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THE

CYCLOPÆDIA

OF

BIBLICAL LITERATURE.

EDITED BY

JOHN KITTO, D.D., F.S.A.,

AUTHOR OF "THE HISTORY AND PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY OF PALESTINE," EDITOR OF

“ THE PICTORIAL BIBLE," &c. &c.

23

ILLUSTRATED BY NUMEROUS MAPS AND ENGRAVINGS.

IN TWO VOLUMES.

VOL. II.

TENTI EDITION.

NEW YORK:
PUBLIS IED BY MARK II. NEWMAN & CO.,

199 BRO A D WAY.

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CYCLOPÆDIA

BIBLICAL LITERATURE.

IBZAN. .

IDDO. IBZAN (¥?x, illustrious ; Sept. 'ABaioody), two and three miles, beyond which are suburbs the tenth judge of Israel.' He was of Bethle not much less populous than the town itself. The hem, probably the Bethlehem of Zebulun and not walls, strong and lofty, and flanked with square of Judah. He governed seven years. The pro

towers, which, at the gates, are placed close tosperity of Ibzan is marked by the great number gether (see cut, No. 317], were built by the Selof his children (thirty song and thirty dughters I jukian Sultans of Iconium, who seem to have and his wealth, by their marriages-for they were

taken considerable pains to exhibit the Greek inall married. Some have beld, with little proba

scriptions, and the remains of architecture and bility, that Ibman was the same with Boaz! Bc. sculpture, belonging to the ancient Iconium, 1182 (Judg. xii. 8).

which they made use of in building the walls.

The town, suburbs, and gardens, are plentifully 1-CHABOD (Tian X, where is the glory; supplied with water from streams which flow Sept. 'Ayitás), son of Phinehas and grandson of from some hills to the westward, and which, to Eli. He is only known from the unhappy circum- the north-east, join the lake, which varies in stances of his birth, which occasioned ihis name to size with the season of the year. In the towr te giren to him. The pains of labour came upon carpets are manufactured, and blue and yellow his mother when she heard that the ark of God leathers are tanned and dried. Cotton, wool, was taken, that her husband was slain in battle, hides, and a few of the other raw productions and that these tidings bad proved fatal to his which enrich the superior industry and skill of father Eli. They were death-pains to her; and the manufacturers of Europe, are sent to Smyrna when those around sought to cheer ber, saying, by caravans. * Fear not, for thou hast borne a son,' she only The most remarkable building in Konieh is afiskered by giving him the name of l-chabod, ade the tomb of a priest highly revered throughout ding, "The glory is departed from Israel' (1 Sam. Turkey, called Hazreet Meylana, the founder of ir. 19-22): B.c. 1141. The name again occurs the Mevlevi Dervishes. The city, like all those in I Sam. xiv. 3 (ELI).

renowned for superior sanctity, abounds with ICONIUM (Irbyloy), a town, formerly the dervishes, who meet the passenger at every turncapital of Lycaonia, as it is now, by the name ing of the streets, and demand paras with the

Konieh, of Karamania, in Asia Minor. It is greatest clamour and insolence. The bazaars situated in N. lat. 370 51, E. long. 32° 40'. about and houses have little to recommend them to one hundred and twenty miles inland from the notice (Kinneir's Travels in Asia Minor; Leake's Blediterranean It was visited by St. Paul in Geography of Asia Minor ; Arundell's Tour 4.D. 45, when many Gentiles were converted: in Asia Minor). bat some unbelieving Jews excited against him 1. IDDO (izy, seasonable ; Sept.'A886), a proand Barnabas a persecution, which they escaped phet of Judah, who wrote the history of Rehowith difficulty (Acts xiii. 51; xiv. 1, &c.). He boam and Abiinh: or rather perhaps, who, in undertook a second journey to Iconium in A.D. 51. conjunction with Seraiah, kept the public rolls The church planted at this place by the apostle during their reigns. It seems from 2 Chron. xiii. continued to flourish, until, by the persecutions 22 that he named his book "779, Midrash, or of the Saracens, and afterwards of the Seljukians, Exposition.' Josephus (Antig. viii. 9. l) states w bo made it one of their sultanies, it was nearly that this Iddo was the prophet who was sent to extinguished. But some Christians of the Greek Jeroboam at Bethel, and consequently the same and Armenian churches, with a Greek metro- that was slain by a lion for disobedience to his inpolitan bishop, are still found in the suburbs of

structions (1 Kings xiji.); and many commenthe city, not being permitted to reside within the tators have followed this statement. walls.

2. IDDO, grandfather of the prophet ZechaKoniels is situated at the foot of Mount riah (Zech. i. 1: Ezr. v. 1: vi. 14). Tanu, upon the border of the lake Trogitis, In a fertile plain, rich in valuable productions 3. IDDO (178), chief of the Jews of the capti. particularly apricots, wine, cotton, flax, and vity established at Casiphia, a place of which it Tain. The circumference of the town is between is difficult to determine the position. It was to VOL. II.

