« הקודםהמשך »
was an Homoüsian. If he had had in his copies, “ the church of God," or had had any knowledge of that reading, he would not have failed to insist upon it.
UNILIUS was an African Bishop, but of what place is not certainly known. Cave speaks of him, as, flourishing about the year 550; Hody about · 560. He is in Trithemius; and I
ranscribe his chapter - below. Moreover . Du Pin, and ' Fabricius have accounts of this bishop, which deserve to be taken notice of.
2. The only remaining work of Junilius, and the only work of his, which Trithemius, in the fifteenth century, had met with, intitled, Of the Parts of the Divine Law, in two books, is written by way of question and answer.
3. He has several ways of dividing the books of scripture. Some are of perfect, others of middle authority, others of none at all : and some are historical, some prophetical, some proverbial, some teach simply. So that to transcribe him at length requires more room than I can afford : I shall, however, take briefly what he says relating to the books of the New Testament.
4. • The * historical books of the New Testament, of perfect and canonical authority, are • the four gospels of Matthew, Mark, Luke, John, and the Acts of the apostles.'
5. • Those ' books,' he says, “ teach simply, wherein we are plainly instructed concerning • faith and manners; and which do not relate history, nor prophecy, nor speak proverbially, • but only teach plainly. The books that teach simply, are the epistles of the apostle Paul : • to the Romans one ; to the Corinthians two; to the Galatians one; to the Ephesians one; • to the Philippians one; to the Colossians one; to the Thessalonians two; to Timothy two; • to Titus one; to Philemon one; to the Hebrews one ; one of the blessed Peter to the Gen• tiles ; and the first epistle of the blessed John. To these many add five more; one epistle of
James; the second of Peter; one of Jude; and two of John.' He also says, that “ the * Revelation of John was doubted of, generally, by the Christians in the east.' imply, that it was generally received in Africa, as indeed it was.
6. It may be here 'asked by some: How could Junilius, an African, know the sentiment of Christians in the east, concerning the book of the Revelation? And how comes it to pass, that he speaks as he does of the catholic epistles? I answer, that in the preface or dedication of his
D. Qui nullius auctoritatis sunt? M. Reliqui omnes.
L. i. c. 7. p. 341. G. H.
Disc. Species dictionis quot sunt ? M. Quatuor. Nam H. L. T.i. Ĉ De Biblior. Text. Orig. p. 653. aut historica est, aut prophetica, aut proverbialis, aut simpli4 Junilius, episcopus cujusdam urbis in Africa, (nomen citer docens. L. i. c. 2. p. 340. F. autem urbis invenire non potui) vir certe in sacris scripturis * ... Evangeliorum quatuor : secundum Matthæum, sevalde doctus, et in secularibus disciplinis, meo judicio, suffici. cundum Marcum, secundum Lucam, secundum Johannem : enter instructus, sensu profundus, eloquio dulcis et ornatus, Actuum apostolorum. Ib. c. 3. p. 340. G. multa dicitur conscripsisse opuscula. Sed ego tantum vidi 'D. Quæ est simplex doctrina ? M. Quâ de fide aut de opus insigne, quod scripsit ad Primasium supradictum episco- moribus in præsenti tempore docemur. D. Quare hoc nopum, quod prænotavit, De Partibus Divinæ Legis. Claruit, men accepit? M. Quia.... neque historiam texit, neque A. D. 540. Trithem. de Script. Ec. cap. 155.
prophetiam, neque proverbialiter loquitur, sed tantum modo e Bib. des Aut. Ec. T. v. p 81.
simpliciter docet. D. Qui libri ad simplicem doctrinam per: De Veritat. Relig. Christian. p. 255.
tinent? M.... Epistolæ Pauli apostoli ad Romanos, 1. ad 6 De Partibus Divinæ Legis. Libri duo. Ap. Bib. PP. Corinthios, 2.... Beati Petri ad Gentes, l. et beati Johannis Max. T. x. p. 340. ...350.
