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who died in 1246, bore his ancestral Arms, a silver Shield, thereon six sable Horse-shoes. His son, William, 7th Earl, changed this to vair, gold and gules, on a bordure azure eight Horse-shoes argent, the vair being the Peveril coat-of-arms. Then Robert, 8th Earl, dropped the border and bore the vair, pur et simple ; and subsequently the vair was rejected for the Quincey coat of seven golden mascles on a gules field. This is but one example to show how, before the institution of the Heralds' College, the use of Armorial bearings was very much in the hands of individuals. Of course great confusion took place, to remedy which that College was established by Royal Warrant, and became the Fountain of Honour for England, its Head being Earl Marshall, and its officers the three Kings of Arms, with the Heralds and their Poursuivants. The constitutions of the Scotch and Irish Colleges are of later date, the Head of the former being Lyon King, that of the latter Ulster King, who is always knighted. Each has unlimited power within his own jurisdiction in the matter of granting new Arms, reviving and confirming old Arms; and, in the case of Scotland, granting to cadets of Armiger families the right to use their paternal Arms with a difference. For herein does the Scottish Armorial law differ from that of the English and Irish Colleges. By the latter, all the male descendants of an Armiger bear his Arms, with, of course, cadency marks for the younger sons. In Scotland, it is only the eldest son who requires no permission to bear his father's Arms. The younger sons must, if they wish to bear the paternal Arms, apply to Lyon King for permission to do so. This can be done at a small cost-a few guineas—and without difficulty when the pedigree is clear : and is called Matriculation. Without Matriculation no member of any Scotch Armiger family, save the Head of the House, can use the family Arms. Our author explains this very clearly, and gives copies of Matriculation grants.

Ulster King's special power of confirming by Patent Arms ancestrally and traditionally borne, is also clearly set forth and exemplified by recent cases.

There can be no possible excuse, then, for any person qualified to bear Arms, but possessing no ancient feudal right, or more recent Patent from one of the Colleges to do so, for not legalizing his right by proving his descent from an Armiger ancestor. In Ireland, where baptismal registers are of comparatively modern institution, and at first were very incomplete and incorrect, he should prove the use of Armorial bearings for at least three generations or one hundred years. And it is to urge on such persons the necessity and propriety of doing so which is one of the main theses of “ X's” book. In this he has our

hearty sympathy. He is pleading the cause of honesty and Armigerial probity against that of the parvenu soi-disant Armiger, who, by paying half-a-crown to some "heraldic stationer," procures a brummagem shield and crest to plaster on his note-paper and coach-panels, or carve on his electro-plated spoons and cheap signet-ring.

“X” reminds us that while Peers are Nobiles Majores, Armigers are Nobiles Minores, and the Patent conferred on the latter by the Crown through its Kings of Arms has as much honourable validity as the Patent conferring a Peerage. This nobility is recognised on the Continent of Europe, where the laws of Armoury have not been trampled upon as they have been in England. The good old time has passed away for us when a knowledge of Heraldry and Genealogy was a part of the ordinary education of a gentleman. Every good English dictionary-for instance, one lying before us, Bailey's of 1727—-had its Heraldic words, and no others, illustrated by wood-cuts, so important did it deem such words. It is pleasant to see a modern renaissance of the old science, as evidenced by the numerous works on Heraldry now published. It remained for “X” to speak out boldly against the illegitimate application of the science, through the use of bogus coatsof-arms and crests, by large numbers of Englishmen: from men in high position down to the parvenu, who, having made some money and risen--bien entenduin the social scale, invents or appropriates a crest and coat: the inventor being his stationer or coach-painter. Risum teneatis, amici! We remember “X’s" articles in the Saturday Review, to which he refers in his Dedication of this book, and we can commend them to the perusal of any of our readers who may wish for detailed confirmation of our author's statements. Before closing this review we must not, however, forget to note the important fact that anyone may convey his coat-of-arms to anyone else, just as he may any other goods and chattels. This is well brought out by Dr. W. de Gray Birch in his paper on “Some Private Grants of Armorial Bearings,” Journal of the British Archaeological Association, vol. xlvii, pp. 323-326.

Quid multa ? Want of space prevents us from remarking further on this admirable little work. It should find a place among the books of every gentleman. Its price is not more than that of a bottle of wine or a few cigars, which to-day are but to morrow are not ; whereas this book is a lasting source of intellectual delight: one to which we might almost apply the poet's words :

• quod nec Jovis ira, nec ignes,

Nec poterit ferrum, nec edax abolere vetustas.” We cannot better end our remarks than by transferring from "X's" title-page the following words of the late Herald Planche:

“Surely even those who affect the greatest contempt for Heraldry will admit that, if Arms are to be borne at all, it should be according to the laws of Arms."

Scottish Kings ; a revised Chronology of Scottish History, 1005-1625. By Sir Archibald H. Dunbar, Bart. (Edinburgh : D. Douglas, 1899.)

- It is surprising how few of us, who as antiquaries and archæologists study English medieval history, know much about the history of Scotland during the period covered by this useful book. The author has gone far to render our study of Scottish history precise and accurate, by giving tables of the kings' reigns after the manner employed by Nicolas in his Chronology of History; the royal pedigrees and tables of marriage, calendars of Scottish and other saints' days, and maps of the ancient kingdoms of Alban and Scotia, the dioceses of the kingdom, and of the ancient divisions or districts. The work will be very acceptable to all students of Scottish history and diplomatics, and must take a place side by side with Nicolas's book above mentioned, which devotes very little of its contents to consideration of Scotland. Documents relating to Scotland are, it is true, considerably rare to meet with in these South British latitudes, and when met with they frequently offer difficulties in the way of rightly ascertaining the true dates; hence the utility of being provided with a reliable chronology, such as that now before us. We have tested its accuracy in several instances, and found it correct. The feature of introducing short paragraphs descriptive of prominent political events taking place during the several reigns, is one which strongly recommends itself; it has the additional advantage of making the work more interesting to the casual reader, as well as more valuable to the student. The copious notes show how widely the author has consulted the numerous authorities for Scottish historical detail. We wish he had given some plates of seals, and a page or so of facsimiles of royal signatures. These things, like portraits, go so far to bring before us a vivid appreciation of the times of the kings.

