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between the ascension of Christ and his writing, was almost equal to the life of an antediluvian : which induced Mill to place this author · as low as the middle of the tenth century; whereas he may be supposed to amplify beyond the truth. And in another place he speaks, as if there were still heathens, and the rights of Gentilism were still performed in the Roman empire: which, with other things, induced Montfaucon, who has carefully examined this work, to conclude it probable, that the author lived before the end of the sixth century.

II. The author seems to have been a bishop : but of what place, or of what country, is not known.

1. He wrote not in Greek, but, probably, in Latin, the language in which we have his work.

2. The author was an Arian: he plainly.condemns the Homoüsian doctrine, or the sect that believed three equal persons in the Deity, and of the same substance: where he compares them to heathen idolaters.

3. As this author often speaks very harshly of the Homoüsians, and others, whom he calls heretics, I think it not amiss to take some of those passages.

4. · All heretics, he says, are armies of antichrist, but especially that, which has seized the • place of the church, and stands in the holy place, so as to seem to have the word of truth, but • is indeed the abomination of desolation, and the army of antichrist, which has ruined many • souls. Insomuch that, perhaps, this is what the apostle means in those words : “ Who opposeth • and exalteth himself above all that is called God, or that is worshipped; so that he as God • sitteth in the temple of God, shewing himself that he is God.” 2 Thess. ii. 4.

5. The heresy of the Homoüsians, he says, persecutes not only the church of Christ, meaning the author's own church, but likewise all other heresies that differ from them.

6. He says, that ' his ancestors, of the same sect, had suffered greatly from heretics: meaning the Homoüsians. This he speaks of as a thing well known.

7. And now I shall transcribe below, somewhat at length, the passage before referred to, where the author complains of the proceedings in the reigns of Constantine and Theodosius.

8. • The Lord represents all heresies as briars and thorns; but especially the triangular impiety, which he foresaw would most prevail.in the world.'

9. · Heresies have the outward appearance of churches: but they are not churches, any • more than apes are men.'

* Jam ultra partem seculi decimi mediam provecti sumus patrum suorum Gentilium. Et illi enim tales Deos colebant, ... sub hæc tempora, Auctor Operis Imperfecti in Matthæum, qui secundum carnem et generabantur, et gererabant. Hom episcopus Latinus, quisquis ille (qui paulo ante etiam in evan- 45. p. 190. C. D. gelia Marci et Lucæ commentatus fuerat), homilias conscripsit & Exercitus autem Antichristi sunt omnes hæreses, præcipue in Matıhæum, ut apparet ex suo ipsius calculo. &c. Proleg. ista quæ obtinuit ecclesiæ locum, et stetit in savcto loco, ita n. 1037. Vid. eund. Proleg. n. 1360. et in Matth. vi. 13. ut videatur verbum veritatis stetisse, cum non sit verbum

Ut puta, si bene doceant Sacerdotes, et melius vivant, veritatis, sed abominatio desolationis, id est, exercitus Antividentes Gentiles dicunt: · Benedictus Deus, qui tales habet christi, qui multorum animas reddidit desolatas a Deo. Et ' servos.'. . . Nam disciplina domini ex moribus familiæ de- hoc est forte quod apostolus dicit : 'qui adversatur, et extollimonstratur. Non sicut nostri philosophi, qui magna loquun- ' tur supra omne quod dicitur Deus,' &c. Hom. 49. p. 202. tur, et nec modica faciunt. Hom. 10. p. 60. B.-Quos orant C. D. Gentiles, videamus, ut sciamus quare sic orant. Orant » Hæresis Homoüsianorum non solum Christi ecclesiæ addæmones, qui etsi audiunt, exaudire non possunt. .. orant versatur, sed et omnibus hæresibus non similiter sentientibus. reges mortuos, Jovem, Mercurium... cæterosque. ... Orant Hom. 48. p. 200. D. idola insensata. ... Hom. 13. p. 75. E. 76. A.