prima. D. Nulli alii libri ad simplicem doctrinam pertinent ? ^ Discip. Quomodo divinorum librorum consideratur auc- M. Adjungunt quamplurimi quinque alias, quæ apostolotoritas? Mag. Quia quidam perfectæ auctoritatis sunt, quidam rum canonicæ nuncupantur : Jacobi 1. Petri secundam, mediæ, quidam nullius. D. Qui sunt perfectæ auctoritatis ? Judæ unam, Johannis duas. Ib. c. 6. p. 341. F. M. Quos canonicos in singulis speciebus absolute enumera- m Cæterum de Johannis Apocalypsi apud Orientales ad. vimus. D. Qui mediæ ? . Quos adjungi a pluribus dixi- modum dubitatur. Ib. c. 4. p. 341. B.
work to Primasius, he says, he had been acquainted with Paul, a Persian, a learned man, who had been educated in the school of the Syrians at Nisibis. From him, it is likely, he received, this information, as indeed he there intimates.
7. And in what he says of the Catholic epistles there are two things somewhat remarkable. First, that he supposeth the first epistle of Peter to have been written to Gentiles; and consequently the second also, if it be Peter's : for, very probably, the two epistles were sent to the same people. Secondly, of the seven catholic epistles he reckons two only of perfect canonical authority: the other five are only of middle authority, rejected by some, and received by others. If Junilius has here given a true account of what he heard from the above named Persian, it may be argued, that there were some in the east, who rejected or doubted of the epistle of James, as well as the other four : which indeed appears to me very probable.
8. In another place " he mentions the books of the New Testament in this order : the four gospels, the apostolical epistles, and the Acts.
9. He puts the question ; · How do we know the authors of the books of scripture? The • answer is : Some are known by the titles, and introductions, as the books of the prophets, in * the Old Testament, and the epistles of the apostles, in the New. Some are known by their • titles, only, as the gospels; some by tradition from the ancients, as the five books of Moses. • Of some books the authors are unknown, as those of Ruth, the Judges, and the Kings.
10. He likewise puts the question : How do we know the books of our religion to be written by divine inspiration? I transcribe his answer below, though it be somewhat long; where he also says, that miracles were wrought till the scripture (or the Christian religion) was
received by the Gentiles : but now it is sufficient, that it is universally received; which may • be considered as a standing miracle.'
11. Before I conclude this chapter I should refer to · James Basnage, who has observations upon this writer's catalogue of the books of scripture, that part especially, which concerns the books of the Old Testament.
MAGNUS AURELIUS CASSIODORIUS SENATOR.
I. His time. II. Three catalogues of the books of the Old and New Testament inserted by him
in his. Institution; Jerom's, Augustine's, and that of the old Latin version. III. General Remarks upon those catalogues, as here rehearsed. IV. An account of his Complexiones, or short commentaries, and extracts from them.
1. Magnus' AURELIUS Cassiodorius Senator 5 is placed by Cave as flourishing in the year 514, when he was consul : but as I am to quote his works, written after his retirement from
. Ad hæc ego respondi: Vidisse me quemdam, Paulum præceptorum, modus locutionis sine ambitu, puritasque vernomine, Persan genere, qui in Syrorum scholâ in Nisibi urbe borum. Additur conscribentium et prædicantium qualitas ; est edoctus, ubi divina lex per magistros publicos, sicut apud quod divina homines, excelsa viles, infacundi subtilia, non nos in mundauis studiis Grammatica et Rhetorica, ordine et nisi divino repleti Spiritu tradidissent. 'Tum prædicationis regulariter traditur. Ib. p. 340. C.
virtus, quæ, dum prædicaretur, licet a paucis despecta, obtinuit. o Quis est ordo divinorum voluminum? .... Evangelia (ut Accedunt his rectificatio (f. testificatio) contrariorum, ut Sisupradictum est) quatuor, apostolicæ epistolæ, et Actus. ib. byllarum vel Philosophorum, expulsio adversariorum, utilitas c. 10. p. 342. B.
consequentium, exitus eorum, quæ per acceptationem et figu· D. Scriptores divinorum librorum quâ ratione cognosci. ras prædicationesque prædicta sunt. Ad postremum, miramus? M. Tribus modis. Aut ex titulis, et proæmiis, it pro- cula jugiter facta, donec seriptura ipsa susciperetur a Gentipheticos libros, et apostolorum epistolas; aut ex titulis tan- bus. De qua nunc ad proximum miraculuin sufficit, quod ium, ut evalgelistas ; aut ex traditione veterum, ut Möyses ab omnibus suscepta cognoscitur. Ib. I. ii. c. 29. p. 350. creditur scripsisse quinque primos libros historiæ.... Similiter e Hist. de l'Eglise. I. viii. c. 10. p. 443, 444. et Jesu Nave liber, ab eo quo nuncupatur, traditur scriptus. | Vid. Cav. H. L. T i. p. 501. Du Pin Bib. des Aut. Ec.
