תמונות בעמוד

As bees. II. 2 : 87-91: 'Even as when the tribes of thronging bees issue from some hollow rock, ever in fresh procession, and fly clustering among the flowers of spring, and some on this hand and some on that fly thick; even so,' etc. Imitated in Mn. 6 : 706-709.

768-788. Landor thinks the 'poem is much better without these,' and in any case would retrench, in lines 772-775, or on . . . affairs.

769. Cf. Virgil, Georg. 1 : 217.

770. See Georg. 4 : 21-22.

771. Fresh dews. So Ovid, Fasti 3 : 880, 'rore recente.' See also Eye. 29.

773. Straw-built. Gray has borrowed this epithet for his Elegy.

774. Balm. The melisphyllum of Georg. 4 : 63. Expatiate. Wander at will; so Ovid, Met. 2 : 202, 'exspatiuntur cqui.' Confer. Talk over, discuss. A Latinism.

776. Straitened. Cf. P. L. 9 : 323. Signal given. sEn. 12 : 129, 'dato signo.'

777. Cf. P. L. 6 : 351-353. 'I wish I had not been called upon to "Behold a wonder." ' — Landor.

778. Cf. v. 576.

780. Pygmean. Cf. v. 575.

781. Beyond the Indian mount. According to Pliny, Nat. Hist. VII. ii. 19.

783-784. Sees, or dreams he sees. So sin. 6 : 454, 'Aut videt, aut vidisse putat.'

785. Arbitress. Spectator. Night and Diana are called arbitrse in Hor. Ep. 5 : 50.

786. Pale course. An instance of transferred epithet. sEn. 7 : 8-9, ' Nec candida cursus Luna negat.' Milton may also have had in mind Hor., Epist. I. iv. 5-7.

795. Recess. Retreat. Cf. P. L. 4 : 708.

796. A thousand. A round number, as often in poetry; cf. note on v. 545. Golden. Inlaid with gold, probably ; so the xpii<r««>5 Opovot of II. 8 : 442.

797. Frequent. Crowded. Apparently limits conclave, since full could hardly modify a plural. May conclave be therefore used in its Latin sense of ' chamber,' ' locked room '? This sense was then current in English, and seems to agree better with recess. Or may frequent and full possibly limit seats? If so, why full? Several critics have here supposed that conclave alluded to the assembly of Cardinals met for the election of a Pope. See consistory, P. R. 1 :42.

798. Summons read. See note on v. 573. Consult. Meeting for consultation. The New Eng. Diet, has: 'in 17th century often specifically a secret meeting for purposes of sedition or intrigue; a cabal.'

At this point, if not before, the Introduction should be carefully perused, and the views of the poet-critics in Part IV. compared with those which the student himself has formed.


1. High, etc. Why the inversion? The beginning may have been suggested by Ovid, Met. 2 : 1-2: 'The palace of the Sun was raised high, on stately columns, bright with radiant gold, and carbuncle that rivals the flames.' See also F. Q. I. iv. 8.

1-6. High . . . eminence. Memorize.

2. Wealth of Ormus and of Ind. 'That is, diamonds, a principal part of the wealth of India, where they are found, and of the island Ormus, in the Persian gulf, which is (was) the mart for them.' — Pearce. Perhaps Milton may have heard of the Koh-i-nur, in the possession of Aurungzebe. To Ben Jonson, Ormus was the island from which drugs were brought. Abel Drugger, who deals in tobacco and minerals used in alchemy, is indirectly promised by Subtle: —

There is a ship now, coming from Ormus,
That shall yield him such a commodity
Of drugs .

Considering the relations between Andrew Marvell and Milton, it is interesting to find the former writing, in his Song of the Emigrants in Bermuda:

He hangs in shades the orange bright

Like golden lamps in a green night,

And does in the pomegranates close

Jewels more rich than Ormus shows.

3. Landor suggests there for or, saying, 'Are not Ormus and Ind within the gorgeous East?'

4. It is said that this was done at the coronation of Tamerlane. Barbaric . . . gold. From^Bre. 2 : 504, 'barbarico . . . auro,' where it means Phrygian or perhaps other Asiatic gold. See Shak., Ant.

II. v. 45-46: —

I'll set thee in a shower of gold, and hail
Rich pearls upon thee.

Pearl. Plural. So Sonn. 12 : 8, and often in Shakespeare.

5. By merit. Like Lat. merito, deservedly, justly.

6. Eminence. Twofold sense? Despair. See P. L. 1 : 126. 9. Success. Issue, result; a Shakespearian sense.

10. Proud imaginations. Cf. Luke 1 : 51; Jer. 3 : 17; Kom. 1 : 21; 2 Cor. 10 : 5.

11. Powers and Dominions. See note on 1 : 737.

14. Give. Esteem, as in Shak., W. T. III. ii. 96 : 'Your favor I do give lost.' It is difficult to decide between this sense and that of 'give up,' or, on the other hand, that of 'admit,' 'allow.'