i Quanta passi sunt ab hæreticis patres nostri, nullus igno., c Ad hæc autem illa quæ de Theodosio Magno, et de tem. rat. Hom. 46. p. 194. D. pore subsequenti, de Gentilium Religione quasi adhuc vigente, * Et nos exposuimus bic auditiones præliorum, et fames, et deque Arianismo ecclesias, episcopos, atque presbyteros terræ motus....et concussiones Christianorum.... quæ ante passim habente. Hæc, inquam, omnia non ad nonum vel præcesserant a tempore Constantini usque ad tempus Theooctavum, imo vix ad septimum seculum referri posse viden- dosii. Abominationem autem desolationis diximus hanc hætur. Diatrib. ibid.

resim, quæ occupavit sanctæ ecclesize loca, et multos desolavit d Vid. Hom. 8. p. 54. B. Hom. 32. p. 133. A.

a fide, et ipsum exercitum Antichristi. ... intelligat esse omnia e Unde in Græco non dicit' Beati pauperes,' sed egeni; vel hæc mala spiritualia, quæ facta sunt tempore Constantini • beati mendici.' Hom. 9. p. 56. E.

simul et Theodosii nsque nunc. In Matth. xxiv. Hom. 49. . Consequenter et hæreticis dicitur hoc. Quando enim 202. E. vides hæreticos tres per omnia æquales dicentes, ejusdem esse Et verum est quidem, quia spinas et tribulos omnes substantiæ, ejusdem esse auctoritatis, sine principio omnes iniquos hæreticos appellavit. Tamen forsitan sciens Dominus .... Implent enim mensuram patrum suorum Gentilium, hanc hæresim prævalituram præ omnibus tribulos eos apellaquoniam et illi similiter multos deos colebant. Quando vides vit, quasi Trinitatis professores, ct triangulan impietatem in eos, tres unam personam dicentes, et ipsam esse Deum. ... suâ perfidiâ bajulantes. Hom. 19. p. 95. D. Quando vides eos confitentes, ac dicentes, quia Filius de ipsa m Quoniami et simia homivis habet membra, et per omnia Patris substantiâ processit. . . cognosce, quia mensuram implent hominem imitatur, numquid propterea dicenda est homo? 1. He has quoted most or all the books of the Old Testament: particularly " the book of Ruth, and the Canticles. Sic et hæresis omnia ecclesiàe habet et imitatur mysteria. Sed 'Serpentes enim sunt et omnes hæretici, prudentes in malo, non sunt ecclesiæ. Hom. 19. p. 93. C.

10. · Heretics - are worse than heathens : for heathens blaspheme Christ ignorantly; • heretics, knowingly, oppose the true doctrine of Christ.' He speaks to the like purpose in another place.

11. • As a member cut off from the body cannot live, in like manner all heretics cut off • from the body of the one church, cannot have the life of Christ, nor any spiritual good things. • But their church is deserted, not by men indeed, for it abounds with evil men, who are always • the most; but it is deserted by all good men, and by God himself, and all the things that are of God.'

12. Explaining the parable of the virgins in Matth. xxv. he says: • The foolish virgins are • such as have the faith entire, but want works of righteousness. Whereas Jews and heretics · have not faith, nor works; nor can have them: and if they had the oil of works, it could not * profit them, because they have not faith to enkindle it.'

13. Upon Matth. vii. 27. “ And great was the fall of it:" he says, that heresy is worse than fornication, adultery, or murder. For if a Christian should offend in any of those points, he may repent, as David did : but if a Christian turns Gentile, or heretic, his fall is great and his ruin complete and final.

14. Descanting upon Matth. xxii. 33. “Ye serpents, ye generation of vipers:" he' resembles heretics to serpents on more accounts than one. Where he also observes, what is commonly said of heretics, that they are not uniform and consistent, but very various and unsteady in their sentiments.

15. He decries the baptism of heretics, as altogether invalid, and of no use to them who have it: upon this point he declares his opinion again and again.

16. I do not transcribe these things with approbation, nor with a view of recommendation; far from it. I think that severity of judgment, and bitterness of spirit, toward people of different sentiments ought to be disliked in all men, whatever be their denomination. But as I have taken the liberty in the course of this work, to observe the defects of moderation in “ Amphilochius, 'Gregory Nazianzen, * Jerom, 'Cassian, and others; I have thought it not improper to transcribe al these passages, for sliewing the temper of this writer also: which appears to me to be far from being commendable, or deserving imitation.