.. Sciendum præterea, quod quorumdam librorum penitus T. v. p. 63. Fabric. ap. Bib. Ecc. ad Honorii Aug. l. xiii. ignorantur auctores, ut est Judicum, et Ruth, et Regum. &c. cap. 21. Trithem. de Scr. Ec. cap. 212. Le Long Bib. Ib. c. 8.
Sacr. p. 670. Vit. Cassiod. a Garetio conscript. Pagi Ann. Disc. Unde probamus, libros religionis nostræ divinâ esse 493, n. iii. 514, n. i. 562. n. iv. S. Basnag. Ann. 534. n. ii. inspiratione conscriptos ? M. Ex multis, quorum primum 535. n. x. 562, n. i. est ipsius scripturæ veritas ; deinde ordo rerum, consonantia 8 Senator absque collegà annum aperuit, ut habent omnes dum Matthæum, secundum Marcum, secundum Lucam, see Salomon: Proverbia, Ecclesiasticus, Canticum Cantico- cundum Johannem: In Actibus apostolorum liber unus.
the world, particularly his * Institutions of sacred Letters,' or Theology, written in 556, or thereabouts, I place him at that year. He lived to a great age: but the time of his death is not certainly known. . I beg leave to refer to b. some places in this work, where this writer has been already mentioned.
II. Cassiodorius, in that work, has put down three Catalogues of the books of the Old and New Testament.
1. The first he calls Jerom's: what was St. Jerom's catalogue or canon of the books of the Old Testament, is well known from his Prologus Galeatus, still extant, and transcribed - formerly: his canon was the same with that of the Jews; and there can be no mistake about it. But the catalogue, as published in Cassiodorius's work, is not exact: for the book of the Kings, which should follow after Samuel, is wanting: and instead of Ecclesiastes, is put Ecclesiasticus. Upon this part of the Catalogue, as published by Garetius, Martianay made some free and just remarks, which I place below for the sake of curious readers. The remainder of the catalogue, consisting of the books of the New Testament, is thus: · The evangelists, Matthew, Mark, Luke, • John. After them follow the epistles of the apostles; two of Peter ; fourteen of Paul; three
of John; one of James; one of Jude; one book of the Acts of the apostles by Luke; one book • of the Revelation of John.'
2. The next is called the Division of the Divine Scripture according to Augustine. We have already considered very largely Augustine's testimony to the scriptures : nevertheless I shall here transcribe the titles of the books of the New Testament, as enumerated by Cassiodorius. • The " New Testament consists of one-and-twenty epistles of apostles, that is, one epistle of • the apostle Paul to the Romans : to the Corinthians, two; to the Galatians one ; to the • Ephesians one; to the Philippians one; to the Thessalonians two; to the Colossians one; to
Timothy two; to Titus one; to Philemon one; to the Hebrews one; two epistles of Peter, • three of John, one of Jude, one of James; the four gospels according to Matthew, Mark, Luke,
John; one book of the Acts of the apostles; one book of the Revelation.' And having put down this catalogue, Cassiodorius refers to Augustine's second book of the Christian doctrine: nevertheless he does not transcribe exactly. And the books of the New Testament are here rehearsed in a different order from that in Augustine, as any one may perceive by comparing them.
3. The third catalogue is called the Division of Sacred Scripture, according to the ancient translation : meaning, I suppose, the ancient Latin translation of the Old Testament from the Greek of the Seventy, which was in use before Jerom made a translation from the Hebrew. And for the New Testament, meaning the old Latin translation from the original Greek, which had been in use before Jerom corrected it. I intend to transcribe this catalogue at length. • The k holy scripture, according to the ancient translation, is divided into two Testaments, the
Fasti, et ipsemet in Chronico suo prodit. Est is Cassiodorus. est Garetius noster, qui in ultimâ Cassiodori operum editione ,.. Cumque in omnibus Fastis et in epistolarum subscriptio. hos non emendârit codicum, seu editorum, seu manuscriptonibus vocetur tantum Senator, eo cognomine uti proprio ap- rum, errores, &c. Martian. Prolegom. iii. n. i. in Divin. Bib. pellatum fuisse, et ita in Fastis citandis appellandum intelligi. Hieron. mus. Pagi Ann. 514. n. i.
