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scientific terms which the original English did not furnish, applies with much additional force to the propriety of drawing from the Sanscrit such words as the just expression of new ideas requires to be incorporated with the Bengáli language. The intelligent author needs not to be reminded, that the genius of this dialect is widely diverse from that of the old English, and does not so readily or euphonously admit of exotic additions to its vocabulary; while flowing in almost a pure stream from the swelling fountain of the inexhaustible Sanscrit, it naturally and with the happiest facility, draws from that rich source every augmentation which expanding knowledge requires for its conveyance. In the face, however, of these facts and of his own admissions, Mr. Mack has thought fit to pass away from the natural spring to take his supplies from the wells of Europe. 2ndly. One source of possible confusion from the transference to scientific purposes of native colloquial, or as he has it, popular terms, he allows does not exist in Bengálí, in as much as “the names of chemical substances,” for instance, “ are in the great majority of instances perfectly new to it;" so that he had only to form the just expressions from the Sanscrit, and then introduce them into conventional use at once," which from the beginning would be one and the same. 3rdly, while in all the European languages the terms of science drawn from Greek and Latin would be well understood, and convey a sense at first sight, more or less, as might be, expressive of the idea to be communicated, the mere exhibition of the same European terms in Bengálí letters, it is clear, would convey no sense whatever, would be mere arbitrary sound, an unmeaning juxtaposition of letters, complete hieroglyphics, and add very considerably to the difficulty to a native of mastering the new science laid before him. To say nothing of the unnatural combinations of native letters, and of the cacophonous utterance of exotic sounds to which those letters are so ill adapted, and which in numerous instances violate all the rules of harmony as fixed in the Bengali language, this single circumstance of the entire absence of all and any meaning in the word itself as such, and of the labour of recollecting and applying to the arbitrary hieroglyphic the notion of the substance or operation it stands to express, is abundantly sufficient, in our opinion, to discredit the adoption of such a mode of (translation, shall we call it?), and to attach to it its proper character of a circuitous and bungling contrivance ill adapted to the purpose to be answered by it. The only argument used to support this plan, which Mr. Mack brings forward, is, “ that it is a mistake to suppose that
any good will be done by accurate translations of scientific names, since so many of them, as far as their derivative import is concerned, are totally misapplied; and the translation of them therefore would only be giving cur. rency to error.” This position he illustrates by the word oxygen; the result of translating which word, he states, “ would have been that the exploded idea of oxygen being necessary to the produc
tion of acidity would have been embodied in the new word.” Now 1st, we do not see how it follows, as a consequence of adopting the natural mode of translation of scientific ideas into a native language, that it should be necessary to give a false translation in any case. Where a European term, originally supposed to convey the exact notion intended, but subsequently discovered not to do so, was clearly not justly translatable, there surely it would occur not either to give the false notion, nor yet the European sound which conveys it, but to adopt a native term which should correctly express the substance or operation designed, according to the best lights of modern science. But 2ndly, as in the term oxygen, it inust not be overlooked, that in numerous cases it is impossible to form any single word to convey the entire of perhaps a very complicate notion, or the many essential properties or effects resident in or producible by a particular substance. If modern analysis has shewn that oxygen “is not always" necessary to the production of acidity, it has also confirmed the fact that it does produce it in numerous combinations, and that that very power of acidification is one of its most striking characters. In fact, if this argument of Mr. Mack be allowed, it will apply equally to set aside nearly the whole of those very European terms which he has here expressed in Bengáli characters; for which one amongst the whole, may we ask, is a full, accurate, and altogether perfect expression of the notion it is intended to carry? Is it not sufficient, and in practice found to be sufficient, that the nomenclature employed expresses, say even but one prominent, if just idea of a substance ? And when the native student shall come to know, that oxygen and many other European terms here orientalized in Bengali characters, convey a partially false or incomplete idea of the chemical substance designed by it, what shall he say of his tutor's argument for not having translated it? Will he not see the clear inconsistency of preserving it in any shape ? Or rather will he not discover, after much labour, the superabundant convenience of words carrying an actual bona fide sense, however unavoidably imperfect, over the clumsy expedient of clogging his progress by a multitude of barbarous exotics without either sense or euphony ?