Book Auctions in England in the Seventeenth Century (1676-1700). By John LAWLER. (London : Elliot Stock, 1898.)-The book-lover will “browse" with some pleasure in Mr. John Lawler's little volume, the latest addition to the “ Book-Lover's Library.” He will also, if we may pursue the figure, chew the cud of bitter fancies before he reaches the end. For Book Auctions in the Seventeenth Century tells of treasures going for little or almost nothing at the “Pelican,” in historic Little Britain, and elsewhere; e.g., Shakspeare's first folio went off for 148. in 1687, and that only because it was a folio. Genuine British Bibliomania was not born till long after 1676, in which year Mr. W. Cooper, taking a leaf out of the book of the Elzevirs, opened the first English book-sale, that of Dr. Seaman's library, in Warwick Lane. Theology then and later loomed largest in the world of bookauctions ; belles lettres had a poor place or none, far behind that of occult science, for example ; and among the seven hundred volumes or so which an auctioneer, as a rule, would dispose of in a day, the works of the Elizabethans and their successors made an inconsiderable show. Millington, the friend and often the street-guide of Milton, has a pleasant place in the record, for his facetiousness and resource as an auctioneer were pronounced, and his prefaces to catalogues were looked upon, in a way, as New Humour of the seventeenth century. The very names of the scores of forgotten volumes in Mr. Lawler's pages have a mellow and old-world air. Mr. Lawler keeps largely to the modest provinces of prices, dates, names and prefaces, but a pleasant and piquant essay could be founded on his facts. For the graver kind of reviewer, the volume has the pensive stimulation which a churchyard tour may be said to possess at times for most Christians; though the author makes one or two capital points of a more cheerful nature, tending to show that our ancestors of two hundred years ago were better read, and appreciated books more generally, than we are apt to give them credit for. Had Lord Macaulay, for example, who was familiar with the mass of pamphlet-literature of the period, been also acquainted with the catalogues of book-auctions, some of his remarks on the dissemination of literature, and the libraries of the country clergy, in his essay on the State of England at the Death of Charles II, would, we fancy, have been somewhat modified. Indeed, the capacity and love of reading amongst the country people of that time must have been larger than is generally thought : since a catalogue was issued in 1685 of Bibles, Testaments, Psalms in metre, and Bible histories, in which the country clergy are invited specially to buy at low prices for distribution amongst their parishioners. Many similarly interesting particulars are contained in Mr. Lawler's carefully written "Introduction.” Very few mistakes disfigure the book, but we must draw attention to a curious series of errors in regard to the date of the sale of Dr. F. Bernard's great library, in order that they may be corrected in any

future edition. In the table of contents the date of this sale is stated to he“ 1686," as it is also in the heading to chapter iv, p. 185. But on p. 201 it is printed 4th October, 1688, and on pp. xxxv and 224 (in the Catalogue), it is stated to have taken place in 1698. Moreover, there is a confusion in the index between Dr. E. Bernard, Savile Professor of Astronomy at Oxford, whose library was sold by Millington in 1697, and Dr. F. Bernard, Fellow of the College of Physicians.

The true date of Dr. F. Bernard's sale appears to be 4th October, 1698. But these are slight errors in an otherwise very accurate book, and one which every book-lover should possess.

Old English Social Life as told by the Parish Registers. By T. F. THISELTON-DYER, M.A. Oxon. (London : Elliot Stock, 68.)—Mr. Thiselton-Dyer has produced an interesting book, but it would have been more useful had he been careful to give exact references in every case to the sources from which he has derived the facts which he has grouped so carefully. To tell his readers that a tract issued in 1572 censures the practice of the clergy encouraging stage plays in churches, is to cause the student hours of trouble which in the end may be rewarded by disappointment. Most of the compiler's materials have probably been derived from printed sources, but some of the facts stated have, we think, come direct from the manuscripts. The hook will, we trust, be widely read; and, if so, it must cause many to take more interest than they do at present in documents which in many cases are the sole record that has come down to us of old parish life. There are few people now so ignorant as to esteem parish registers as of little more account than waste paper : such, for example, as the parish clerk and schoolmaster who used to bind the children's primers in the parchment leaves of the old registers of the parish, or the sporting parson who used to cut his into labels for the game he sent his friends! The numbers that have been carefully edited in recent years indicate that the point of view regarding them has changed; but there are still those who advocate the printing of selections onlythinking, we presume, that the family histories of the poor can be of no interest. We can have no sympathy with this. Many of those English men and women of whom we have the most reason to be proud have been of peasant origin, and so mixed is our race that there are few of us who have not sprung from very humble ancestors. The parochial registers form, in most cases, the only record we have of the working classes; while the genealogies of those in the upper and middle ranks ought to be capable of proof from independent sources, such as wills, title-deeds, and in modern times from newspapers also. It must never be forgotten that these documents are important for other reasons as well as mere genealogy. The anthropologist finds them serviceable, for they are almost the only sources, except manor court

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