III. My chief concern is with the New Testament: nevertheless I shall take some notice of this writer's regard for the Old Testament also.

et stulti in bono. Et sicut serpentes varii sunt in corpore suo, * Hæreticos Gentibus esse pejores, dubitat nemo; primum, sic hæretici varii sunt in erroribus suis, et multiplices in maligquia Gentiles per ignorantiam Christum blasphemant, hæretici nitate. Hom. 41. p. 191. D. E. autem scientes Christi laniant veritatem. Hom. 30. p. 128. C. 8 Vide, doctores hæretici quid dicuntur a Christo? Devora

b Quoniam Gentiles veritatem spernunt, quam non audie-. tores. Si ergo eruditus es ab hæreticis, raptus es, non eruditus, runt; Judæi autem, quam non crediderunt; Hæretici autem, non pastus. Si baptizatus ab eis es, devoratus es, non salvaquam audierunt et didicerunt. Hom. 41. p. 176. C. tus. Nam luporum est devorare, non salvare. Hom. 19. p.

• Sicut autem membrum, a corpore præcisum vivere non 94. 6. D.—Quomodo autem nudus vestiat nudum, aut quopotest. . sic et omnes hæretici, præcisi a corpore unius ecclesiæ, modo mendicus faciat alterum divitem? Sic et ipse," qui bapnec vitam Christi in se habere possunt, nec viriditatem gratiæ tizatus non est, quomodo alteri potest baptismum dare? Sespiritualis: sed est ecclesia eorum deserta; non ab hominibus; cundum hoc et de hæreticis dicimus : Quia ubi est fides, illic abundat enim perversis hominibus, quomodo semper malorum est ecclesia : ubi ecclesia, ibi Sacerdos : ubi Sacerdos, ibi major est copia quam bonorum: sed deserta est a sanctis, baptismus: ubi baptismus, ibi Christianus. Ubi autem fides deserta est a sanctitate, a fide, a veritate, a gratiâ, a Spiritu, non est, ibi nec ecclesia est: ubi ecclesia non est, nec Sacerdeserta denique est ab ipso Deo, et a bonis omnibus quæ sunt dos est: ubi Sacerdos non est, nec baptismus: ubi baptismus Dei, &c. Hom. 46. p. 197. B. C. D.

non est, nec Christianus fit aliquis. Hom. 6. p. 51. B. C. Fatuæ autem virgines sunt, quia fidem Christi integram Vid. et Hom. 3. p. 38. B. habent, opera autem justitiæ non habent. Judæi vero et hæ- See val. ii. p. 473, 474. retici neque fidem habent, neque opera possunt habere. Sed i The same, p. 471. etsi operum oleum habent, nihil eis prodest, quia lampades * Vol. ii. p. 536, 537.

1 See this vol. p. 18. fidei non habent, quas accendant. Hom. 52. p. 217. E. m Hic itaque Booz accepit uxorem Moabitidem, nomine

• Et erit ruina ejus magna. . . sic et Christianus, si aut for- Ruth. Quomodo accepit eam, exponere existimavi supernicatus fuerit, aut adulteratus, aut homicidium fecerit, cecidit fuum, cum de his scriptura sit omnibus manifesta. Hom. 1. quidem; tamen ruina ejus magna non est, quia iterum pæni- p. 16. C. tentià surgere potest, sicut David. Si autem de fundamento " Sic in ecclesiâ, quæ hortus est Christi, Salomone dicente. fidei aliquid fuerit passus; id est, si prævaricatus fuerit, et ad [Cant. iv. 12.) Hom. 20. p. 95. C.-Sicut in Canticis ex perGentiles aut hæreticos transierit, tunc est ruina ejus magna, sona ecclesiæ Sapientia dicit. Hom. 13. p. 73. E. quia totus funditus ruit. Hom. 20. p. 99. C. D.

