« הקודםהמשך »
C H A P. CALVI.
ANDREW, BISHOP OF CÆSAREA IN CAPPADOCIA.
1. Andrew, bishop of Cæsarea, in Cappadocia, is placed by Cave," at the year 500; though his exact time is not certainly known. He wrote a Commentary upon the book of the Revelation; of which some notice must be taken by us.
2. In the preface to his work, he says, He needs not to enlarge, in proving the inspiration of this book, since many ancients have borne testimony to its authority; as Gregory the Divine, Cyril [of Alexandria), Papias, Irenæus, Methodius, and Hippolytus.
3. Andrew divided the book of the Revelation into 24 larger, and 72 smaller sections. This he takes notice of in his preface: and Arethas, who also afterwards wrote a Commentary upon this book, mentions it particularly in his preface. Mill says, that Andrew herein imitated Euthalius, who had done the like for some other parts of the New Testament. I place Mill's account of this matter below,' at length.
4. Upon Rev. i. 9, he observes, that John had been condemned to live in the island Patmos; but he does not say when, nor by whom.
5. He seems to suppose, that · St John's gospel was written before the Revelation.
6. Upon Rev. iv. 7, he mentions' the symbols of the four evangelists. The lion represents John; the calf, Luke; the eagle, Mark; the man, Matthew.
7. It is almost needless to observe, that he elsewhere also speaks of four gospels only. 8. The ' Acts of the apostles are distinctly quoted by him.
9. The epistle of " James, and the ” first and secondo of Peter, are expressly quoted by him. And from the quotation of the first epistle, it appears, that Andrew supposed Peter, by Babylon, at the end of that epistle, to mean Rome.
10. There can be no question made, but he received all the books of the New Testament which we do.
11. There are in this work, traces of the ancient interpretations of divers texts of the Revelation.
12. The P explications of the seals, in the sixth chapter, deserve to be taken notice of.
13. Of the sixth seal, ch. vi. 12, 13, he says: Some ? understand all those things to be said figuratively of the siege of Jerusalem, by Vespasian.
14. Upon ch. vii. 1, he says : Some' understood those expressions of the calamities brought
p. 7. A.
... vixisse videtur circa exitum seculi istius, ac claruisse Η Επειπερ εν τω κατ' αυλον ευαγγελιω τοις υψηλοις και
Incerta enim prorsus illius ætas; nec ulla ejus SEOTCETEOIY Trep wavlas sydlelpeve xarrauda de. x. 1. p. 4. B. apud veteres mentio. Hist. Lit. T. i. p. 467. Conf. Fabr. Bib. είδε τας αρείας τας τεσσαρας, και τα τεσσαρα ευαγγεGr. T. vii. p. 791.
λια, ως έθεροις καλως εχεις λελογισαι: τα μεν λεονίος δηλυνθος b Ad fin. S. Chrysost. Comment. in Johann. ed. Morell. την ανδρειαν, και το καλα Ιωαννην ευαγγελιον. κ. λ. p. 25. T. viji. « Vid. Proom. p. 3.
B, C. « Διελονίες την παρασαν πραγμαθειαν εις λογες
•. και την των τεσσαρων ευαγγελιων εκπομπην εις τα κεφαλαια, δια την τριμερη των κδ' πρεσβυθερων υποσασιν, τεσσαρα της γης αεραία. p. 131. Β. σωμαίος και ψυχής και πνευματος. p. iii. Β.
Τ... εν δε τη δημηγορια το Παυλο, τη εν ταις Πραξεσιν. ė Vid. Areth. ad Calc. T. iii. Comment. Ecum. p. 640.
