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To which I answer. It is very common to speak of one epistle in the plural number, as all know. And St. Paul might well write, as he here does, though he had as yet sent but one letter to those to whom he is writing. And from so long a letter, as is the first to the Corinthians, men might form a good judgment concerning his manner of writing letters, though they had seen no other.

4. 1 Cor. v. 9. “I wrote unto you in an epistle, not to company with fornicators.”

Hence it is argued, that a St. Paul had written an epistle to the Corinthians, before he wrote the first of those two, which we have. Consequently, here is proof of the loss of a sacred writing, which would have been canonical, if extant.

And it must be acknowledged, that several • learned men have concluded as much from this text. Others however see not here any such proof. And on this side have argued Whitby and others. And I think it is of no small weight, that several ancient writers understood the apostle to say: "I have written to you in this epistle.” So · Theodoret, ' Theophylact, and > Photius in Ecumenius. They suppose that the apostle here refers to somewhat before said by him in the same epistle, and in this very chapter, ver. 2, or 6, 7,

And that hereby is meant this epistle, seems to me very evident. That interpretation suits the words. And there are divers other places, where the same phrase is, and must be rendered, Rom. xvi. 22. “I Tertius, who wrote this epistle," o ypates TVW ETI5ONyv. 1 Thess. v. 27. I charge you by the Lord, that this epistle “ be read unto all the holy brethren.” avæyvacGyver Thy επιςολην σασι τοις αγίοις. . And 1 Thiess. iv. 6. “ That no man go beyond, and defraud his brother in any matter:” or “ in this matter.” μη υπερβαινειν και τελεονεκτειν εν τω πραγματι τον αδελφον αυτ8.5

Fabricius says, the words, “I have written unto you,” may be understood as equivalent to, « I do write.”

And it may be remembered, that * some while ago I quoted an ancient writer, who gives this interpretation. «« 1'' have written unto you,” that is I write.' And intending, I think, somewhat to be afterwards said by the apostle in this epistle: which appears to me to be right. Many like instances might be alleged. I shall put in the margin some passages, from A. Gellius, where it is said: “I have subjoined the words of Varro:' that is, I shall subjoin them.

In another place. • I have transcribed the words of Plutarch. And in like manner often: when the words of an author had not yet been transcribed, but were to be transcribed soon after.

In John iv. 38, our Lord says to the disciples: “ I sent you to reap that whereon ye have bestowed no labour.” Nevertheless the disciples had not yet been sent forth by him. But knowing what he designed to do, and also knowing beforehand what would be the circumstances feram Pauli dictum ad Corinthios. 2. X. 9, 10, 11.

-Τοις πoρνoις το κοσμο τοτε.] Iνα μη νομισωσιν, οφειλειν -Quibus verbis Apostolus statuit, quod non unam epis- και τοις των Ελληνων πoρνoις μη συναμιγνυσθαι, όπερ ην αδυtolam, sed plures, ad Corinthios scripserit. Id. ibid. sect. νατον τοις πολιν οικεσι, διορθεται αυτο. Αpud. Ecuin. in loc. xxxiii. p. 49.

" I might refer to many other texts of scripture, and to a Inter illas est epistola quædam- -ad Corinthios scripta passages of other writers, Matt. xxvii. 8. Ews Tn5 orquepor. ante illam, quze nobis prima est, de qua Apostolus: Eypaya xxviii. 15.-- LEXP THS oquepov. - Apoc. i. 3. xai oi vus EV TY ET5017, scripsi vobis in epistola.' i Cor. v. 9. ακούντες της λογος της προφητειας. Ιd est, ταυτης προφητειας, Ens. ib. sect. xxxiii. p. 51.

quomodo accepit Latinus. Grot. in loc. So Liban. ep. 1174. b Ex quibus verbis hoc concludo, ante hanc ad Corinthios p. 558. Εμελλε μεν, και μη δοντος με την επιςολην. κ. λ. epistolam aliam exstitisse, ubi Paulus a conversatione cum Etiamsi ego has literas non scripsissem. Ep. 1177. p. 559. förvicatoribus eos dehortatus fuerit. C. M. Pfaff, ubi supr. Και μην κακείνο δηλον, ότι μειζονος απολαυσει της παρα σε

πρόνοιας, μετα την επισoλην. post traditas has literas. Hinc autem apparet, aliam ante hanc a Paulo scriptam Possunt etiam verba, sypaya jusv, reddi, 'scribo vobis.' fuisse epistolam ad Corinthios, quæ post interciderit. Estius &c. Bib. Gr. l. 4. cap. v. toin. III. p. 154. in loc. Vid. et Grot. in loc. H. Wits. de Vit. Paul. Ap. sect. 8. " See this Vol. p. 32. See likewise, Vol. ii. p. 631. n. xxi. Mill. Prolegom. n. 8.

