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of others as though he himself possessed them, and, where he finds accomplished and perspicacious men, loving them in his heart more than his mouth expresses, and really showing himself able to bear and employ them:—such a minister will be able to preserve my sons and grandsons, and black-haired people, and benefits likewise to the kingdom may well be looked for from him. But if it be his character, when he finds men of ability, to be jealous and hate them; and, when he finds accomplished and perspicacious men, to oppose them and not allow their advancement, showing himself really not able to bear them: —such a minister will not be able to protect my sons and grandsons, and black-haired people; and may he not also be pronounced dangerous to the State?"
15. It is only the truly virtuous man who can send away such a man and banish him, driving him out among the barbarous tribes around, determined not to dwell along with him in the Middle kingdom. This is in accordance with the saying, cc It is only the truly virtuous man who can love or who can hate others."
16. To see men of worth and not be able to raise them to office; to raise them to office, but not to do so quickly: —this is disrespectful. To see bad men and not be able to remove them; to remove them, but not to do so to a distance :—This is weakness.
17. To love those whom men hate, and to hate those whom men love; this is to outrage the natural feeling of men. Calamities cannot fail to come down on him who does so.
18. Thus we see that the sovereign has a great course to pursue. He must show entire self-devotion and sin
Ts'in is the last book in the Shoo-king. It was made by one of the dukes of Ts'in to his officers, after he had sustained a great disaster, in consequence of neglecting the advice of his most faithful minister. Between the text here, and that which we find in the Shoo-king, there are some differences, but they are unimportant. 17. This is spoken of the ruler not having respect to the common feelings of the people in his employment of ministers, and the consequences thereof to himself. 18. This paragraph speaks generally of the primal cause of gaining and losing, and shows how the principle of the measuring square must have Us root in the ruler's mind, The great course is explained by Choo He as—" the art of occupying the throne, and therein cultivating himself and governing others." Ying-ta says it is—" the course by which he practises filial piety, fraternal duty,
cerity to attain it, and by pride and extravagance he will fail of it.
19. There is a great course also for the production of wealth. Let the producers be many and the consumers few. Let there be activity in the production, and economy in the expenditure. Then the wealth will always be sufficient.
20. The virtuous ruler, by means of his wealth, makes himself more distinguished. The vicious ruler accumulates wealth, at the expense of his life.
21. Never has there been a case of the sovereign loving benevolence, and the people not loving righteousness. Never has there been a case where the people have loved righteousness, and the affairs of the sovereign have not been carried to completion. And never has there been a case where the wealth in such a State, collected in the treasuries and arsenals, did not continue in the sovereign's possession.
22. The officer Mang Heen said, "He who keeps horses and a carriage does not look after fowls and pigs. The family which keeps its stores of ice does not rear cattle or sheep. So, the house which possesses a hundred chariots should not keep a minister to look out for imposts that he may lay them on the people. Than to have such a minister, it were better for that house to have one who should rob it of its revenues" This is in accordance with the saying: —" In a State, pecuniary gain is not to be considered to be prosperity, but its prosperity will be found in righteousness.""
benevolence, and righteousness." 19. This is understood by K'ang-shing as requiring the promotion of agriculture; and that is included, but does not exhaust the meaning. The consumers are the salaried officers of the government. The sentiment of the whole is good ;—where there is cheerful industry in the people, and an economical administration of the government, the finances will be flourishing. 20. The sentiment here is substantially the same as in paragraphs seven and eight. The old interpretation is different:—" The virtuous man uses his wealth so as to make his person distinguished. He who is not virtuous, toils with his body to increase his wealth." 21. This shows how the people respond to the influence of the ruler, and that benevolence, even to the scattering of his wealth on the part of the latter, is the way to permanent prosperity and wealth. 22. Heen was the honorary epithet of Chung-sun Mee, a worthy minister of Loo, under the two dukes, who ruled before the birth of Confucius. His sayings, quoted here, were preserved by tradition or recorded in some
23. "When he who presides over a State or a family makes his revenues his chief business, he must be under the influence of some small, mean man. He may consider this man to be good; but when such a person is employed in the administration of a State or family, calamities from Heaven, and injuries from men, will befall it together, and, though a good man may take his place, he will not be able to remedy the evil. This illustrates again the saying, "In a State, gain is not to be considered prosperity, but its prosperity will be found in righteousness."
