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the inhabitants of the latter, being near the seat of British power, and therefore having more opportunities of becoming acquainted with the value of English literature, are more inclined to cultivate it than the people of Hindusthán are.
“If my recollection serves me aright, you requested me to inform you in what respects you could be of service. I therefore take the liberty of suggesting, that those who are friendly to the cause of native improvement in Banáras should be requested to present to the Library, which is attached to the Seminary, books, maps, and a few simple mathematical and philosophical instruments ; a good case of drawing instruments, a small air-pump, a microscope, an electrical machine, a thermometer, a barometer, a small box of minerals, with a catalogue of them, a box of chemical tests, a set of geometrical solids, and models of machines, such as a steam-engine, a working pump, &c.; these would be very acceptable, and I hope useful.
"The articles above mentioned are such, as I fear the General Committee of Public Instruction would not consider themselves warranted in supply. ing to the school; yet I think if they could, by any means, be procured for the institution, some little good would result. A few simple lectures might occasionally be delivered, in the evenings, to the elder pupils, to which might be invited those native gentlemen, in the city, who understand English : their curiosity would probably be excited by seeing experiments; but from a mere gratification of curiosity might we not hope for the crea tion of a desire after knowledge ?
“After the present vacation it is proposed to introduce the study of natural philosophy and the elements of methematics, into the school, as some of the elder scholars understand enough of English to make it desirable that they should commence the study of the above."
8. FATTIHPUR. Extract from a Letter from Futtihpur, dated 18th August, 1834. “I have the pleasure to enclose herewith an order for the amount of 100 copies of the Sermon on the Mount, which I received this day. I hope, when you publish anything new, you will let us have a copy. The Sermon on the Mount I will shortly introduce as a school-book. Our school here goes on well. I wish we could prevail on Government to allow us a small monthly sum; the money would be faithfully expended, and with the strictest economy, as I personally and daily superintend the English school of 60 boys. Can you give me any hopes ? Our expenditore is nearly 100 per mensum, and I have some difficulty in meeting the demand. I think on the whole we have great reason to be thankful, as certainly the prospects are fast brightening in this part of the world.”
9. LAKHNAU. Extract of a Letter from Lalchnau, dated 15th July, 1834. July 15.-" It will always give me great pleasure to aid your views as much as possible. I have sent the list of books to two schools here, to Kánhpur friends, to Fattihpur, and Fattihghar.-Seeing that in the metropolis of British India there are “no globes to be had,” we are going to make up some portable globes, English and Hindusthání, of about 16 or 18 inches diameter, here, upon the principle of the little one now sent. In the absence of any globes, please say if those on a large scale, for gratuitous distribution, would be of use.
“Please to open out the enclosed one, and press down the slides to the poles, and then a tolerable globe will be formed, sufficient to shew the form of the earth, and dispel the erroneous opinions now entertained by many regarding it."
Augt." I have the pleasure to send you 40 little volumes of Moral Precepts, in Hindusthání verse, translated from my book, by Hashmat Ali, your former munshi ; you can use these as seems best : they might be good as prizes for schools. I shall have the pleasure of sending you 100 more soon. As the king has been so liberal as to bear the expense of printing them, they will be distributed gratuitously. If they are deemed worthy of your List, they might perhaps get into notice; and if in any demand hereafter, might appear in another edition with English opposite to the Hindusthání."
Sept. 12.—"I sincerely hope your efforts to spread the English language may have full success ; for from it as a source must issue the streams of moral instruction to the people through translations into the mother tongue. Instruction in English will multiply translators, and they will give to the people in their own language, which alone can be the channel of communication to enlighten the mass of the inhabitants, the science and morals of Europe.
“ It is truly gratifying to see the admirable talent of Sir Charles D'Oyly employed in such a noble cause as the education of the people ; his beautiful illustrations may be expected to give attraction, and a charm to every book of native instruction. It seems very desirable to keep all the books small and cheup, instead of putting much matter into larger volumes at a price beyond the purses of the people; for a poor man cannot afford to give a rupee for a book, though he will buy many at different times for one, two, or three annas. Those with Sir Charles D'Oyly's spirited illustrations may be expected to be in great demand, and to convey into thousands of families the soundest instruction and purest morals. What a sad mistake to throw away so much money and time upon useless Arabic books! Our printed books at present, even those which are good in the mother tongue, not to speak of the deadlanguages, find but little sale, because they lie unknown upon the Calcutta shelves. Were supplies sent to the chief towns, and exposed to view, there would be more chance of finding a sale. Your plan of having a supply at each station is admirable. Books like most other things must be brought to market, and if made very cheap and attractive to the eye by their pictures, besides being interesting to the mind by their entertaining contents, they might surely be expected to find a ready sale. For instance, were Æsop's Fables illustrated by pictures as at home, and placed in the Indian markets in the mother-tongue of the people, and divided into parts to be very cheup, we might expect to see edition after edition bought up. I wish we had some of the enterprising Edinburgh or London publishers in India, who would employ talent, and bring their pleasant books as a source of profit into the native market, amongst the dense population of its cities. The School-Book Society is now printing Æsop's Fables : how easy it would be, could European talent not be procured, to employ a native artist to copy the pictures found in almost every copy of the English edition ; it would merely cost the additional pay of a native painter for a few months. The Government Lithographic Press in Calcutta would strike them off with ease and rapidity. If I had a copy of the English Fables with good pictures, I should feel disposed to volunteer to superintend a native artist in preparing copies of them, and I think I know a friend who would employ his own talent in sketching a few. In union there is strength. It is not what one or two men can do in the vast cause of Native Education : the secret of success is in inducing many to come forward and help this noble cause ; every influence and persuasion should be used to increase the active friends of education. You would do good service, were you to publish to the world a list of the books of which translations are required, and invite translations. I have some young friends, who have studied the language, and who, I dare say, would with pleasure employ some of their leisure hours in translating, if work were pointed out to them. At present there is a mase of dormant talent all over India, which with a little ma
nagement and system might be called into play. Men may now say, What shall I translate? I may fix upon a book, which, after all, none of the Calcutta Societies will print. If I knew any specific book, or portion of a book which they required to be translated, and which would certain, ly ultimately be printed, I could with confidence translate it :-now my labour may be in vain.”