Andreas, Cæsarex Cappadocum episcopus, sub finem τη...ω δι' εργων ηττηθησαν, τελω δελεμενοι, ως φησιν ο seculi hujus quinti, Apocalypseos librum a se Commentario μεγας Ιακωβος. p. 73. Α. illustratum partitus est, ad exemplum Euthalii, in sectiones * Και η πρεσβυτερα δε Ρωμη Βαβυλων εν τη επιςολη Πειρα majores et minores, seu in λογος et κεφαλαια. Λογοι majores προσαγορευελαι. p. 98. Ε. quædam portiones erant, Euthalianis' Lectionibus haud .. η τον υπο τα μακαρια Πειρε λεχθενία Φωσφορον, εν ταις multo absimiles. Ηujusmodi autem notavit Andreas Χxiv pro καρδιαις των πισων αναθελλονία, τον Χριςο φωτισμος δηλαδη. numero viginti quatuor Seniorum, circa thronum sedentium
P P. 29, 30. .... Kepahala vero, sive segmenta minora, constituit (ad « Και ταυλα τινες εις την επι Ουεσπασιανς" βασιλεως numerum, uti dicit, partium, sc. corporis, animæ, et spiritûs, Woloplay egen a box arravia, TWY EIPUEYwy éx450TPOTOMO7;. ex quibus constabant Seniores) ter viginti quatuor, seu lxxii. carles. p. 34. C. D. apposito etiam cuique Capitulo lemmate quodam, materiam, τΕι και ταυτα τισιν υπο Ρωμαιων παλαι τοις Ιεδαιοις γquæ in eo tractatur, paucis indicante. Mill, Proleg. n. 998. γενησθαι εξειληπται, των τεσσαρων αγγελων δηλον αυλής
3 P. 8, B.
p. 17. A.
upon the Jewish people by the Romans; and said, that by 'the’ “ four angels standing upon the four corners of the earth,” is intimated that the Jewish people should find no way to escape the divine vengeance, either by sea, or land, or any other way.
15. Upon ch. vii. 3, saying: “ Hurt not the earth,....till we have sealed the servants of our God in their foreheads,” and what follows, he says: Some · have understood that section, as relating to the wonderful escape and preservation of the Jewish believers, when Jerusalem was besieged by the Romans. And they were confirmed in that interpretation, by what James said to Paul, Acts xxi. 20, “ Thou seest, brother, how many thousands of Jews there are which believe.”
16. Upon ch. xx. 1, 2, 3. Here Andrew describes the weakening of the power of the devil by means of our Lord's death. Hereby, as by a stronger, he who seemed to be strong was despoiled: we, who were his prey, were delivered, and he was “cast into the bottomless pit.”
That he was bound, and his power weakened, is apparent, from the overthrow of idolatry, and * the demolition of idolatrous temples, and the ceasing of sacrifices, which were wont to be • offered to dæmons. The “ great chain,” in the angel's hand, is an expression, accommodated to our apprehensions, denoting a restraint of the devil's power and wickedness. Whether the « « thousand years,” here spoken of, denote exactly that term, or only a long duration, God
only knows. But it would be requisite, that the gospel should be preached for many years, • before the seeds of religion and virtue could be sown, and take firm root throughout the whole • world.'
17. Afterwards upon ch. xx. 7. Some confine the above mentioned “thousand years” to • the short period of our Lord's ministry; from his baptism to his ascension to heaven; being no . more than three years or three years and a half. Others think that, after the completion of six • thousand years, shall be the first resurrection from the dead, which is to be peculiar to the saints • alone; who are to be raised up, that they may dwell again on this earth, where they had given • proofs of patience and fortitude; and that they may live here a “thousand years," in honour and
plenty: after which will be the general resurrection, of good and bad. But the church receives • neither of those interpretations: for we remember what our Lord said to the Sadducees, That • the righteous shall be as the “ angels which are in heaven” [Mark xii. 25]: as also the words •
of Paul, who says: “ The kingdom of God is not meat and drink” (Rom. xiv. 17]. By the • “ thousand years," therefore, we understand, the time of the preaching the gospel ;' or the time of the gospel dispensation.
CHA P. CXLVII.
THE ALEXANDRIAN MANUSCRIPT, AND DIVERS STICHOMETRIES.
1. The Alexandrian Manuscript. II. The Stichometry of Nicephorus. III. A Stichometry from
Cotelerius. IV. Another Stichometry from the same.
