תמונות בעמוד
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373. Devils. Deut. 32 : 17; Ps. 106 : 37; 1 Cor. 10 : 20; Rev. 9 : 20. To adore. Dependent on what verb?

375. Idols. In its etymological or primitive sense.

376. Say, Muse. So Homer, II. 2 : 484, 487: 'Tell me now, ye Muses . . . who were the captains of the Danaans and their lords.' Cf. jEn. 7 : 641.

Who first, who last. II. 5 : 703: 'And now who first was slaughtered, and who last.' So 16 : 692, and sEn. 11 : 664.

378. Wherein did the Emperor, in Milton's time, differ from a king, as of France or England?

381. Pit. See v. 91.

382. Roaming. 1 Pet. 5 : 8.

384. Their altars. 2 Kings 21 : 3-7.

387. Between the Cherubim. Exod. 25 : 22; Ps. 80 : 1.

389. Abominations. Jer. 7 : 30.

390. Solemn feasts. Lam. 2 : 6.

391. Affront. Confront? or insult?

392. Moloch. Properly Molech. 1 Kings 11 : 7; 2 Kings 23 : 10. Cf. P. L.I: 43-108; Od. Nat. 205-210. The word Molech means 'king.' Besmeared with blood . . . and . . . tears. Zeugma.

394. Drums. Kimchi, the Jewish commentator, says: 'They used to make a noise with drums, that the father might not hear the cry of his child and have pity on him.'

395. Passed through fire. Lev. 18 : 21; Ps. 106 : 37, 38; Jer. 32 :35.

397. Rabba. 2 Sam. 12 : 26, 27.

398. Argob, Basan. Deut. 3 : 13.

399. Arnon. Deut. 3 : 12, 16. The Arnon was the boundary between Moab and Israel.

400. Wisest heart. Transferred epithet?

401. Build. 1 Kings 11 : 7; 2 Kings 23 : 13.

403. Grove. Deut 16 : 21; 1 Kings 15 : 13; Exod. 34 : 13, 14.

404. Hlnnom, Tophet. Jer. 7 : 31; 2 Chr. 28 : 31.

405. Gehenna. A Greek word derived from Hinnom, and in the New Testament translated ' hell;' so in Matt. 5 : 29, etc.

406. Chemos. 2 Kings 23 : 13..

407. Aroar. 1 Chr. 5 : 8. Nebo. Deut. 34 : 1.

408. Abarlm. Num. 33 : 47; Deut. 32 : 49. Hesebon. Milton frequently uses the Vulgate forms in s, instead of sh. Num. 21 : 26.

409. Horonaim. Jer. 48 : 1-3. Seon. Vulg. Sehon, Auth. Vers. Sihon. Num. 21 : 26.

410. Sibma. Isa. 16 : 0; Jer. 48 : 32.

Ill. Eleale. Isa. 16 : 9; Jer. 48 : 34. Asphaltic Pool. The Greek and Latin name for the Dead Sea. Were the places named to the east or to the west of the Dead Sea and the Jordan?

412. Peor. This is Jerome's identification. Num. 25 : 1-3, 9, 18. See Od. Nat. 197.

416. Hill of scandal. See v. 403.

417. Lust hard by hate. Cf. P. L. 9 : 1121-1131, and 2 Sam. 13 : 15.

418. Drove. 2 Kings 23.

419. Bordering. Gen. 15 : 18.

420. Old. Because noticed in Gen. 2 : 14. Brook. Newton suggests Besor, 1 Sam. 30 : 9.

422. Baalim and Ashtaroth. Judg. 2 : 11-13; 10 : 6. Both words are plurals. Baal was the supreme male divinity of the Phoenician and Canaanitish peoples, As(h)toreth (Greek Astarte) their supreme female divinity. Cf. Od. Nat. 197; P. R. 3: 117.

