Two Lectures on Population: Delivered Before the University of Oxford, in Easter Term, 1828

כריכה קדמית
Saunders and Otley, 1828 - 90 עמודים
 

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עמודים נבחרים

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עמוד 39 - ... there are few states in which there is not a constant effort in the population to increase beyond the means of subsistence. This constant effort as constantly tends to subject the lower classes of society to distress, and to prevent any great permanent melioration of their condition.
עמוד 103 - ... and a greater to the class of capitalists, than had been given before. We might find, for example, that though the absolute quantity of commodities had been doubled, they were the produce of precisely the former quantity of labour. Of every hundred hats, coats, and quarters of corn produced, if The labourers had before .... 25 The landlords 25 And the capitalists 50 100 And if, after these commodities were double the quantity, of every 100 The...
עמוד 49 - In almost all countries the condition of the great body of the people is poor and miserable...
עמוד 17 - The mine worked by England is the general market of the world : the miners are those who produce those commodities by the exportation of which the precious metals are obtained...
עמוד 103 - Wages are to be estimated by their real value, viz. by the quantity of labour and capital employed in producing them, and not by their nominal value either in coats, hats, money, or corn. Under the circumstances I have just supposed, commodities would have fallen to half their former value, and if money had not varied, to half their former price also.
עמוד 46 - If it were the natural tendency of capital to increase faster than population, there would be no difficulty in preserving a prosperous condition of the people. If, on the other hand, it were the natural tendency of population to increase faster than capital, the difficulty would be very great. There would be a perpetual tendency in wages to fall. The...
עמוד 27 - I do not see how it could be benefited in the ' least. If you have a certain value laid out ' against Irish commodities in the one case, you ' will have a certain value laid out against them ' in the other. The cattle are either exported to ' England, or they stay at home.
עמוד 50 - Now, this is the case in every civilized country. Even Ireland, the country most likely to afford an instance of what Mr Mill supposes to be the natural course of things, poor and populous as she is, suffers less from want, with her eight millions of people, than when her only inhabitants were a few septs of hunters and fishers. In our early history famines, and pestilences the consequences of famine, constantly recur. At present, though our numbers are trebled and quadrupled, they are unheard of.
עמוד 102 - It is according to the division of the whole produce of the land of any particular farm, between the three classes, of landlord, capitalist, and laborer, that we are to judge of the rise or fall of rent, profit, and wages...
עמוד 104 - ... Under the circumstances I have just supposed, commodities would have fallen to half their former value, and if money had not varied, to half their former price also. If then in this medium, which had not varied in value, the wages of the labourer should be found to have fallen, it will not the less be a real fall because they might furnish him with a greater quantity of cheap commodities than his former wages.

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