NEED not here give a particular account of the celebrated Alexandrian Manuscript, preserved in the king's library; that having been already done by several, especially by' Dr. Grabe. It consists of four volumes in quarto : three of which contain the scriptures of the Old Testa
νομισθενίων το επι τε γης, επι τε θαλασσης, των την οργης «... τον τ8 ευαγγελικά κηρυγματος χρονον την χιλιελιαν σειρωμενων διαδιδράσκειν αφυκίον. p. 37. Β.
εξελαζομεν. p. 121. Α. Β. Τελο δε ει και μερικως παλαι γεγενηθαι, των τα Χρισω e Vid. Mill. Prolegom. in N.T. n. 1338... 1340. Wetsten. DETI5Euxolwy any ons Jeparaanul unio 'PwualwY EXTEDEUMOTwin Prolegom. ad accurat
. N. T. edition. p. 9... 11. et Prolegom. πορθησιν, εις πολλας τελείων μυριάδας, καλα τον μεγαν ad N. T. p. 8, &c. Ιακωβον, τον τω μακαριω Παυλω το πλήθος αυλων εμφαιγονία" * I. E. Grab. Prolegom. ad Septuagint. Interpr. T. i. cap. 1. αλλ' 8ν, κ. λ. p. 37, 38.
& Mr. Wetstein says, in folio. Codex est Veteris Novique . P. 120. E. 121. A.
Testamenti Græcus membranaceus in folio. Singulæ paginæ
ment, in the Greek version of the Seventy; and the fourth, the scriptures of the New Testament, but not quite complete.
The contents of the several volumes are prefixed to the first volume, and written with the same hand that wrote the rest : these contents of the Alexandrian Manuscript were published long ago, by Bp. Beveridge. I shall transcribe them, as they are published by Dr. Grabe, in his Prolegomena to the first volume of his edition of the Seventy; referring also to Mr. Casley's Catalogue of the manuscripts of the king's library. They are thus :
The first book of Ezra 'the priest."
The second book of Ezra the priest.
The first book of Maccabees."
The second book of Maccabees.
The third book of Maccabees.
The fourth book of Maccabees.
The Psalter with Odes (or hymns]."
The Wisdom of Jesus the Son of Sirach.'
The New Testament.
Four Gospels :
According to Matthew ;'
According to Mark;
According to Luke;
According to John.
The Acts of the apostles.
Seven catholic' epistles."
Fourteen epistles of " Paul.*
The Revelation of John.
The first epistle of Clement.
The second epistle of Clement.
Psalms of Solomon.”
duas exhibent columnas, quarum singulæ quinquagenis circiter Bapex egyros, et ETI5O2, Iepuis, quæ est 6 caput Baruchi. constant lineis. Wetsten. Prolegom. ad N. T. p. 8. Most Grabe. ibid. ΤΕσδρας ο ιερευς. others say, in quarto. Biblia Græca, literis majusculis exarata, Eodpas d' est liber i. Esdræ Apocryphus. Eoopas on 4 tomis qto scripto seculo iv. vel v. Casl. Catal. MSS. Bib. est liber 1. Esdræ Canonicus. Atque huic subnexi sunt, Reg. p. 5. If it be reckoned a quarto, it is of a large form: quamvis in Indice non designati, doyoi Neeula. Grabe, ibid. but the volumes are not very thick.
η Μακκαβαιων λογος α'. a See below, note
Υαλτηριον μετ' ωδων. Ρ Ασματα ασματων. • Codex Canon. Ecc. Prim. Vindicat. I. ii. c. 9. n. 12. ap. 9 Σοφια, η παναρείος.
Σοφια Ιησε υis Σειραχ. . Patr. Apostol. T. ii.
* Amissis viginti quinque circiter foliis, vigesimum sextum Appellat (Cyrillus Patriarcha] Codicem istum scripturæ ab istis incipit verbis. Matth. xxv. 6. EgePXEOBE eis atravin• Novi et Veteris Testamenti, quoniam utriusque Libri Ca- Giv aute. Grabe. ibid.