426. Cf. P. L. 8 : 024-625.

433. Living Strength. 1 Sam. 15 : 29.

430. Bowed down. Judg. 2 : 14, 15; Ps. 106 : 40-42.

438. Astoreth. Singular of Ashtaroth. See Od. Nat. 200. Gayley, Classic Myths, p. 424: 'All Semitic nations, except the Hebrews, worshiped a supreme goddess who presided over the moon (or the Star of Love), and over all animal and vegetable life and growth. She was the Istar of the Assyrians, the Astarte of the Phoenicians, and is the analogue of the Greek Aphrodite and the Latin Venus.'

441. Zeugma.

443. Offensive mountain. See v. 403.

444. Large. 1 Kings 4 : 29.

445. Idolatresses. 1 Kings 11 : 1-5.

446. Thammuz. Ezek. 8 : 13, 14. See Od. Nat. 204. Gayley, Classic Myths, pp. 450-451: 'Adonis ... is the Phoenician Adon, or the Hebrew Adonai, "Lord." The myth derives its origin from the Babylonian worship of Thammuz or Adon, who represents the verdure of spring, and whom his mistress, the goddess of fertility, seeks, after his death, in the lower regions. With their departure all birth and fruitage cease on the earth. . . . His burial is attended with lamentations. . . . The beautiful 15th Idyl of Theocritus contains a typical Psalm of Adonis, sung at Alexandria, for his resurrection.' See Comus 998-1002, and my edition of Addison's Criticisms on Paradise Lost, p. 47.

447. Annual wound. Cf. Ovid, Met. 10 : 727.

449. Amorous ditties. See P. L. 11 : 584.

450. Smooth. See Vac. Ex. 100; Comus 825; P. L. 4 : 459. 456. Dark idolatries. Ezek. 8 : 12.

459. Maimed. 1 Sam. 5 : 1-5.

460. Grunsel. For groundsill, threshold.

462. Dagon. Cf. S. A., passim, but especially vv. 437-478.

463. Pish. In 1 Sam. 5 : 4, the marginal reading for ' stamp ' is 'fishy part;' the stem dag means 'fish.' The fish-like form was a natural emblem of fruitfulness. Were the Philistines a sea-faring people?

464. Azotus. N. T. name for Ashdod (Acts 8 : 40).

465. Ascalon. For these cities see 1 Sam. 6 : 17.

466. Accaron. Vulgate form of Ekron.

467. 2 Kings 5 : 18.

469. Abbana and Pharphar. 2 Kings 5 : 12. Milton's spelling Abbana has no authority. The Authorized and Revised Versions have Pharpar. Lucid streams. Quintilian, X. xii. 60, ' amnis lucidus;' so Ovid, Met. 2 : 365, 'lucidus amnis.'

471. Leper. 2 Kings 5 : 1-14.

472. Ahaz. 2 Kings 16; 2 Chron. 28 : 20-24.

477. Crew. See v. 51.

478. What can you discover about these divinities? See Od. Nat. 211-220.

479. Abused. See P. R. 1 : 455. Define.

481. See Ovid, Met. 5 : 321-331: 'Typhceus, sent forth from the lowest realms of the earth, had struck terror into the inhabitants of Heaven, and they had all turned their backs in flight, until the land of Egypt had received them in their weariness. . . . The gods above had concealed themselves under assumed shapes, . . . the sister of Phoebus as a cat, Juno, the daughter of Saturn, as a snow-white cow, . . . Mercury, the Cyllenian god, beneath the wings of an ibis.' So Apollodorus, I. vi. 3.

482. Scape. Not 'scape; cf. scapegrace.

483. Borrowed. Exod. 12 : 35.

484. Calf. Exod. 32 : 4; Ps. 100 : 19. King. 1 Kings 12 : 28, 29. 480. Likening. Ps. 106 : 20.

487. Passed. Exod. 12 : 42.

488. Equaled. Exod. 12 : 29.

489. Bleating. Cf. Shak., W. T. IV. iv. 29.

490. Belial. 2 Cor. 6 : 15. In the O. T., Belial is not to be regarded as a proper name, nor as standing for a deity, bat as meaning 'worthlessness,' 'wickedness,' almost in the abstract. See P. L. 2 : 108-228.

495. Ell's sons. 1 Sam. 2 : 12, 22.

497-502. Cf. P. L. 11 : 714-718. Was Milton thinking of any contemporaries?