him that Ezra sent a requisition for Levites and ing liis integrity and goodness merely by His Nethinim, none of whom had yet joined his words alone-a sentiment surely as far as possible caravan. Thirty-eight Levites and 250 Netbi- from the intention of our Divine Master. We nim responded to his call (Ezra viii. 17-20), must, therefore, necessarily understand a certain B.C. 457. It would seem from this that Iddo kind of words or discourse, which, under the was a chief person of the Nethinim, descended appearance of sincerity or candour, is often the from those Gibeonites who were charged with the worst possible, and Katadikácel Toy ăvOpctor, “conservile labours of the tabernacle and teinple. demns a man," because it is uttered with an evil This is one of several circumstances which indi. purpose. If, then, we interpret åpydy according cate that the Jews in their several colonies under to established Greek usage, there arises a natural the Exile were still ruled by the heads of their and very appropriate sense, namely, åpyby is the nation, and allowed the free exercise of their same as qepyov, otiosus, vain, idle; then, void worship.

of effect, without result, followed by no corre4. IDDO (1979, lovely ; Sept. 'ladat), a clief of

sponding event. Therefore gñua åpyóy is empty

or vain words or discourse, i. e. void of truth, the half tribe of Manasseh beyond the Jordan

and to which the event does not correspond. In (1 Chron. xxvii. 21).

short, it is the empty, inconsiderate, insincere IDLE. The ordinary uses of this word re- language of one who says one thing and means quire no illustration. But the very serious pas- another; and in this sense åpyós is very fresage in Matt. xii. 36 may suitably be noticed in quently employed by the Greeks. This Tittmann this place. In the Authorized Version it is trans- confirms by a number of citations; and then lated, I say unto you, that every idle word that deduces from the whole that the sense of the pasmen shall speak, they shall give an account sage under review is: 'Believe me, he who useg thereof in the day of judgment.' The original false and insincere language shall sufler grievous is, "Ori sñua dpyóv, 8 ddy Tarnowo w oi punishment : your words, if uttered with sincerity åvpwrot, åndúrovoi tepi aŭtoũ nóyov èy nuépą and ingenuousness, shall be approved ; but if kploews. The whole question depends upon they are dissembled, although they bear the the meaning or rather force of the term prua strongest appearance of sincerity, they shall be dpyóv, rendered ille word,' concerning which condemned (See Tittmann, On the Principal there has been no little difference of opinion. Causes of Forced Interpretations of the Nero Many understand it to mean wicked and in Testament, in Am. Bib. Repository for 1831, jurious words,' as if åpyou were the same as pp. 481-484). Trovnpóy, which is indeed found as a gloss in Cod. IDOLATRY. In giving a summary view of 126. The sense is there taken to be as follows :- the forms of idolatry which are mentioned in the · Believe me, that for every wicked and injurious Bible, it is expedient to exclude all notice of word men shall hereafter render an account.' those illegal images which were indeed designed And our Lord is supposed to liave intended in this to bear some symbolical reference to the worship passage to reprehend the Pharisees, who has spoken of the true God, but which partook of the nature impiously against Him, and to threaten them of idolatry ; such, for example, as the golden call with the severest punishments; inasmuchas every of Aaron (cf. Neh. ix. 18); those of Jeroboam ; one of their injurious and impious words should the singular ephods of Gideon and Micah (Judg. one day be judged. This interpretation of the viii. 27; xvii. 5); and the Teraphim. word ápróv is, however, reached by a somewhat cir- Idolatry was the most heinous oflence against cuitous process of philological reasoning, which is the Mosaic law, which is most particular in deexamined with much nicety by J. A. H. Tittmann, tining the acts which constitute the crime, and and shown to be untenable. He adds : This in severe in apportioning the punishment. Thus, it terpretation, moreover, would not be in accordance is forbidden to make any image of a strange God; with what precedes in verses 33-35, nor with what to prostrate oneself before such an image, or before follows in verse 37. For it is not any ricked those natural objects which were also worshipped discourse which is there represented; but the without images, as the sun and moon (Deut. iv. Teigued piety of the Pharisees, and their affected 19); to suffer the altars, images, or groves of idols zeal for the public welfare. In order to avoid a to stand (Exod. xxxiv. 13); or to keep the gold charge of levity and indifference, they had de and silver of which their images were made, and manded " a sign," onuciov; as if desirous that to suffer it to enter the house (Deut. vii. 25, 26); both they and others might know whether Jesus to sacrifice to idols, most especially to offer human was truly the Messiah. Against this dissimula sacrifices; to eat of the victims offered to idols tion in those who uttered nothing sincerely and by others; to prophesy in the name of a strange from the heart, Jesus had inveigbed in severe and god; and to adopt any of the rites used in idol. appropriate terms in verses 33-35, using the com- atrous worship, and to transfer them to the worparison of a tree, which no one judges to be good ship of the Lord (Deut. xii. 30, 31). As for and useful unless it bears good fruit, and from punishment, the law orders that if an individual which, if it be bad, no one expects good fruit. committed idolatry he should be stoned to death But if now the sense of verse 36 is such as these (Deut. xvii. 2-5); that if a town was guilty of interpreters would make it, there is added in this sin, its inhabitants and cattle should be slain. it a sentiment altogether foreign to what pre- and its spoils burnt together with the town itself cedes, and àpyáy becomes not only destitute of (Deut. xiii. 12.18). To what degree also the effect and force, but involves a sentiment incon- whole spirit of the Old Testament is abhorrent gruous with that in verse 37. For where our from idolatry, is evident (besides legal prohibitions, Lord says that liereafter every one shall be judged prophetic denunciations, and energetic appeals like according to his words, He cannot be understood that in Isa. xliv. 9-20) from the literal sense of the 10 mean that every one will be capable of proy. terms which are used as synonymes for idols and

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