& In evangelistas, qui sunt Matthæus, Marcus, Lucas, Jo* Ad num. v. et seqq. pluribus de Magno Aurelio Cassio- hannes. Post hos sequuntur epistolæ apostolorum, Petri duæ, doro Senatore agit hoc anno Baronius, quo ejus mortem con- Pauli quatuordecim, Johannis tres, Jacobi una, Judæ una, signat. Verum annus mortis ejus, deficientibus veteribus Actuum Apostolorum Lucæ liber unus, et Apocalypsis Jomonimentis, definiri non potest. Unde plures eum in annum hannis liber unus. De Institut. Divin. Lit. cap. 12. DLxxv. differunt. Pagi Ann. 562. n. iv.
In epistolis apostolorum viginti una, id est, Pauli apostoli • See vol. i. p. 399, and p. 404.
ad Romanos una, ad Corinthios duæ, ad Galatas una, Divisio scripturæ divinæ secundum Hieronymum. Auc- Ephesios una, ad Philippenses una, ad Thessalonicenses duæ, toritas divina secundum sanctum Hieronymum, in Testa- ad Colossenses una, ad Timotheum duæ, ad Titum una, ad menta duo ita dividitur, id est, in Vetus et Novum, &c. De Philemonem una, ad Hebræos una, Petri duæ, Johannis tres, Institut. Divinar. Lit. cap. 12. T. ii. p. 516. Venetiis, 1729. Judæ una, Jacobi una: In evangeliis quatuor, id est, secund See vol. ii. p. 539, 540.
In rum. Ibid.
Apocalypsi liber unus. Beatus igitur Augustinus... secundo ' Hæc ex Prologo Hieronymi Galeato afferebat Cassiodo- libro de Doctrina Christianâ Scripturas Divinas septuaginta rus. Sed vitiosa est prorsus illa divisio, tam in editis, quam in unius librorum calculo comprehendit. Ib. c. 13. p. 516. manuscriptis libris. i. quidem omissâ ubique voce Malachim, i See before, vol. ii. p. 578, 579. post verbum Samuel... 3. pro nomine isto ecclesiastes posue- * Scriptura sancta, secundum antiquam translationem, in runt ecclesiasticum, qui non est Salomonis, sed liber Jesu filii Testamenta duo ita dividitur, id est, in Vetus et Novum. In Sirach; quique in canonem nusquam admissus est ab Hiero- Genesim, Exodum, Leviticum, Numerorum, Deuteronomium, nymo. Neque tamen negligentiæ vet inscientiæ accusandus Jesu Nave, Judicum, Ruth, Regum libros quatuor, ParalipomenÔn libros duos, Psalterii librum unum, Salomonis libros Pauli ad Romanos una, ad Corinthios duæ, ad Galatas una [ad quinque, id est, Proverbia, Sapientiam, Ecclesiasticum, Eccle- Ephesios una], ad Philippenses una, ad Colossenses una, ad siasten, Canticum Canticorum, Prophetas, id est, Isaïam, Jere- Hebræos una, ad Thessalonicenses duæ, ad Timotheum duæ, miam, Ezechielem, Danielem, Osee, Amos, Michæam, Joël, ad Titum una, ad Philemonem ura, Apocalypsis Joannis. Abdiam, Jonam, Nahum, Habacuc, Sophoniam, Aggæuni, Ibid. cap. 14. p. 516. Zachariam, Malachiam, qui et Angelus, Job, Tobiam, Esther, • The epistle to the Ephesians is wanting in the edition of Judith, Esdræ duos, Maccabæorum duos. Post hæc sequun- Cassiodorius, which I make use of: but I suppose it to be tur evangelistæ quatuor, id est, Matthæus, Marcus, Lucas, only an error of the press. • Vol. ii. p. 574, 575, Johannes, Actus apostolorum, epistolæ Petri ad Gentes, Judæ, Cassiodorii Senatoris Complexiones in Epistolas et Acta Jacobi ad duodecim tribus, Johannis ad Parthos, epistolae Apostolorum et Apocalypsim. Florentiæ m.Doc.xxi.