502. Flown. The participle of ^y, confused with that of flow, as occasionally in Spenser and Shakespeare. The word here seems to mean 'debauched,' like the Lat. fluens; cf. Liv. VII. xxix. 5, 'Campani fluentes luxu.' For such a use of the past participle in the sense of the present, cf. 'fair-spoken,' Shak., Hen. VIII. IV. ii. 52; 'moulten,' 1 Hen. IV. III. i. 152; and 'forgotten' = forgetful, Ant. I. iii. 91; Abbott, Shak. Gram., § 374.

503. Sodom. Gen. 19 : 4-8.

504. Gibeah. Judges 19 : 16-25. The hospitable doors. The first edition has hospitable doors.

505. Exposed a matron. The first edition has yielded their matrons.

506. Prime. Chief.

508. Ionian. This word is etymologically akin to Javan, and the Ionians were descended from Javan. Javan's. Gen. 10 : 2. Held. Accounted, considered.

510. Titan. Meaning Oceanus. So in Hesiod, Theog. 133.

511. Brood. The Oceanids, Hes., Theog. 337 ff.

512. Saturn. Rather, Cronos. See Res., Theog. 168 ff.

513. Son. Hes., Theog. 453 ff.

514. Crete. Hes., Theog. 477 ff.

515. Ida. In Crete ; see Pausanias V. vii. 6. Thence. Heaving that place. Snowy. So II. 1 : 420 ; 18 : 615.

517. Delphian cliff. Parnassus. So called by Sophocles, 0. T. 463; cf. Od. Nat. 178.

518. Dodona. Odys. 14 : 327: 'He had gone, he said, to Dodona, to hear the counsel of Zeus from the high leafy oak tree of the god.'

519. Saturn. Jun. 8 : 319-325. But Saturn is not there represented as having companions.

520. Aolria. The Adriatic Sea. Hesperian. Italian, or, perhaps, Italian and Spanish.

521. Celtic. Used as a noun, as in Latin and Greek. N. W. Europe is meant. Roamed. With direct object ; cf. P. L. 9 : 82; P. R. 1 : 502. Utmost. British. Cf. Plutarch (Cessation of Oracles 18): 'Demetrius said, that of the islands lying about Britain there were many desert. ... In that region also, they said, Saturn was confined in one of the islands by Briareus, and lay asleep.' To the same effect he says (Apparent Face in the Moon's Orb 26): 'In one of which [islands] the barbarians fable that Saturn is imprisoned by Jupiter, while his son lies by his side, as though keeping guard over those islands and the sea.'

523. Damp. Cf. P. L. 10 : 848 ; 11 : 293, 544.

528. Cf. P. L. 9 : 471.

529. Worth, not substance. Cf. Spenser, F. Q. II. ix. 2. 9.

530. First edition, fainted, which would then have been good English, since faint is used as a transitive verb by Chaucer and Shakespeare.

531. Straight. Define.

532. Clarions. A clarion is a shrill-sounding trumpet with a narrow tube. Cf. Fairfax's Tasso 1 : 74. Note the imitative sound.

533. Claimed. So in Piers Plowman, C. 23 : 95-96 :—

Elde the hore was in the vauntwarde

And bar the baner byfore Deth; by right he hit claymede.

534. Azazel. This is the Hebrew word rendered 'scapegoat' in Lev. 16, but it has also been rendered 'strong in retreating,' and used as a proper name ' for some demon or devil by several ancient authors, Jewish and Christian.'

536. Imperial. Cf. P. L. 1 : 378 ; 2 : 446 ; 5 : 801. Ensign. Cf. P. L. 6 : 775-776. In the following extract from Webster's Reply to Hayne, point out the words taken from this passage: 'Let their last feeble and lingering glance rather behold the gorgeous ensign of the Republic, now known and honored throughout the earth, still full high advanced, its arms and trophies streaming in their original lustre.'

Advanced. Not' carried forward,' as is shown by P. L. 5 : 588-590, but' uplifted,' or perhaps 'waved,' as frequently in Shakespeare.

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