• Καθολικαι ζ. nonici, ac hujus Apocryphi quoque eo continentur; uti patet "Ibi incipit Epistola Jacobi, quam sequuntur duæ Petri, ex Indice, quem ipsa librarii manus eidem codici præfixit, tres Joannis, et una Judæ. Grabe. quemque hic verbatim, additis solum accentibus et spiritibus, * Επιςολαι Παυλό δ'. quibus ille caret, describam. 1. E. Grabe Prolegom. cap. 1. * Epistolæ Pauli eodem locatæ sunt ordine, quo in nostris n. 2. Notitia Codicis Alexandrini.
Bibliorum editionibus: nisi quod Epistola ad Hebræos proxime Γενεσις κοσμ8. • Εξοδος Αιγυπle.
sequatur duas ad Thessalonicenses. Grabe. Ομε βιβλια ή. 8 Βασιλειων α".
ỹ The figures are wanting in the manuscript. h Oμε βιβλια ζ'. II poprilaz. is'.
2 Hos adversariis sacris de La Cerda sub os legere est; * Huic subnectuntur, licet in Indice haud nominentur, quippe a codice nostro abscissi yel deperditi sunt. Grabe.
Let us now make a few observations:
, is of great value, and high antiquity; though there is some difference among learned men, in their computations of its age. Grabe * thinks it might be written before the end of the fourth century; others are of opinion, that it was not written till near the end of the fifth century.
2: This manuscript has some relation to the church of Alexandria; for it was brought from that city by Cyril Lucaris, patriarch of Alexandria, when he removed to the patriarchate of Constantinople: and when he made a present of it to Sir Thomas Roë, the British ambassador at Constantinople, about the year 1628, to be brought over hither as a present to the king, he affixed to it a short memorandum to this purpose: This book of the scripture of the New and · Old Testament, as we have received by tradition, was written by Thecla, a noble Egyptian * woman, about thirteen hundred years ago, not long after the council of Nice.' Another argument of its being written at Alexandria, is, that to the book of Psalms is prefixed the epistle of Athanasius to Marcellinus, concerning the Psalter; and I think it may be reckoned an argument of the same thing, that this manuscript has in it the book of the Revelation, which we can perceive to have been received by the church of Alexandria, in the fourth, fifth, and sixth, and following centuries : whilst it was rejected by the Syrians, and little regarded by many other Christians in the East: to which might be added the neatness of the writing, in which ' the Alexandrians are supposed to have excelled. It seems to me, therefore, somewhat strange, that Dr. Grabe should have taken a great deal of pains to prove, that this manuscript was written by Thecla, governess of a convent of women at Seleucia, in Cappadocia, or thereabout.
I shall say nothing more about the manuscript itself. I now proceed to observe, upon the just transcribed catalogue of books of scripture contained in it.
3. It is a full catalogue of canonical books : for, in the Old Testament, are expressly men. tioned Ruth and Esther; in the New, fourteen epistles of St. Paul, seven catholie epistles, and St. John's Revelation; as well as others, which were universally received.
4. Concerning the order of the books, about which a great deal may be seen in Grabe, I observe these few particulars only. The twelve lesser prophets are here reckoned in a different order from that now common with us, agreeably to the Hebrews. And' from Jerom we learn that, in his time, these prophets were placed differently in the Hebrew bibles, and the Version of the Seventy: the order of this manuscript is exactly the same which, he says, was then observed in the editions of the Septuagint Version. The order of St. Paul's epistles, as we learn from Grabe, is the same as ours; except that the epistle to the Hebrews is placed next after the two epistles to the Thessalonians. The order of the catholic epistles is the same with that now in use ;
a Haud diu igitur ante annum 396 exaratus videtur codex Sacræ, N. et V. Testamenti, prout ex traditione habemus, Alexandrinus, aut saltem paulo post, cum facta epistolarum est scriptus manu Theclæ, nobilis feminæ Ægyptiæ, ante Paulinarum divisio in zemanata nondum in publicum prodiisset, mille et trecentos annos circiter, paulo post Concilium Nicæaut satis innotuisset. Cum igitur et codicis r.ostri et Theclæ num. Nomen Theclæ in fine libri erat exaratum. ... Exætas in eamdem exeuntis seculi iv. periodum incidant, traditio tinctum ergo et est Theclæ nomen et laceratum. Sed meante dicta vero videtur simillima. Grabe, ib. sect. 5.