2. The book of Ecclesiasticus is often quoted in this work : sometimes' as Sirach's, several times as - Solomon's.

3. The book of Wisdom is quoted as Solomon's. 4. This author quotesd the second book of the Maccabees. 5. He has also quoted · Tobit. 6. There are several other apocryphal books, relating to the Old Testament quoted by him. 7. As the book of Seth. 8. Another & book, how called, is not quite clear; whether Isaiah, or Hezekiah.

9. From some apocryphal book, though not expressly named by him, he had learned the names of the two daughters of Adam, married to Cain and Abel.

IV. I now proceed to take this writer's testimony to the books of the New Testament.

1. It may be worth while to observe somewhat particularly what he says of the evangelists Matthew and John in the Prologue or Introduction to his Commentary upon St. Matthew's gospel.

2. • The i occasion of Matthew's writing was said to be this ; There being a great persecution • in Palestine, so that there was danger, lest all the faithful should be dispersed ; that they might • not be without teaching, though they should have no teachers, they requested Matthew to write • for them a history of all Christ's words and works, that wherever they should be, they might • have with them the ground of their faith. That he began with Christ's nativity, according to • the flesh, was owing to the unbelieving Jews, who denied Jesus to be descended from David. · The body of his history is disposed in this manner ; First, he relates Christ's nativity, then his • baptism, after that his temptation, in the fourth place his doctrine, in the fifth place his miracles, • in the sixth his passion, in the seventh his resurrection and ascension. Matthew is an evange• list of saints, but more especially of sinners; who preached the gospel to sinners not only in

word, but by the example also of his own repentance ; nor would he, who had been a publican, ! employed in collecting perishable riches, have been made an evangelist, to write words that • should endure for ever, unless by his example he had encouraged sinners to hope for mercy.'

3. In his first homily upon St. Matthew, that is, in the beginning of his Commentary, he says, • John * wrote for the Gentiles, when he was in banishment among them. He wrote for Gentiles • and therefore he wrote in Greek. Matthew wrote in Hebrew for the Jews, that they might • be edified in the faith. John began his gospel as he does, because the Gentiles did not know, • that God had a Son, nor how he was begotten.' So this writer.

4. I would observe farther, that in this work all the four gospels are largely quoted ; and that

• Nam in Sirach Libro adventum Christi sic deprecatur. i Sicut referunt, Matthæum conscribere evangelium causa Hom. 30. p. 126. C.

compulit talis. Cum facta fuisset in Palæstina persecutio u Vid. Hom. 2. p. 33. C. Hom. 12. p. 67. D. Hom. 17. gravis, et periclitarentur dispergi omnes, ut carentes forte p. 89. B. C. Hom. 28. p. 120. D. E. Hom. 29. p. 123. A. doctoribus fidei non carerent doctrinâ, petierunt Matthæum, Hom. 36. p. 154. C. Hom. 41. p. 174. E. Hom. 51. p. 215. ut omnium verborum et operum Christi conscriberet eis hisD. Honi. 1. p. 25. C.

toriam, ut, ubicumque esseut futuri, totius secum haberen: ç Hom. 39. p. 163. B. Hom. 24. p. 105. A.

fidei statum. Quod autem ab humanâ ejus cæpit nativitate, d Hom. 25. p. 112. C.

et humanam ejus generationem exposuit, compulit impia im• Hom. 26. p. 115. B. Hom. 1. p. 26. C. Hom. 13. p. 74. pudentia Judæoruin, denegantium Jesum Christum de David C. D.

semine ducere genus. Corpus autem narrationis suæ ordinavit | Audivi aliquos referentes de quâdam scripturâ, etsi non hoc modo. Primum nativitatem, deinde baptismum, tertio certâ, tamen non destruente fidem, sed potius delectante, tentationem, in quarto doctrinam, in quinto miracula, in sexto quoniam erat quædam gens sita in ipso principio Orientis juxta passionem, in septimo resurrectionem et ascensioneni ejus... Oceanun, apud quos ferebatur quædam scriptura, inscripta Matthæus, sanctorum quidem, præcipue tamen peccatorum nomine Seth, de appariturâ hac stellà et muneribus ei hujus- evangelista, qui non solum sermone, sed etiam ipsâ vitæ suæ modi offerendis. Hom. 2. p. 28. D. E.