18. Me though, etc. Why the inversion? What is the last verb which governs me? Cf. Hor., Od. I. v. 13.

Note that Satan will allow nothing to the election of God.

32. None, etc. Yet cf. P. L. 1 : 262-263.

33. Precedence. Pronounce.

M. That. What part of speech?

35. With this advantage, etc. Is it true that adversity often establishes closer confederations than prosperity?

40-42. By ... speak. Cf. P. L. 1: 662; F. Q. VII. vi. 21: —

Wherefore it now behoves us to advise
What way is best to drive her to retire,
whether by open force or counsell wise;
Areed, ye sonnes of God, as best ye can devise.

See also II. xi. 7: —

T' assayle with open force or hidden' guyle.

43. Moloch. Cf. P. L. 1 : 392-405. Macaulay, in his Essay on Milton, compares James II. to Moloch. What renders this plausible? Sceptred king. As in II. 1 : 279.

45. Fiercer by despair. Cf. P. L. 1 : 191; 2: 107, 126.

46. Trust. Cf. P. /,. 1 : 40; Job 40 : 23; Luke 24 : 21.

50. Recked. Donne.

51. Sentence. Judgment, vote. Open war. What is finally decided upon? By whom devised? How many opinions have first been expressed, by whom, and to what purport?

65. Millions. Cf. P. L. 1 : 664.

57. Heaven's fugitives. Fugitivus with the genitive is a Latin construction.

58. Opprobrious. Cf. P.L.I: 403.

61. All at once. When the celebrated Edmund Burke was about eighteen years of age, he was a member of a debating club in Dublin. From the minutes of this club we learn (Todd's edition of Milton, vol. I. p. 156): 'Friday, June 5,'1747, Mr. Burke, being ordered to speak the speech of Moloch, receives applause for the delivery, it being in character. Then the speech was read and criticized upon; its many beauties illustrated; the chief judged to be its conformity with the character of Moloch : —

No, let us rather choose,
Armed with Hell-flames and fury, all at once
O'er Heaven's high towers to force resistless way.

The words "all at once" (the metre not considered) seemed to the whole assembly to hurt the sentence by stopping the rapidity and checking the fierceness of it, making it too long and tedious. Then was Belial's speech reaft, to the great delight of the hearers.'

62. Towers. Cf. vv. 129, 1049.

64 ff. Cf. Prom. Bound 920-923: —

Such a foe
He doth himself prepare against himself,
A wonder of unconquerable hate,
An organizer of sublimer Are
Than glares in lightnings, and of grander sound
Than aught the thunder rolls,— outthundering it.

65. Almighty engine. See P. L. 6 : 749-7G6, 844-852.

67. Black fire. Cf. P. h. 1 : 63, 182.

69. Mixed. Disturbed, convulsed. Imitated from the poetical sense of Lat. miscere, as in An. i : 124; 2 : 487. Tartarean. Infernal.

70. His own invented torments. Torments invented by himself.

72. Upright. Meaning here?

73. Bethink. Cf. Comus 820. Them. Define. Drench. Draught.

74. Forgetful lake. Cf. P. L. 1 : 266, and note.

75. Proper. Define. Cf. P. L. 3 : 634; 8 : 619. So Lat. proprius.

76. Native seat. Cf. P. L. 1 : 633-634.

77. Adverse. Contrary, unnatural.

82. Event. See P.L.I: 624.

83. Our Stronger. Cf.'our betters.'

88. Unextinguishable fire. II. 16 : 132, i^hrr, <pl6(.

89. Exercise. Plague, afflict. So the Lat. exercere, in Mn. 6 : 739.

90. Vassals. Cf. v. 252.

91. Torturing hour. Cf. Haml. I. v. 2; M. N. D. V. i. 37.

92. Calls. Why not call? Penance. Cf. P. L. 10 : 550.

94. What. Like Lat. quid. Define. Incense. Kindle, inflame. A Latinism. Cf. Ps. 2 : 12; Isa. 5 : 25. 97. Essential. Existence, being.

104. Fatal. Ordained by fate. A Latinism. Cf. P. L. 1 : 133.

106. Denouncedi Announced, menaced. A Latinism. Cf. P. L. 11: 815.

109. Belial. Cf. P. Z. 1 : 490-505; 6: 620-627. Macaulay compares Charles II. to him; see note on v. 43. Act. Action accompanying the delivery of a speech. A Latinism, as in Quintilian IX. ii. 4. So action in Haml. I. ii. 84. Humane. Polite; as in Latin. Note the effect of contrast in this succession of speeches, as in II. 1 : 223249.

113. Manna. A sweet sirup or gum exuded from certain plants. Not the manna of the Bible. Here almost = ' honey.'

113-114. Make the worse appear The better reason. Literally from the Greek; see Plato, Apol. 18 B, and cf. Aristophanes, Clouds 114.

114. Dash. Frustrate; so in Shak. 3 Hen. VI. II. i. 118, 'to dash our late decree'

123. Conjecture. Interpretation (of omens), augury, foreboding. An obsolete sense.

124. Feat of arms. French, fait d'armes.

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