“In the education of the natives, it seems of vast importance to bear in mind, that the fear of God is the beginning of wisdom ;' to teach them mere knowledge and science without instilling sound morals and principles, will be to sharpen the edge of crime, and strengthen the hand of the unprincipled, -merely adding knowledge to point and direct their present vices ! For every book of mere science or knowledge, there should be ten of moral instruction. All tribes, and castes will join in paying reverence to one God. The fear of God and pure morals therefore may be taught in every book, and all castes will join in praise of such a system.
“ I am much gratified to find that the Astronomy is approved of, and glad that, in addition to the English and Hindusthání in the Persian character, you are also going to print a romanized edition. It shall be romanized here forthwith. The two stories on Infanticide and Cruelty to Animals shall also be romanized here immediately. Please to put me down for 200 of each of the little volumes; they will do for the boys' and girls' schools here.
“ English portable globes are now in the press here, and I hope will soon be ready. I shall send you 3 or 400, or even more, for gratuitous distribution. Large 8 inch Persian ones will I hope be ready in a fortnight, and English and Persian ones are in hand: there is a box full of the Moral Instructors on its way down to you."
Sept. 14th.-" I have been much gratified to read your correspondence with Sir Charles D’Oyly about the illustrations for the “Native Library of Useful Knowledge, and Library of Entertaining Instruction.” It is delight. ful to see such an undertaking :--may every success attend your efforts ! Most happy shall I be to lend my humble aid. Sir Charles illustrations have indeed got ahead of the printing and composition of the books, and I had a hearty laugh at your observation, that all your efforts were unable to produce books fast enough to be married to the sketches ! Like captivating damsels the latter have only to exercise a little patience, and they will be happily married by thousands, and go forth to the delight of all the people ; happy and congenial unions, which may expect to be blessed with increase, and ultimately to people the land with a happy and virtuous progeny!
“ It is singular that two days ago I should have written to you about the sketches for Æsop's Fables, and by your dispatch of to-day, I see that by the kindness of Sir Charles it has already been determined upon that they shall have illustrative sketches : this is most gratifying intelligence.
“ The fables hitherto printed are very good, but the morals, the object for which all fables are written, are so brief, that they cannot be expected to fix in the native reader's mind. Now when he is fully interested by the enter. tainment of the sketch and fable, it seems a pity to let the opportunity slip of pointing home the moral with full force to his mind. With this view I
prepared new and more full morals to all the fables of the “ 5th volume of the English Reader,” and sent them down in English and Hindusthúní. Let me therefore recommend those fables for Sir Charles' sketches.
Pray let me know what fables are selected for the sketches. If you select those with the new morals, you will find them all translated to your hand.
“I am romanizing the Infanticide and other stories, which I was glad to find you approved of; they shall be sent to you forth with; the lithographed sketches for them shall follow, so soon as they come from the press.
"I shall have much pleasure in getting the Astronomy romanized.
“ Please to send me always an impression of each sketch struck off in Cal. cutta, that if necessary, they may be multiplied here, or a story written for them. A good idea has been suggested, that a list of subjects should be made out, upon which instructive stories were required, against prevalent Indian vices, and embracing the chain of virtues, that others may be invited to contribute. I hope therefore that the sketches may not remain long unmarried to little books. A small volume of fables with sketches has been commenced upon here, so that we perhaps may get ahead of you in Calcutta ; those here however are merely a few select fables. When the sketches are ready, they with the fables shall be sent to you? they will make a capital one anna book !-Fables are great favourites with the natives.
“As a volunteer of talent here has kindly offered to prepare sketches for the fables : pray let me know those for which Sir Charles intends to propose illustrations, that others may be selected here. It is delightful to see such abilities applied to so noble a purpose as the moral elevation of the people.Let us hope this is the beginning of a great work for India.