correctione peccatoribus evangelium prædicavit. Nunquam & Denique cum ægrotâsset Ezechias in tempore quodam, enim telonarius constitutus, qui consueverat pecunias colligere et venisset ad eum Esaïas propheta visitandum, vocavit Eze- perituras, factus fuisset evangelista, ut sermones conscriberet chias filium suum Manassen, et cæpit ei mandare, quod de- in æternum mansuros, nisi suo exemplo peccatores ad miseribeat Deum timere, quomodo regere regnum, et alia multa. cordiam pænitentiæ invitaret, &c. Prolog ib. p. 11. El dixit ed eum Esaïas : Vere quia non descendunt verba tua k Quoniam Joannes, inter Gentes in exilio constitutus, in cor ejus; sed et meipsum oportet per manum ejus interfici. Græco sermone evangelium causâ Gentium scripsit : quæ non Quod audiens Ezechias, volebat filium suum interficere, &c. cognoscebant, si Deus filium habet, aut quomodo genitum Hom. I. p. 21. A.

habet.... Matthæus autem evangelium Judæis Hebraico serb -quomodo aliquando licuit et sorores habere uxores ? mone conscripsit, sicut jam diximus supra, ut Judæi legentes quomodo habuerunt Caïn et Abel? Hæc nomina filiarum ædificarentur in fide. Hom. 1. p. 11. et 12. Adam, quas in initio habuit post Caïn et Abel, Risam et Edoclam, et non peccaverunt. Hom. 1. p. 24. A. VOL. III.


* the author frequently compares the several accounts of the first three evangelists. Moreover, before he published this Comment upon St. Matthew, he had written an explication of St. Luke's gospel.

5. The book of the Acts of the apostles is often cited in this work, and ascribed to Luke as the writer.

6. The author has quoted all or most of St. Paul's epistles, particularly " that to the Hebrews.

Mr. Wetstein says, that the author of this work was a Latin, and did not receive the epistle to the Hebrews; nevertheless' he has plainly quoted it as the apostle's in one place, and referred, or alluded to it in another.

7. He has also quoted the epistle of James several times : he seems to have supposed him to be James, the son of Alpheus, and consequently an apostle of Christ.

8. It is needless to refer to quotations of the first epistle of Peter, which was always received; but it may be worth observing, that' he quotes his second epistle.

9. He has several times quoted * the book of the Revelation.

10. This author therefore received all the same books of the New Testament which we do : and his respect for then is manifest.

11. Moreover he says, that'as miracles are now ceased, there is no other way of knowing the truth, but by the scriptures. I transcribe his words below at large.

V. His division of the books of scripture is that, which is common with all Christians in general ; apostles" and prophets. However, he has quoted some Christian writings not in our

1. He has quoted" the Recognitions three or four times.
2. He likewise quotes o the Constitutions or Canons of the apostles.

3. What regard the author had for these two books does not clearly appear : but I think, that if he had respected them, as of authority, he would have quoted them oftener.

4. He says, “ That' Joseph was absent, when the angel appeared to Mary, as related by Luke i. * 26....38; and that this is said in a history, that is not unreasonable, nor incredible ; for that.



p. 159. D.

* Sciendum est, quod Lucas quidem et Marcus statim in tium cognoscere fidei veritatem, nisi scripturæ divinæ. Antea primis ponunt dæmoniacum curatum, &c. Hom. 21. p. 100. enim multis modis ostendebatur, quæ esset ecclesia Christi, et A, B.–Verius autem, quid sit abominatio desolationis, Lucas quæ Gentilitas. Nunc autem nullo modo cognoscitur, quæ evangelista interpretatur. Nam in quo loco Marcus et præ- sit vera ecclesia Christi, nisi tantummodo per scripturas. sens Matthæus ponunt : Cum videritis abominationem deso- Volens ergo quis cognoscere, quæ sit vera ecclesia Christi, Jationis,' in ipso loco Lucas sic ponit : Cum videritis cir- unde coguoscat in tantâ confusione similitudinis, nisi tan• cumdari ab exercitu Jerusalem, tunc scitote, quia appropin- tummodo per scripturas ? Item antea et per signa cognose

quavit desolatio ejus. Hom. 49. p. 202. B. Vid. et Hom. cebantur, qui erant veri Christiani, et qui falsi. Quomodo? 50. p. 213. D. E.

