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administer the affairs of Ireland, in 1651, and resided in Cork House. They were accompanied by the Reverend Samuel Winter, previously minister of Cottingham, in Yorkshire, whom they made provost of the College, which office he held till the Restoration. Calamy states that Winter relinquished a living of £400 a year in England, for a salary of £100, that he might promote the gospel in Ireland; also that Trinity College, which he found almost desolate, became under his care a valuable seminary of piety and learning. He was most indefatigable : besides presiding over the college, he was pastor of a church in the city, afternoon preacher at Christ Church, the principal service, had a sermon every Sunday morning in St. Nicholas's at seven o'clock, and preached ocsionally at Maynooth.

Many other ministers settled in Dublin during the Commonwealth, of whom the best known are Dr. Harrison, Stephen Charnock, author of the treatise on the “Divine Attributes,” · Samuel Mather, to whom we are indebted for a work on the “ Types," being a collection of discourses delivered in Dublin after the Restoration, and John Murcot, a young man of great promise, and whose ministry seems to have been attended with signal power for usefulness in the city and other parts. From Murcot's Life, called “Moses in the Mount,' in a posthumous volume of his works, we learn that people of the highest rank, as well as the public generally, flocked to hear him, and that both in the pulpit and in private he proved himself to be most earnest for the honor of God and

the good of souls. Dr. Winter, with whom he was colleague in the ministry, in an Epistle Dedicatory to the Lord Deputy Fleetwood and the Lord Henry Cromwell, prefixed to the above volume, says of him, “his praise is in the gospel throughout all the churches: I have seldom known of his years a head better hearted, or a heart better headed; the enlargement of whose heart was the enlargement of his abilities.” He died in December, 1654, pot having completed his thirtieth year, and was buried in St. Mary's chapel, Christ Church : his funeral was attended by the lord deputy, his commissioners, the mayor, aldermen, and great numbers of the citizens.

Most persons are aware how nobly Oliver Cromwell espoused the cause of the persecuted Protestants in Piedmont. In July, 1055, a collection towards their relief was begun in Dublin, and in January the sum of £1,097 6s. 3d. was remitted for the purpose by parties belonging to Dr. Winter's church.

About the time we are now speaking of, associations by mutual agreement for common purposes were being formed in several parts of England, among the ministers of different denominations. The celebrated Richard Baxter was zealous in promoting then. Archbishop Usher approved of them. In their meetings one of the ministers presided as “moderator." Baxter, in his Life, writes that “the Independent churches also in Ireland, led on by Dr. Winter, pastor of their church in Dublin, associated with the moderate Presbyterians there, upon these provocations,



and the persuasions of Colonel John Bridges.” He gives a letter signed by Winter and other ministers, “In the name of the associated churches of Christ in Ireland. These for the Reverend Mr. Richard Baxter, pastor of the church of Christ in Kidderminster, to be by him communicated to the several churches of that association.” The letter is dated July 5th, 1655, and breathes genuine Christian catholicity: “ The present condition of God's people in foreign parts, as among us,” say the writers, “ calls aloud for a more cordial union and communion among all such who desire to fear His name. It is therefore our hearts' desire, not to be wanting in our faith and prayers, resolves and endeavors, to the fulfilling of those exceeding great and precious truths which do eminently centre in these latter days, that Christ's friends may receive one mind and heart, to serve him with one lip and shoulder. We are thereby much encouraged to request your Christian assistance and brotherly correspondency, that we may all be the better able, in our several stations and relations, to promote more vigorously the interest of Christ and his people. After the sad shakings of this land, and his many turnings of things upside down, the Lord is pleased to promise us a little reviving, and to open a door of hope, even in the valley of Achor. Your favorable help is therefore earnestly craved, that Ireland may once more partake of the glad tidings of heaven, and the wants of many thousand starving souls may be seasonably supplied with the bread of life.” To the letter from which these sentences are

taken, Baxter and four other ministers sent a long and cordial response,

“ In the name of the Associated Ministers meeting at Kidderminster, August 12th, 1655,” inscribed, “to the Reverend our much-honored Brother Dr. Winter, Pastor of the Church of Dublin, to be communicated by him to the associated churches in Ireland: These.” Under date of “Dublin, January 16th, 1655-6," a letter was sent to Baxter and his brethren, signed by Dr. Winter and five “ Elders of the Church of Christ in Dublin, whereof Dr. Samuel Winter is Pastor,” “In the name and by the appointment of the rest of the associated churches in Ireland.

Henry Cromwell was lord deputy at the time this correspondence was going on. He was a truly Christian man, and did much to promote the gospel in the country, and union between the followers of his and their Lord. At his invita-, tion, a meeting of the principal ministers of different denominations, and from the several provinces of the country, was held in Dublin in April, 1648. About thirty were present, including three Presbyterians from the north of Ireland.

“He requested their advice respecting the instruction and conversion of the Roman Catholic population, the promoting of peace and unity among all godly ministers though of different churches, the due observance of the Sabbath, and the suppression of heresy and profaneness." They remained for five weeks together, gave Henry their opinions on the topics he had proposed, presented to him an address, and then returned to their respect

ive homes, with much love, having, during the time of their being together, kept a good understanding and mutual respect and kindness towards one another.”

The information we have of secular matters in Dublin, from Cromwell's arrival to the Restoration, is extremely meagre. Colonel Hewson was, in the early part of the time; governor of the city, and General Fleetwood lord deputy. In 1652, a court of justice was erected for the trial of persons concerned in the "barbarous murders” committed in the rebellion, and Sir Phelim O'Neil and others were condemned and executed. The city was tranquil and prosperous. Provision was made for victualling the government vessels as they lay near the city, the absence of which convenience had obliged them before to


elsewhere for supplies. A weekly postal communication was established with England, by packet to Holyhead.

Oliver Cromwell died early in September, 1658: his eldest son, Richard, succeeded him as protector, and was proclaimed in Dublin on the 10th. Henry was appointed lord lieutenant of Ireland by his brother Richard. “ The kingdom continued to enjoy unusual tranquillity, and in no part of the empire did there exist a more cordial or general submission to the new protector.” But Richard was unequal to his high and difficult position. 'He summoned a parliament in January, 1658–9, which he dissolved in April. The army induced him to resign. The remains of Oliver's last parliament assembled : the government of

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