Much praise is undoubtedly due, however, to Mr. Mack, for this very laudable attempt to introduce European science for the first time into the language of Bengál. We trust he may see reason to reconsider his principles of translation, and that his next production will do him still greater credit than the present does certainly reflect upon him.
We must not omit to record in our pages the munificence of an individual in Scotland, James Douglas, Esq. of Cavers, “ to whose enlightened generosity Serampore College is indebted for its well furnished laboratory of chemical apparatus, he having devoted £500 to this purpose.” Such an instance of truly enligh tened liberality is as worthy of our highest eulogy, as it is rare
hitherto in reference to the east. May it not, however, be without generous imitators, to the great and lasting benefit of this distant appendage to the British Crown, and the fame of honourable record to themselves. Sept. 29th, 1834.
[The subject of scientific nomenclature being highly important, it is desirable that opposite views respecting it should be presented to our readers. Under this impres. sion, we have readily given insertion to the sentiments advocated in the Review, though they by no means exhibit our own. In our view, no corresponding advantages com pensate for the injury to the progress of science, which the adoption of a separate system for the European, the Hindu, and the Mahammadan, derived respectively from the Greek, the Sanskrit, and the Arabic languages must necessarily create. Such an unnecessary bar to scientific intercourse and national education is happily unknown in Europe ; and we trust will never be adopted in our Asiatic possessions.-Ed.]
The Course of a Good and Great Man. A Sermon preached on occasion of the death of Dr. Carey, by the Rev. J. Mack. Serampore, 1834
Christian Unity. A Visitation Sermon, by the Rev. Dr. Mill, Principal of Bishop's College. Calcutta, 1834.
Astonishing Condescension of the Redeemer. A Sacramental Sermon and Address, by the Rev. Jas. Charles, Junior Minister of St. Andrew's Church. Calcutta, 1834.
A Sermon, preached in St. John's Church, Mérat, by the Rev. J. C. Proby, Chaplain Delhi, 1834.
Indecision: its Signs, Sources and Evils, by the Rev. T. Dealtry, L. L. B. Reprinted from the Christian Intelligencer. Calcutta, 1834.
It is one of the rich gifts of Christianity, that when its followers have bidden a long adieu to the “old familiar faces,” they are sure to find, wherever the name of Jesus is named in sincerity, the best sympathies and affections of home. All true Christians are one in the Lord; and love is the bond that unites them. They are not exiles, while they can enjoy the comforts of Christian fellowship, and hear the living oracles of God, and sit down together at their Master's table, This was a consolation long denied to them here. Not long ago, Calcutta was altogether an idolatrous and infidel city: it had no Sabbath, no religious society, scarcely a church. But the prey has been taken from the strong one ! We had but to raise the cross on high, and Dagon fell prostrate before it. Of infidelity and irreligion there is still alas ! too much : but they do not come forth boldly as before ; they hide themselves in congenial darkness; they are avowed only in the private coteries of Kindred spirits. God has been very gracious to us : and we believe, that he is about to do greater things on our behalf. Besides the Armenian and Portuguese churches, He has given us eight Christian places of worship, where the Gospel is preached to
large audiences by able and faithful Ministers : He has raised up amongst us many, as witnesses to himself, who lend all the weight of their character and influence to the cause of Christ : and He has put it into their hearts to contribute largely and cheerfully to the numerous pious and charitable institutions with which Calcutta abounds. It is no longer a question among the heathen, whether the English have a religion : it is rather a matter of complaint, that they are over zealous in its support. And, though but few converts have yet been made from the Hindu community, the moral influence of Christianity has prodigiously increased. The seed is ripening ; let us pray that the harvest may be at hand.