Falsi quidem aut non poterant facere, sicut veri Christiani; b Vid. Hom. I. p. 56. C. D.

aut talia non poterant facere, qualia veri Christiani. . . omnem c Unde etiam Lucas testatur de illo, dicens : • Primum utilitatem habentia.. . . Et per hoc cognoscebantur, qui erant quidem sermonem feci de omnibus, O Theophile, quæ cæpit veri Christiani, qui falsi. Nunc autem signorum operatio Jesuis facere et docere.' (Act. i. 1.] Hom. 4. p. 41. C. omnino levata est: magis autem et apud eos invenitur, qui

• De quo ait apostolus : Vivum est verbum Dei et efficax, falsi sunt Christiani, fieri ficta. Hom. 49. p. 204. D. E. &c. (Heb. iv. 12.) Hom. 26. p. 113. B. C. Vid. et Hom. 38. m Hæc est ecclesia. . . quæ legatos Jesu Christi, id est,

apostolos et prophetas, hoc est, scripta eorum, recepit. Hom. e Cæterum Latinus fuit, qui epistolam ad Hebræos non

29. p. 204. C. recepit. Prolegom. ad N. T. Tom. i. p. 81.

n'Sed audi mysterium, quod Petrus apud Clementem expoi See note.d

suit. Hom. 26. p. 115. A.--Hoc et Petrus apud Clementem % Sicut ait Jacobus : •Si omnem legem adimpleas,' &c. exponit. Hom. 49. p. 202. B.-Sicut autem Petrus apud (Cap. ji. 10.) Hom. 35. p. 151. D. Vid. et Hom. 4. p. 41. A. Clementem exponit, Antichristo etiam plenorum signorum

"Item Jacobum Alphæi lapidantes. Propter quæ omnia faciendorum est danda potestas. Hom. 49. p. 204. E. -Unde Jerusalem destructa est a Romanis. Hom. 41. p. 174. E. et sapienter Petrus dicit apud Clementem, quomodo debet quis

Propterea dicit Petrus in epistola suâ de scripturarum ob- incessanter, quæ Dei sunt, cogitare et loqui. Hom. 51. scuritate, quia non sicut voluit homo, loquutus est Spiritus,

p. 214. €. D. sed sicut voluit Spiritus, ita loquutus est homo. Hom. 44. • Aliter certe, sicut apostoli interpretantur in libro Canop. 186. D. Vid. 2 Pet. i. 19.... 21.

num, qui est de episcopis.... Hom. 13. p. 74. Vid. Const. * Quoniam autem tribus annis et sex mensibus protenden- Ap. 1. iii. c. 14.-Quomodo autem quidam sacerdotes ex dum est Antichristi regnum, multæ scripturæ significant, maxi- hominibus ordinantur, manifeste in libro octavo canonum aposme tamen in Revelatione suâ Joannes. Hom. 49. in Matth. tolorum dicitur. Hom. 53. p. 221. A. Conf. Const. Ap. 1. xxix. p. 203. D. Vid. et Hom. 13. p. 74. C. Hom. 19. p. 90: viii. c. 2. A. Hom. 52. p. 218. E.

• Nam sicut historia quædam non incredibilis, neqne irra. Et quare jubet in hoc tempore omnes Christianos con- tionalis, docet, quando gesta sunt quæ refert Lucas, Joseph ferre se ad scripturas ? Quia in tempore hoc, ex quo obtinuit absens erat. Nec enim conveniens est putare præsente Joseph hæresis illa ecclesias, nulla probatio potest esse veræ Christia- introisse angelum ad Mariam, ei dixisse quæ dixit, et Mariana nitatis, neque refugium potest esse Christianorum aliud, volen respondisse quæcumque respondit. Hom. i. p. 24. D. E.

was a proper circumstance.' Possibly, he speaks more advantageously of that book than it deserved : nevertheless, he gives it no authority.

5. He intimates, that in some secret or apocryphal books it was written, that Christ baptized John, after he had been baptized of him : which, we may suppose, had been collected from words of Matth. iii. 14, 15.

