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1884, January 16th.—“On Remains found in an Anglo-Saxon Tumulus at

Taplow, Bucks." 1888, November 21st.—“Early British Cemetery at Dummer, Hants." 1893, August 3rd.—“The Discovery of a Saxon Burial-place near Reading.”

The Doctor also wrote several books. His magnum opus was his Parochial History of St. Mary Bourne, with an Account of Hurstborne Priors, Hants. This was published in 1888. His other works included :

Flint Implements and Fossils of St. Mary Bourne.
Geological Notices of North Hampshire.
Flint Works at Cissbury.
Pit Dwellings and other Early Human Habitations.
Sarsens, Greywethers, or Druid Stones.
The Inn Signs of Ilampshire and their probable Origin.
Flint Jack : a Short History of a Notorious Forger of Antiquitics.
Descriptive Catalogue of the Ethnological Collection of the Reading Muscum.

There is a portrait of him in the Illustrated London News of April 15th.

ARCHÆOLOGICAL INTELLIGENCE.

Editor's Note. – A considerable amount of matter intended for this department of the Journal is held over for want of space.

THE JOURNAL

OF THE

British Archaeological Association.

SEPTEMBER 1899.

AN ESSEX CHURCH TOWER.

BY ARTHUR COURTENAY ROBERTS, VICAR OF DUNMOW.

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(Read January 18th, 1889.) O one travelling on the high road, either

from Bishops' Stortford or Chelmsford, on the way to Cambridge through Dunmow, Thaxted, and Saffron Walden, can pass by unheeded, when he reaches Dunmow, the remains of an old Eliza

bethan house on the left. formerly the seat of the Beaumont family, and withdraws attention from the turning to the right, which leads to Church End, where the parish church of Great Dunmow now stands.

This noble structure consists of a chancel 57 ft. long by 22 ft. broad, a nave 73 ft. by 30 ft., a south aisle 77 ft. by 11 ft. 6 ins., a north aisle 74 ft. by 11 ft. 6 ins., a south porch 15 ft. 6 ins. by 10 ft., a side chapel on the south 33 ft. by 16 ft., and the tower, the subject of this paper, 15 ft. square, and 73 ft. 10 ins. high to the top of the battlements.

The theory I venture to assume is that the chancel was built for right of sanctuary, the tower and nave

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1899

14

being subsequently added. The Lady Chapel and St. John's Chapel are of a later date.

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In August, 1898, a partial restoration of the tower was commenced under the superintendence of Richard

Creed, Esq., the plaster was stripped off, and the original flint-work is now exposed.

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Eleanor, second daughter of Raymond, Earl of Provence.

Having the opportunity aftorded, when the scaffolding was up, of personally making a minute inspection of the building, I discovered in the label terminals of the north window, something which will, I believe, help to fix the probable date of erection of the church.

To the north of the church lies Bigod's Hall, and in the north window the label has such a striking resemblance to the engraving of Henry III in Rapin's History of England, fourth edition, 1757, vol. iii, that I assume that Roger Bigod was a large benefactor to the church. It appears to me to be natural that a man who owed so much to his sovereign, to whom, as Earl of Norfolk, in 1247, was granted the office of Earl Marshal, would

Roger Bigod, Earl of Norfolk.

Maud, Countess of Norfolk.

have the sculptured face of his patron opposite his estate. Assuming, of course, that this is the origin of Bigod's. On the south side, the terminal labels are the head of a man with pointed beard, slight moustache, and the lady with beautifully-chiselled features and tired with a wimple, whom I take to be Roger Bigod and Maud his wife. On the east window the terminal labels are those of a ram's head and a sheep's head, evidently emblematical of an ecclesiastical sacrificial symbolism, and on the west that of the lion and the leopard, representing the arms of England.

Lower down, on the old belfry floor windows north and south, are the symbolised representations of the four

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