moria et traditio recers observat.' Apud Grabe, Prolegom. i. • Accedo igitur sententiæ Casimiri Oudini, qui ex canoni- sect. 1. bus diurnis nocturnisque in hoc codice annotatis judicavit, * Psalmis Davidis præfixa sunt a p. 523. usque 533. codicem hunc in usum monasterii Acæmitarum, adeoque a Athanasii epistola ad Marcellinum de libro Psalmorum, Eusemonacho Acæmità exaratum fuisse. J. J. Wetsten. Proleg. bii Hypotheses in Psalmos, &c. Grabe Prolegom. ad Tom. i. ad N. T. Gr. p. 10. Si codex noster ab Acæmità scriptus sect. 2. est, uti diximus, non potest seculo quiuto esse vetustior. 'Primo figura literarum est elegans et Alexandrina, J. J. Acemitarum enim institutum auctorem habuit Marcellum Wetsten. Proleg. ad N. T. Gr. T. i. p. 11. in. Apamiensem, vel potius Alexandrum ejus successorem, qui & Vid. Prolegom. in Tom. i. sect. 4. floruit A. C. 420, teste du Cange in glossario. ... Existimo Prolegom. ad Tom. i. sect. 3. igitur, tempus, quo codex iste scriptus est, incidere in finem i Non idem ordo est duodecim prophetarum apud Septuaseculi quinti, quæ etiam Millii est sententia. Prol. 1338. ginta Interpretes, qui in Hebraïcâ veritate retinetur. Illi Id. ib. 11.
enim ponunt secundum Amos, tertium Michæam, quartum • Prop. xiv. Nonnulla in se continet codex Alexandrinus, Joël, quintum Abdiam, sextum Jonam, septimum Naum, quæ ad ecclesiam Alexandrinam respiciunt. Veritas hujus octavum Abakuk, nonum Sophoniam, decimum Aggæum, assertionis probatur, 1. ex epistolâ Athanasii
. 2. ex Hypo- undecimum Zachariam, duodeciinum Malachiam. Hebræi thesibus Eusebii. 3. ex Canonibus Psalmorum. 4. ex Can- autem post Osee, qui apud utrosque primus est, secundum ticis annexis 5. ex tertio Maccabæorum libro. 6. ex legunt Joël, tertium Amos, quartum Abdiam, quintum Jonam, Psalmis Salomonis. 7. ex traditione ecclesiae Alexandriæ. sextum Michæam, septimum Naüm, octavum Abakuk, Prolegom. ad Tom. 2. Septuag. ex edit. Grabe, sect. 47. &c. nonum Sophoniam, decimum Aggæum, undecimum Zacha.
... additâ schedâ, quâ brevem dicti codicis notitiam pro- riam; duodecimum, qui et ultimus est, Malachiain. Pr. Coinpriâ manu tradidit sequentibus verbis: 'Liber iste Scripturæ ment. in Joel. T. ii. p. 1335.
the epistle of James, the two epistles of Peter, the three epistles of John, and the epistle of Jude. Moreover, it might be agreeable to some of my readers to compare this catalogue with that of the Festal epistle of Athanasius, formerly * transcribed by us at length : the two catalogues very much agree, from the beginning to the books of the Chronicles, inclusive ; in both, the lesser prophets are placed before the four other; and in the l'estal epistle, as well as here, the catholic epistles follow next after the Acts of the apostles, and precede St. Paul's epistles ; and St. Paul's epistles are there in the same order as here; finally, both have the Revelation. It may be also worth observing, that St. Paul's epistles have likewise the
same order (that is, the epistle to the Hebrews is placed before those to Timothy, Titus, and Philemon) in Euthalius, an Egyptian bishop, and well acquainted with Athanasius, who was bishop of Alexandria, about 490. The same order of Paul's epistles, is in Cosmas of Alexandria ; to be alleged hereafter.