We are aware that with much that is good, there is mixed up a considerable portion of unworthy and worldly motives, and that all have need to be spiritually refreshed and strengthened. But, after every reasonable allowance, enough remains to show that the influence of religion is decidedly and largely on the increase. The support given to our own and similar publications, and the many Sermons, which have issued from the press during the last two or three years, evince the direction of public opinion. Indeed, it would neither be a difficult nor unprofitable speculation, to make up from the Sermons lately published, an Indian Pulpit;' and, we believe, that both in plain speaking and ability it would stand no unequal comparison with the other works of the same kind in England and America. For a proof of this, we refer with pride and gratitude to the list at the head of our article. All are ably, some admirably written ; and, what is better, all without exception set forth the great principles of Christian truth. In a small community like this, elaborate criticism is scarcely needful, and might perhaps be invidious. We shall briefly notice them in the order of publication.
The object of Mr. Proby's discourse will be best learned from the Dedication.
To the Right Reverend THE LORD BISHOP OF Calcutta.
The circumstance of my having been twice reported to Government for refusing to read the Burial Service in certain cases, will, I trust, sufficiently account for the publication of this discourse.
I have the honor to be, &c. &c.
Mirat, March 10th, 1834.
Mr. Proby is obviously a conscientious and pious man, and his Sermon is plain, serious and scriptural. The difficulty, which he complains of, has been long and painfully felt; and there seems to us no way of evading it consistently, except that adopted by Mr. Proby. We shall state the difficulty in his own words.
“Now take the case of a poor fellow Christian whose life has been a continued series of irreligious acts, who has manifested no religious impression, who has given no proof of love to his Saviour, or respect for his commands, and who has been cut off from this world without even a death-bed repentance. Take; I say, a case of this kind, (Oh! that there were not so many among us,) and it appears to me impossible not to observe the pain. ful difference between the Service that is read, and the person that is buried. How can we thank God for such a man's death? How can we scripturally associate such a person with the elect of God? How can we pray that we may die like him, or scripturally express a hope that he rests in Jesus? Yet all this we Ministers are compelled to do on pain of punishment if we refuse*.”
The only method by which a Minister can avoid this, is by previously excommunicating the ungodly of his flock. But this is forbidden. For, says Mr. Proby, < " Excommunication has been long ago disused, yet it is considered as still in active existence, and as forming a ground for charges against us, whenever any Minister refuses to read the Church of England Burial Service over those whose lives and conversations and deaths have been such as to make our Burial Service unsuitable for them. And observe, the power of ex. communication is confined entirely to the higher orders of our Church-it rests not with us, so that in fact they have allowed a door to be shut, through which it has been lawful for us to escape in a difficulty, and yet they punish us as severely as if that door was still open.”
We echo the opinion of a large portion of the English Church, when we say, that this surely ought to be amended.
The next on the list is Professor Mack's admirable Sermon, on the death of Dr. Carey. It is the work of a powerful and masculine intellect, thoroughly imbued with Christianity, and exercis. ed on a congenial theme. There are few living preachers, to whom the following extract would not do honour.
“The obligation of seeking the conversion of the Heathen did not com. mend itself to his mind, merely as a matter of recorded law in the Christian Church, but also because of its harmony with those great but simple prins ciples, which have been already spoken of, as the basis of his character both public and private. Missionary zeal was not in him either excited or maintained, by an imaginative enthusiasm, playing with the grosser excres. cences and abominations of idolatry. Such things, indeed, he saw, some. times with detestation, and sometimes with pity; and he made many, and happily successful, endeavours to have them abated or removed. But even could human interference have made idolatry outwardly decent, and compatible with the temporal happiness and prosperity of men, his zeal to accomplish its overthrow would have known no remission. As far as idola. try was practised, he felt that God, the ever blessed, was wronged and dis. honoured. He knew it was no part of his business to avenge that wrong; and most entirely he condemned the presumption of men, of any rank or function, claiming to judge and punish their fellowmen, for those offences which lie between them and God alone. Yet it was impossible for him, or for any man, to love God with supreme affection, and be indifferent to the dishonour done Him. It was revolting to his natural sense of equity, to be a quiet and unobjecting witness to the greatest and most comprehensive crime which the universe could know--the crime of robbing God not only of his honour, but his jurisdiction amongst men. He cast his eyes over the
The punishment is three months' suspension for every offence, 68th Canon.'