• Old, and the New. In the Old are Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy, • Joshua the son of Nun, the Judges, Ruth, four books of the Kings, two books of the • Chronicles, one book of the Psalter, five books of Solomon, that is, the Proverbs, Wisdom, • Ecclesiasticus, Ecclesiastes, the Canticles: The prophets, that is, Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, • Daniel, Hosea, Amos, Micah, Joel, Obadiah, Jonah, Nahum, Habakkuk, Zephaniah, Haggai, • Zechariah, Malachi, who is also called the Angel, Job, Tobit, Esther, Judith, two books of • Ezra, two books of the Maccabees. After these follow the four evangelists, Matthew, Mark,
Luke, John, the Acts of the apostles, the epistles of Peter to the Gentiles, the epistle of Jude, • of James to the twelve tribes, of John to the Parthians, the epistles of Paul; to the Romans one; to the Corinthians two; to the Galatians one; [to “ the Ephesians one ;] to the Philippians one; to the Colossians one ; to the Hebrews one; to the Thessalonians two; to Timothy two; to Titus, one; to Philemon one; the Revelation of John.'
This catalogue, so far as relates to the Old Testament, should be compared with the canon of the third council of Carthage, formerly transcribed, with which it mightily agrees. Here, as well as there, are reckoned five books of Solomon: in both catalogues are placed Tobit, Judith, and the two books of the Maccabees: in both are reckoned two books of Ezra, meaning our Ezra and Nehemiah, without any notice of other books ascribed to Ezra. But with regard to the New Testament, there are several differences in the two catalogues, and particularly in the order of the books, as may be observed by any one.
III. Upon these catalogues, so far as relates to the New Testament, I would make two remarks.
In the first place, it seems hence to appear, that the number of books to be received as canonical scripture, had not then been determined by any authority, universally acknowledged, and submitted to by Christians: for Cassiodorius does not say so. And his manner of delivering these several catalogues seems to shew, that he had no knowledge of any such determination.
Secondly, Nevertheless there was a very general agreement among Christians concerning the books of the New Testament, which ought to be received as canonical, or the rule of faith. There is no remarkable difference in any of these catalogues: the first two have all the books of the New Testament, which are now generally received by us. And if St. John's first epistle only be mentioned in the third and last, possibly, the omission of the other two epistles is only a fault of the transcriber. However, it is well known, and allowed, that the second and third epistle of John were not universally received in the first ages. Once more, for shewing the harmony of these three catalogues, it ought to be observed, that here is no mention made of any books of the New Testament as canonical, which are not received as such by us. There are not inserted, in any of these catalogues, Barnabas, or Clement, or Ignatius, or any other Christian writers whatever: which affords a cogent argument, that there were not any other Christian writings, which were placed by the churches upon a level with those in these catalogues.
IV. In 1721, Signor Scipio Maffei published a work of Cassiodorius, which had been long missing: and in the following year the same work was published at London by my learned friend, Mr. Samuel Chandler, with the addition of a judicious preface. It is entitled, Com
plexions or short Commentaries upon the Epistles, the Acts of the apostles, and the Revela• tion. To be more particular : These notes or complexions are upon the epistles of Paul in the following order : the epistle to the Romans, first and second to the Corinthians, to the Galatians, the Ephesians, the Philippians, first and second to the Thessalonians, to the Colossians, the first and second to Timothy, to Titus, Philemon, the Hebrews. And the seven catholic epistles in this order: the first and second of Peter, the three epistles of John, the epistles of James, and Jude: the Acts of the apostles, and the Revelation.
1. By which it is manifest, that Cassiodorius received all the books of the New Testament which we do: for about the four gospels there can be no question. The order of the books here, and in the catalogues before transcribed, I leave to be observed by the reader: I shall, however, take notice of a few other things.
