore, dated 1797, one of the last coins on which the kings of England claimed to be kings of France.
A paper by Mr. Cann Hughes, entitled, “Notes of a Ramble in Devon,” was read by the hon. editorial secretary, the Rev. H. J. D. Astley.
WEDNESDAY, DECEMBER 6TH.
C. H. COMPTON, Esq., V.-P., IN THE CHAIR.
The following member was duly elected :
Chas. J. Smilter, Esq., Crescent Hotel, Buxton. Mr. R. Quick, curator of the Horniman Museum, read an interesting paper upon “ The Eolithic Age,” which was illustrated by diagrams and a large number of specimens of flint implements. Mr. Quick said it was the opinion of many archæologists, some eighteen or twenty years ago, that the Palæolithic Age was the most ancient period yielding decisive proofs of the existence of man. Since then great discoveries have been made, and most scientific men now divide the Stone Age into three epochs, respectively : 1st “The Eolithic, or Dawn of the Stone Age;" 2nd, "The Paleolithic, or Early Stone Age;" and 3rd, “The Neolithic, or Later Stone Age." Upon the plateaux of North Kent, some twenty or thirty miles distant from London, at heights varying from 400 ft. to 800 ft. above the sea level, many thousands of specimens of flint implements have been discovered, carefully collected and classified by Mr. Harrison, of Ightham. They differ in type from the implements found in the river-drift gravels, and from the polished tools of the later Stone Age. A noticeable feature of difference between the types is the absence of the large massive implements common to the Palæolithic period. The implements found on the plateau are mostly of small size, and fitted for use without a haft; the heads also are generally worked round the edges, so that they could be used in different positions and on all sides. The Eolithic implements may be termed the prototypes of the later implements. Early man did not consider form of importance; he wanted something that he could hand-grip and use as an edged tool. Nature probably suggested the form most suitable amongst these flints for his purpose, and a little working of his own upon them gave him all he needed for his simple habits. Many of these implements are naturally split flints, which have been worked on one side only, the chipping or working being generally of a character such as could not have been produced by accident or by natural causes; and this chipping appears always on the side opposite to a good hand-grip, which fact must have been an important consideration to Primitive Man.