The above tenth chapter of commentary explains the government of the State, and the making the empire peaceful and liappy.
There are thus, in all, ten chapters of commentary, the first four of which discuss, in a general manner, the scope of the principal topic of the Work; while the other six go particularly into an exhibition of the work required in its subordinate branches. The fifth chapter contains the important subject of comprehending true excellence, and the sixth, what is the foundation of the attainment of true sincerity. Those hvo chapters demand the especial attention of the learner. Let not the reader despise them because of their simplicity.
work which is now lost. On a scholar's being first called to office, he was gifted by his prince with a carriage and four horses. He was then supposed to withdraw from petty ways of getting wealth. The high officers of a State kept ice for use in their funeral rites and sacrifices.
THE DOCTRINE OF THE MEAN.
My master, the philosopher OhHng, says, C( Being without inclination to either side is called Chung; admitting of no change is called Yung." By Chung is denoted the correct course to be pursued by all under heaven; by Yung is denoted the fixed principle regulating all under heaven. This work contains the la/w of the mind, which was handed down from one to another, in the Confucian school, till Tsze-sze, fearing lest in the course of time errors should, arise about it, committed it to writing, and delivered it to Mencius. The booh first speaks of one principle; it next spreads this out, and embraces all things; finally, it returns and gathers them all up under the one principle. Unroll it, and it fills the universe; roll it lip, and it retires and lies hid in mysteriousness. The relish of it is inexhaustible. The whole of it is solid learning. When the skilful reader has explored it with delight till he has apprehended it, he may carry it into practice all his life, and will find that it cannot be exhausted.
The Title Of The Woek.— Chung Tung, " The Doctrine of the Mean." It is hardly possible amid the conflicting views of native scholars, and the various meanings of which the terms are capable, to decide categorically on the exact force of the terms in the title. The Work treats of the human mind:—in its state of chung, absolutely correct, as it is in itself; and in its state of harmony, acting ad extra, according to its correct nature. —In the version of the Work, given in the collection of " Memoir es concernant Vhistoire, les sciences, $c, des Chinois" vol. I., it is styled—"Juste Milieu." Eemusat calls it "L'mvariable Milieu,'" after Ch'ing E. Intorcetta, and his coadjutors, call it—" Medium constansv el sempiternum." The book treats, they say, "Be Medio Sempitersto, sive de aurea meditions appealing to his selfishness, and fill up the measure of the goodness which is natural to him. This chapter is what the writer Yang called it,—" The sum of the whole ivork." In the ten chapters which follow, Tszesze quotes the words of the Master to complete the meaning of this.
II. 1. Chung-ne said, "The superior man embodies the course of the Mean; the mean man acts contrary to the course of the Mean.
2. "The superior man's embodying the course of the Mean is because he is a superior man,, and so always maintains the Mean. The mean man's acting contrary to the course of the Mean is because he is a mean man, and has no caution/'
III. The Master said, "Perfect is the virtue which is according to the Mean! Rare have they long been among the people, who could practise it!"
IV. I. The Master said, "I know how it is that the path of the Mean is not walked in:—The knowing go beyond it, and the stupid do not come up to it. I know how it is that the path of the Mean is not understood :—The men of talents and virtue go beyond it, and the worthless do not come up to it.
2. "There is no body but eats and drinks. But they are few who can distinguish flavours."
2. Only The Superior Man Can Follow The Mean; The Mean MAN is ALWAYS VIOLATING- It. 1. Why Confucius should here be quoted by his designation, or marriage name, is a moot-point. It is said by some that disciples might in this way refer to their teacher, and a grandson to his grandfather, but such a rule is constituted probable on the strength of this instance, and that in chapter xxx. Others say that it is the honorary designation of the sage, and = the "Father ne," whic; Duke Gae used in reference to Confucius, in eulogizing him after his death. See the Le-ke, II. Pt I. iii. 43. This, and the ten chapters which follow, all quote the words of Confucius with reference to the Chung-yung, to explain the meaning of the first chapter, and " though there is no connection of composition between them," says Choo He, "they are all related by their meaning."
3. The Rarity, Long Existing In Confucius' Time, Of The PracTice Of The Mean. See the Analects VI. xxvii. K'ang-shing and Ying-ta take the last clause as=" few can practise it long." But the view in the translation is better.
4. How It Was That Few Were Able To Practise The Mean. 2. We have here not a comparison, but an illustration which may help