« הקודםהמשך »
Awful matron, take thy seat
To celebrate this festival:
The wonders of her reign recount,
In strains that Phoebus may surmount,
She 'twas that did at first inspire,
And tune the mute Hibernian lyre,
Those favors they did shower.
Is only in the Muse's power.
Whose isle to him her freedom owes ;
While Boyne or Shannon flows.
“After this ode had been sung by the principal gentlemen of the kingdom, there was a very diverting speech made in English by the Terræ Filius. The night concluded with illuminations, not only in the college, but in other places."
Thus was celebrated the "first secular day,” or hundredth anniversary, of the Dublin University. The same informant, speaking of the viceregal court, says of the lords justices, “When they go to church, the streets, from the castle gate to the church door, as also the great aisle of the church, to the foot of the stairs by which they ascend to the place where they sit, are lined with soldiers.
They are preceded by the pursuivants of the council-chamber, two maces, and, on state-days, by the king and pursuivant-at-arms, their chaplains, and gentlemen of the household, with pages and footmen bareheaded. When they alight from their coach, in which commonly the lord chancellor and one of the prime nobility sit with them, the sword of state is delivered to some lord to carry before them. And in the like manner they return back to the castle, where the several courses at dinner are ushered in by kettle-drums and trumpets.'
Upon the revocation of the Edict of Nantes, many French Protestants came over to Ireland. Their numbers were increased by the officers and men of a Huguenot regiment which served under William III., and, on being disbanded, remained in the country.
Their principal location was Portarlington, in the Queen's county, where they formed so large and influential a proportion of the inhabitants, that French became the common language of the place. Not a few of them, however, settled in the metropolis, and proved an important accession to its general intelligence, refinement, industry, and moral worth. The names of French street, Digges street, Aungier street, etc., tell their origin, and those of La Touche and other respectable families indicate their descent. These refu. gees, in 1695, formed three congregations : two of them Calvinistic, who worshipped in Peter street and Lucas lane, and the other, consisting of persons who preferred a liturgical service, had the use of a chapel in St. Patrick's Cathedral. A
German regiment had also been engaged in Ireland under William. On the war of the revolution being ended, this corps went to the continent, but when it was disbanded at the peace of Ryswick, portions belonging to it came over to Dublin with their chaplain, and formed a German Lutheran congregation, which had a place of worship in Marlborough street. The government of that period greatly encouraged the settlement of foreign Protestants in Ireland. The Nonconformists also had obtained comparative security and freedom. Under the general name of “Protestant Dissenters," they had in Dublin seven congregations, four Presbyterian, two Independent or Congregational, and one Baptist.
Dr. Narcissus Marsh had been Archbishop of Dublin from 1694 to 1702, in which year translated to Armagh. He died in 1713. “While he governed the Church in Dublin,” writes Harris, “he built a noble library, near the palace of St. Sepulchre’s, which he enlarged after his translation to Armagh, and filled it with a choice collection of books, having for that purpose bought the library of Doctor Edward Stilling fleet, formerly Bishop of Worcester, to which he added his own collection. And to make it more useful to the public, he plentifully endowed a librarian and sub-librarian to attend to it at certain prescribed hours. It is estimated that, besides the endowment, which amounted to two hundred and fifty pounds a year, he expended more than four thousand pounds in the building and books; and to make every thing secure to perpetuity, he
obtained an act of parliament for the settling and preserving it.” Harris adds, “I am under the necessity of acknowledging, from a long experience, that this is the only useful library in the kingdom, being open to all strangers, and at all reasonable times." This library is chiefly valuable for works published prior to its founder's death, only ten pounds annually being available for providing additions except what are obtained by donation. Harris wrote in 1739. Marsh's libras ry, though a most munificent boon to the city, has long ceased to be “the only useful library in the kingdom.” It is not at present resorted to as it once was, partly from its locality and from its worth not being known, but principally from other libraries in the city, including those of the University and the Dublin Royal Society, being made nearly as accessible.
The reign of William III., many as were its advantages to the empire, was not, in all its measures, an unmixed good to Ireland.
The fault, however, lay with a portion of his subjects, rather than with the king himself, who seems to have acted, in the case we are about to allude to, more from compulsion than from choice. In Henry the Third's time, and afterwards, the woollen manufactures of Ireland were much sought after in England, and were admitted there duty free. Their excellence was such that the Irish serges won for themselves the epithet of “noble” in Italy; and in 1482, the pope's agent at the English court asked and obtained, from Richard II., permission to export woollen mantles from Ireland
for his own dominions on the same terms. The trade went on more or less prospering, though of course affected by circumstances, till the latter half of the seventeenth century, when it began to excite jealousy among parties engaged in the same manufacture in England. The restoration of quietness and confidence in Ireland after the revolution, induced a number of English capitalists to come and establish themselves in that line 'in Dublin, where labor was cheap, and other conditions existed advantageous for carrying it on. Several streets in the ' Liberty,” and with them the 6 Weaver's square,
were then built, and soon became the residence of much opulence and respectability. The success of this enterprise greatly increased the umbrage, and even produced alarm, in interested parties on the other side of •the channel. The latter betook themselves to their parliament. Both the lords and the commons of England petitioned the king to interfere, and check the progress of the woollen trade in Ireland. He accordingly wrote to the lords justices, and by governmental influence induced the Irish parliament to impose a duty of twenty per cent. on broadcloth exported from Ireland, and of half that amount on serges and baize. This sudden suppression of the Irish woollen manufacture was disastrous to Dublin in the highest degree. Multitudes were reduced to beggary, both in the metropolis and the country. Happily the incubus then placed on Irish industry has long since been removed, and the energy and skill of both countries may now, so far as government is concerned,