“ Be good enough to send me 40 romanized writing copies for the schools here-two annas a copy is very cheap."
“ Sept. 29th.--I long to see your next selected list of School Books, that I may send for some for a new Hindusthání and Persian School set on foot here.
« Thanks for the printed paper on the Roman character. I will distribute them here, and send one to the Minister.”
10. SA'GAR, BUNDELKHAND. Extracts from Letters from Ságar, Bundelkhand, August and September, 1834.
“I am glad to find that you have dispatched so many of the books, for there are a good many people at Ságar anxious that their sons should learn English, and a great many boys of the higher and middle classes, since looking over your Synopsis, have been calling out for spelling books. They will all be taken readily and thankfully, and I wish you would order for me, from Mr. Ostell's, a dozen of each of the first four books mentioned in his list, one of his Introduction to Natural Philosophy, and one of his Natural Philosophy.
“ We want three things in the Ságar Schools. A well educated young man from one of the Calcutta seminaries to instruct an English class. An orrery to invite the young lads to the study of astronomy, and a good pair of globes. And more than all a press; but we cannot afford all these things at once. We have drawn so largely upon the European and Native gentlemen of late for the Bundelkhand beggars, that I can hardly venture to propose a subscription upon a large scale for education at present. I have written to a friend at Allahabad, to ascertain how they provide their funds, and conduct their English class ; and as soon as I get his reply, I shall propose something, and write to you about it.
“What description of teacher would you recommend for our schools, a Hindu or Christian? and what would be a sufficient salary for one or the other?
“ Hitherto few have learned English, except as the means of earning subsistence; and the competition, among those who can write and read it, is beyond the demand. The objects you have in view are, Ist, to augment the demand, and 2nd, to render the language desirable to the people for other purposes, as the means of introduction to better society, of acquiring better knowledge, &c. &c. I wish you could induce some young Hindu or Mahammadan genius to write a series of popular tales founded upon the manners and customs of Indian society. Washington Irvine would be a
good model, as he would not there learn to make heroes out of scoundrels. From short and simple he might go on to larger and more complicated."
“ I thank you for your letter of the 1st instant, and its enclosure; the perusal of which has interested me a good deal. I shall be glad to undertake the duty you propose; but the sale of books at this place must for some time to come be very limited, for no native in this quarter has as yet attempted to learn English, except such as hope to get employment as writers in our offices; and spelling books are the only ones in demand. When we get an English class in our Ságar schools on the return of Krishna Ráu, the study will extend to other classes, and a depôt of books will facilitate its spread among them. The supply of elementary books at a cheap rate will no doubt, as you observe, tend to produce an increased demand ; but the supply should be confined at first to books of the most simple and elemen. tary kind. The want of facilities for land carriage makes all gentlemen leave their libraries, like their furniture, behind them at Ságar; and books of all descriptions, except these, are commonly sold for less than the original cost of the binding.
“ The construction of a new national literature is, as you observe, a work of vast importance, and one that we ought not to despair of attaining by slow degrees ;and your plan of beginning with the higher classes is, I think, likely to be most successful. At present almost all intercourse between the natives of this class and Europeans, however amiable and well disposed towards the natives, is irksome, because they have no subjects of common interest to converse about. The natives perceive this, and feel it as much as the Europeans ; and many an independant native gentleman would take the trouble to learn English, if he had the means of doing so with facility, in order to make this intercourse more agreeable ; or, at least, he would make his children learn it. Perhaps the most untractable men in India of this class of society are the Mahratta pundits and gentry generally, and the Bundelkband and Bughelkhand zemindars of various denominations.”
11. BaoPA'L. Extract of a letter from Sihore, near Bhopil, dated Sept. 1834. “ Can you recommend to me a teacher of Persian and English combined, for 50 rupees salary? I cannot afford more. If any candidate offers, and is approved by you, do not engage him positively, as I am about to make an application similar to this to the Banáras and Dihli Colleges, and wish to reserve to myself the choice after receiving the replies of all."
12. Diili'. Extracts from Letters from Dihlí, dated Sept, and Oct. “ The 100 copies of the Sermon on the Mount are nearly all sold ; 50 were sold in a day : pray send me a large supply quickly. I really think this Roman-letter plan will succeed. Maulaví Mahammad Bákir, the Serishtádár, has composed and written out in the Roman character 70 stories, which would have been put in type by this time, had you supplied us with the new types, which we are anxiously looking out for. Båkir proposes publishing 100 entertaining stories, immediately that the new types arrive. This attempt will lead others of Dihli to imitate him. A dozen others, chiefly officers in the courts, are studying the Synopsis and English writing. If the thing once takes, the downfall of Persian and Deva Nágari is certain. I think the profits from printing in this character, will ultimately defray every expense.
“ t' forgot to tell you that the General Committee design to restore the stipends to the Sanskrit students, (which the Local Committee here had withdrawn,) to new admissions in that department of the Oriental College.