! Scripsi vobis.'] Pro scrito. Vel ideo præteritum dicit, c See him upon the place.

quia, cum legeretur, tempus scribendi præteritum esset. d Wolf.curæ in loc. Fabric. Cod. Apocr. N.T. p. 918. &c. Sedul. Comm. in loc. Ap. PP. Lugd. T. VI. p. 540. C. • Ουκ εν αλλη, αλλ' εν ταυτη. Προ βραχεν γαρ εφη m Verba Varronis subjeci. A. Gell

. Noct. Att. l. 2. cap. 20. Ουκ οίδατε, ότι μικρα ζυμη ολον το φυραμα ζυμοι; Theod. Propterea verba Atteii Capitonis ex quinto Librorum, quos in loc.

de Pontificio Jure composuit, scripsi. Ib. I. 4. cap. 6. 1 Εν ποια επιςολη ; 'Εν αυτη ταυτη. Επειδη γαρ ειπεν Verba ipsa Plutarchi, quoniam res inopinata est, subscripsi. ανωτερω, ότι εκκαθαρατε την παλαιας ζυμην, τον πεπορνευκοτα, Ib. ως δεδηλωται, αινιττομενος, δι' δεδηλατο το μη συναμιγνυσθαι Ex quo libro plura verba adscripsimus, ut simul ibidem, σoρνoις ισως υπενοησαν αν οτι παντων των πορνων, και των quid ipse inter res gestas et annales esse dixerit, ostenderemus. παρ' Ελλησι χωριζεσθαι δει. Ερμηνεύει τοινυν περι τοιων Ib. 1. 5. cap. 18. wagngyeas. Theoph. in loc.

Ipsa aytem verba Chrysippi, quantum valui, memoria 6' Πα εγραψες; Εν οις λεγει, και οχι μαλλον επενθησατε. adscripsi-----libro enim σερι προνοιας quarto dicit.

Ib. -Και παλιν εκκαθαρατε την παλαιαν ζυμην. κ. λ. 1. 6. cap. 2.

P. 46.

cap. 12.

κ. λ.:

of their mission, he says to them: · When I shall send you to preach the gospel, you will find the case to be as I now represent it.'

In like manner St. Paul having in his mind the whole plan of the epistle which he was writing, and considering some directions which he should give in the remaining part of the epistle, says: “I have written unto you.” If it be asked, where are those directions. I answer: I think they are in the tenth chapter of this epistle, where the apostle cautions against idolatry, and dangerous temptations to it, and against doing what might be understood to be religious communion with idols and idolaters. These things I apprehend the apostle then had in his mind.

What he says therefore here in ch. v. 9, 10. 11, is to this purpose: “I shall in this epistle • deliver some cautions against a dangerous and offensive intimacy with idolaters: but when I • do so, it is not my intention to prohibit all civil commerce with Gentile people, “ who are • fornicators, or covetous, or extortioners, or idolaters.” For at that rate you could not live in • the world. But here I am speaking of such as are professed Christians. « And I have now « written unto you,” that is, I now charge you, and require it of you: “ If any man called a • brother," a professed Christian, “be a fornicator, or covetous, or an idolater, or an extortioner,

with such an one, no not to eat:" that is, not to have any conversation with him.' Compare 2 Thess. iii. 14, 15.

That appears to me the most probable account of this text. But if any hesitate about the reference to a place that follows in the remaining part of the epistle, I still hope I may insist upon it, that sų TY ETIS01M, which we have rendered in an epistle,' does, and must signify, - in this epistle.'

5. 2 Pet. iii. 15, 16. “ And account, that the long-suffering of our Lord is salvation : even as our beloved brother Paul also, according to the wisdom given unto him, has written unto you.”

Hence it is argued, that · St. Paul wrote several letters to the dispersed Jews, which are now lost. I answer, that this argument depends upon the supposition, that the cpistles of St. Peter were sent to believing Jews: which is far from being certain. It is more probable, as was formerly shewn, that St. Peter's epistles were sent to believing Gentiles in Pontus, Galatia, Cappadocia, Asia, and Bithynia, or to all Christians in general in those countries. To which Christians Paul had indeed sent several letters. To them were sent his epistle to the Galatians, the Ephesians, the Colossians. To which might be added, his two epistles to Timothy, then residing at Ephesus, the chief city of Asia. To these, and other epistles of the apostle Paul, St. Peter might refer. Nor can I see any reason at all to doubt, whether the epistles of Paul, intended by St. Peter, are not still in being.