5. This manuscript contains a great number of books, which are not now reckoned canonical. As I have often spoken of this matter in several places, a great deal needs not to be said here. But probably all the books here mentioned, and written out in these volumes, were not reckoned, to be of equal authority: it may be supposed, that they were all read sometimes in the assemblies of Christians, in the city or country, where this truly noble manuscript was written. Nevertheless, it would be unreasonable to think, that they were esteemed of authority, and decisive in any doctrines of religion; that would be contrary to the sentiments of ancient Christian writers, in general ; and particularly of Athanasius, in his Festal epistle, and of the d Synopsis, sometimes ascribed to him, and probably written by an Alexandrian.
II. In the next place I shall put down the Stichometry of NICEPHORUS, patriarch of Constantinople, who flourished in the beginning of the ninth century. Some have disputed the genuineness of this catalogue, Pearson o in particular ; who supposeth it the work of an unknown person though it be found subjoined to the Chronography of Nicephorus.: but generally it is allowed. Cave says, if it is not Nicephorus's, it must have been composed by some other Greek, about the same time; because it was translated into Latin by Anastasius Bibliothecarius, in Italy, who flourished about 870. Fabricius & thinks it to be Nicephorus's, or a more ancient writer's: nor do I perceive Mill to hesitate about its genuineness.
A Stichometry is, a catalogue of books of sacred scripture; to which is added the number of the verses which each book contains. This Stichometry contains a catalogue of the books of the Old and New Testament: I propose to transcribe the whole, omitting only the numbers of verses, which are oftentimes faulty, and are not material at present. There are many editions of this Stichometry, beside that * at the end of the Chronography of its supposed author. I shall follow the edition of Montfaucon, which he has lately published, as more exact than most others; observing, perhaps, in some places, the different readings of some other editions.
• The divine scriptures, which are received by the church, and reckoned canonical, and their • Stichometry, are thus: Genesis; Exodus; Leviticus; Numbers; Deuteronomy; Joshua ;
Judges, and Ruth; the first and second book of the Kingdoms; the third and fourth book of • the Kingdoms ;, the first and second of the Remains; Ezra, first and second; the" book of • Psalms; the Proverbs of Solomon ; Ecclesiastes; the Song of Songs ; Job; Isaiah the prophet ; • Jeremiah the prophet; Baruch ; Ezekiel ; Daniel; the twelve prophets. Allo together, the • books of the Old Testament are 22.'
a See vol. ij. p. 399.
See in this vol. p. 39.
Et sane videtur Nicephoro antiquior esse. Libros enim recen« See vol. ii. p. 399.
set eodem ordine, quo in calce Synopseos Athanasianæ legund. Ibid. p. 403-405.
tur. Fabric. Cod. Apocr. N. T. p. 143.in notis. Conf. Ejusd. * At quomodo, quæso Stichometria pars est Chronogra. Bib. Gr.T.xiii.p. 844. phiæ, quæ ab eâ toto cælo distat? Assuta est illi quidem in h Vid. Prolegom. n. 1030, 1031. Codicibus Græcis. Sed non magis ipsa pars est Chronographize, i Vid. Fabric. et Mill. ubi supra. quam Chronographia pars est Stichometriæ. Vindic. Ignat. * Apud Jos. Scalig. Thesaur. Temporum. p. 312. P. i. c. 4: p. 272 B.
i Vid: Bib. Coislin. p. 204, 205. Auctoris tamen esse Nicephoro coævi vel inde patet, quod τη Και όσαι εισι θειαι γραφαι εκκλησιαζομεναι και κεκανονις. ab Anastasio Romano in linguam Latinam versa sit. H. L. T. μεναι, και η τελων σιχαμείρια, ελως. Ιbid. ỹ, P. 5.
η Βιβλος ψαλμων. * Nicephori esse negat idem Pearsonius in Vindiciis Ignatä. ° 'Ομε της πάλαιας διαθηκης βιβλια κς.