VI. I shall now allege, or refer to, some select passages.

1. The author well explains our Lord's prohibition, “ not to do alms before men, to be seen of them.” Matth. vi. la..4.

2. He largely considers, what is implied in • Loving God with all the heart.' 3. He shews, what is to be understood by the wedding garment.' 4. He examines the reasons assigned by some, why Jesus Christ is called the Son of God. 5. The ten commandments are handsomely rehearsed by him. 6. He supposeth, that? Paul was blameable for what he said to the high priest. Acts xxiii. 3. 7. He" read 1 Thess. v. 21, as we do. 8. He quotes' Josephus.

9. That miraculous powers had ceased in the author's time, may be seen in a passage transcribed above; where he speaks of studying the scriptures, as the only way of knowing which is the true church.

10. This writer has expressions concerning the eucharist, which cannot be reconciled with the modern popish doctrine of transubstantiation.

11. They who are curious, may consult " R. Simon, who has an article upon this author, as a commentator.



1. Victor TUNUNENSIS, an African bishop, who flourished about the middle" of the sixth century, and wrote a Chronicle, ending o at the year 566, says: When Messala was consul, (that • is, in the year of Christ 506) at Constantinople, by order of the emperor Anastasius, the holy • gospels being written by illiterate evangelists, are censured and corrected.'

2. Some have hence argued, that the copies of the New Testament, of the gospels at least, have not come down to us, as they were originally written, they having been altered in the time of the emperor Anastasius, who began his reign in the year 491, and died in 518.

3. I shall immediately transcribe below' a part of Dr. Mill's observations upon this story, containing a brief, yet full confutation of it. And I add a few following observations.

P. 528.

• Dam autem dicenti Joanni, ? Ego a te debeo baptizari,' sic periculosum est, in quibus non est verum corpus Christi, respondit,' modo interim sine,' ostendit, quia postea Christus sed mysterium corporis ejus continetur : quanto magis vasa baptizavit Joannem ; quamvis in secretioribus libris manifeste corporis nostri, quæ sibi Deus ad habitaculum præparavit, non hoc scriptum sit. Et Joannes quidem baptizavit illum in debemus locum dare Diabulo agendi in eis ut vult? Hom. 11. aquâ, ille autem Joannem in Spiritu. Hom. 4. p. 41. E.

p. 63. C. D. b Hom. 13. p. 72. A. B. • Hom. 42.

p. 181.

mm See Hist. Crit. des Commentat, du N. T. Ch. xlii. d Hom, 41. p. 175. A. B.

p. 191.... 206. · Hom. 40. p. 169. E.

n He is placed by Cave at the year 555. Hist. Lit. T. i. | Hom. 49. p. 203. C. D.

1 Item cum Paulus maledixisset sacerdotem Ananiam, et • Vid. Pagi Ann. 566. n. 2. audisset, quoniam erat sacerdos, poenitentiâ ductus respondit: P Messala v. C. Cos. Constantinopoli, jubente Anastasio • Nesciebam, fratres, quia Princeps erat sacerdotum. ' Hom. Imperatore, sancta evangelia, tamquam ab idiotis evangelistis 40. p. 164. C.

composita, reprehenduntur, et emendantur. Vict. Tunun. b.Dicit apostolus : Omnia probate. Et quod bonum est Chr. p. 6. ap. Scalig. Thes. Temp. tenete. Hom. 44.

186. E.

9 Vid. Pagi Ann. 518. n. ii. i Quales pestilentiæ, et quales fames, et terræ motus, præ- r Unde hæc desumserit auctor iste, nescio.... Verum hucesserunt Judæam, antequam Jerusalem caperetur, cognoscere jusmodi evangelia nulla usquam in publicum prodiisse tam potest, qui Josephum legit. Hom. 48. p. 201. A.

certum est, quam quod certissimum. Ipsum nomen sane novo* See

rum evangeliorum, dici haud potest, quantas per universum Si ergo hæc yasa sanctificata ad privatos usus transferre Orientem excitaturum fuisset tragedias, quam graves tumul

p. 60.

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