6. 3 John ver. 9. “ I wrote unto the church.” Hence some have argued, that St. John wrote an epistle to the church, where Diotrephes affected to have pre-eminence which is

Indeed this text has exercised the thoughts of many critics, as may be seen in Wolfii Curæ. However the words may be translated thus: “I had written,” or “ I would have written to the church.” This version has been approved by d some. And to me it appears very right. If this interpretation be admitted, there is no reason to conclude, that` any writing of St. John has been lost.

7. It is argued, that' Polycarp, writing to the Philippians, expresseth himself, as if he thought St. Paul had written to them more epistles than one.

To which it is easy to answer, that though the word be in the plural number, one epistle only might be meant. Secondly, it is not improbable, that Polycarp intended the epistle to the Philippians, and also the two epistles of Paul to the Thessalonians, who were in the same

b

now lost.

• S. Petrus 2. ep. iii. 15, 16, plures literas ad dispersos Hebræos allegat, quæ jam dudum periere. Neque enim, uti Millius putavit f. x. col. 2. hic citatur epistola ad Hebræos, quæ exstat, &c. Pfaff. ubi supra. p. 47. Conf. Ens. ubi supra. sect. xxxvi. xxxvii. p. 53, 54.

6 See before, p. 418. &c.

c Eodem modo et literæ S. Joannis, ad ecclesiam, in quâ Didtrephes qiao@pwreuwy erat, scripta et 3 Joh. ver. 9, memoratæ, periere. Pfaff. ib. p. 47.

d See Whitby upon the place, and Dr. Benson. And see besore, p. 434, noted

er Some would from hence gather, that St. John wrote an epistle which is now lost. But the primitive Chris•tians were not so careless about preserving the apostolic writings. There is not the least hint among the ancients, that there ever was such an epistle. And the apostle's • words, in this place, are fairly capable of another interpre • tation.' - Dr. Benson upon the place, p. 703.

{ Memorat quoque Polycarpas in literis ad Philippenses, S. Paulum non unam sed plures ad eos Emisoras absentem scripsisse. Pfaff. ib. p. 47. Conf. Ens. p. 51–50.

province of Macedonia, as was shewn · formerly. Indeed this objection is so obviated by what was said, when we largely considered the testimony of Polycarp to the New Testament, that I think nothing more needs to be added here.

V. In treating this subject Mr. Ens could not help thinking of those passages of Origen and Eusebius, where they speak of the apostles not being solicitous to write many volumes. Which passages were taken notice of by us blong ago. He endeavours to evade the proper conclusion to be thence drawn. But he owns, that the ancients had no knowledge of those writings of the apostles, which he and some others have imagined to be lost. And he thinks it almost miraculous, or however a very wonderful dispensation of Providence that they should so soon perish, as to be unknown to the ancients, as well as to us.

But does not that shew, that this whole argument is frivolous and insignificant ? For plausible speculations cannot be valid against fact and evidence. If the primitive Christians knew not of any apostolical writings, beside those which have been transmitted to us, it is very probable there were none.

* See Vol. i.

p.
328.

potuerint scripta illa apostolica, ut omnium fugerint oculos. } See Vol. i. p. 532, and Vol. ii. p. 368, 369.

At divina hic mihi admiranda ac adoranda videtur providentia, • Fateor ingenue, vix concipi potest, unde tam cito tanta quæ ad tempus data scripta, dum aliorum quæ permanerent fuerit inter veteres ignorantia de eo, quod A postoli multo in vitæ canonem perpetuum nondum esset in ecclesiis copia, plura scripserint, quam quidem illorum et nostra pervenit ad deinde protinus e medio tolli voluerit. Ens, ibid. sect. li. manus. Fateor, vix concipi potest, ubi tam profunde latere p. 68.

А

LARGE COLLECTION

OF ANCIENT

JEWISH AND HEATHEN TESTIMONIES

TO THE TRUTH OF THE

CHRISTIAN RELIGION,

WITH

NOTES AND OBSERVATIONS.

VOLUME I.

CONTAINING

THE JEWISH TESTIMONIES, AND THE TESTIMONIES OF HEATHEN AUTHORS OF THE FIRST CENTURY.

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