2. Cassiodorius expressly ascribes · the Acts of the apostles to Luke the evangelist.
3. He seems to have had a clause in Acts viii. 39, that the Holy Ghost descended upon the Eunuch after he had been baptized by Philip.
4. At Acts xiv. 19, he seems to have read a word or two wanting in our copies : · And whilst they tarried, and taught, there came from Antioch certain Jews.' Those expressions are of use to abate the surprize at the sudden change in the people at Lystra.
5. In the title prefixed to the first epistle of Peter, it is said to be written ad Gentes to [Gentiles]: but in the explication Cassiodorius speaks of Peter's writing to believing Jews in Pontus, Galatia, and Cappadocia.
6. Signor Maffei thinks, that' our author had the heavenly witnesses in the fifth chapter of the first epistle of John: but that does not appear certain to me. I place the passage & below : and would refer to Mr. Wetstein's observations
it. 7. Cassiodorius says, that · John had his revelation in the isle of Patmos, where he had been banished by the emperor Domitian.
THE IMPERFECT WORK UPON ST. MATTHEW.
1. The author's time. II. He was an Arian, and a bishop. His censures of the Homoüsians, and
of all heresies in general. III. Books of the Old Testament received by him. IV. Books of the New Testament received by him. V. Books quoted which are not in our canon. VI. Select passages.
1. The Imperfect Work upon Matthew, so called, because it has not come down to us entire, has been mentioned already. It is usually joined with 'St. Chrysostom's works, because it was formerly ascribed to him; though now it is generally, or universally allowed not to be a work of that eminent man.
The time of the work cannot be exactly determined: but it was written after the reigns of Constantine and Theodosius the first, of both whom " the author complains, as having gone into measures, by which the interests of the true principles of Christianity had been opposed and discouraged from that time to his own. In one place he speaks, as if the space of time,
* Lucas, unus evangelistarum, qui doctrinam Domini cæ- h Vid. Wetsten. N. T. Gr. T. ii. lesti veritate conscripsit, Actus quoque apostolorum fideli nar- i Cum esset in insula Pathmo, a Domitiano Principe propter ratione complexus est. Præf. in Act. Ap.
verbum Domini in exilium feliciter destinatus, Dominico die ..... et ardore mentis incensus, baptizari se protinus postu- voce magnâ commonitus, &c. In Apoc. i. 9. lavit. Quo facto, Spiritus Sanctus supra eunuchum cecidit, k See vol. ii. p. 429. et Philippus subitâ translatiove disparuit. In Act. viii. 38, 39. Opus Imperfectum in Matthæum. Tom. ii. in Nov.
Cumque ibi commorarentur, et docerent, supervenerunt Testam. edit. Morell. Toni, vi. edit. Benedictin. quidam ab Antiochiâ. In Act. xiv. 18.
* Vid. Hom. 49. p. 202. Petri apostoli ad Gentes.
» Sic ille afflictas res Arianorum deplorat, quæ sub Cone Sanctissimæ regulæ instituta concelebrans, et Petrus Apos- stantino per Nicænam fidem depulsæ, sub Theodosio autem tolus Jesu Christi scribit absentibus Hebræis, qui impià perse- Magno prostratæ sunt, ita ut ab illo tempore ‘ usque nunc,' cutione Judæorum dispersi fuerant, et advenæ facti per Pon- sive usque ad auctoris tempus pessum semper ierint. Hoc tum, per Galatiam, per Cappadociam, per Asiam, et Bithy- autem decantat ille fere per totum librum. Montfauc. Diauib. niam, sed tamen in Christo Jesu correctâ mente crediderant, ad Op. Imp. 11. v. p. 6. in App. Chrys. Opp. T. vi. &c. In 1 Pet. cap. i. in.
• Et vere tardat, sed quantum ad nostram inconstantiam & Cui rei testificantur in terrâ tria mysteria, aqua, sanguis, tardare videtur. Nam si consideremus, ex quo Christus in et Spiritus, quæ in passione Domini leguntur impleta; in cælum asceudit, et quantum vivebant homines ante diluviun, cælo autem Pater, et Filius, et Spiritus Sanctus. Et hi tres et prope tantum spatium est, quanto tempore erat uniuscujusunus est Deus. In Johan. cap. v.
que eorum. Hom. 52. p. 218. B.