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And it came to * ויהי הם קברים איש והנה ראו את הגדוד 1321 ,Kgs

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And it came to) והוה עד דאינון קברין גברא והא חזו ית משרית .Targ

And when they were) ܘܟܕ ܗܼܢܘܢ ܩܿܒܪܝܢ ܓܒܪܐ܆ ܚܐܘ ܓܝܣܐ .Pesh

. ‘ pass, they burying a man, and, behold, they saw the robber-hand'.

LΧΧ και εγένετο αυτών θαπτόντων τον άνδρα, και ιδού ίδoν τον μονόζωνον. .

. pass, whilst they were burying a man, and (=then) they saw, &c.'

. burying a man, they saw, &c.'

2 . 1737 'And it came to pass, he worshipping in the house of Nisroch his god, and Adrammelech and Sharezer his sons smote him'.

LΧΧ και εγένετο αυτου προσκυνούντος εν οίκω Έσδράχ θεού αυτού, και Α. και Σ. οι υιοί αυτού επάταξαν αυτόν. .

. , as in Hebrew.

. ? ? woodglo 'And when he was worshipping in the house of N. his god, A. and S. his sons killed him'.

ויהי הוא משתחוה בית נסרך אלהיו ואדרמלך ושראצר בניו 1997 ,Kgs

2

,והוה הוא סגיד בית נסרן טעותיה ואדרמלך ושראצר בנוהי קטלוהי .Targ

ܘܟܕ ܣܿܓܕ ܗܘܐ ܒܝܬ ܢܣܪܟ ܐܠܗܗ܆ ܐܕܪܡܠܟ ܘܫܪܐܨܪ ܒܢ̈ܘܗܝ .Pest

Casus pendens. It is characteristic of Hebrew and Aramaic to simplify the construction of a sentence, and at the same time to gain emphasis, by reinforcing the subject by a Personal Pronoun. Such reinforcement is specially favoured if the subject happens to be further defined by a relative clause, since otherwise the sentence wouldto the Semitic ear-appear involved and overweighted. The same principle is also adopted with the object, when this, for the sake of emphasis, is brought to the beginning of the sentence; and other oblique cases may be similarly treated. Examples in Hebrew areGen. 3", “The woman whom Thou gavest to be with me, she gave me (non in) of the tree and I did eat’; Gen. 15', 'But one that shall come out of thine own bowels, he shall be thine heir' (107"! 887); Gen. 245, “Yahweh, the God of heaven, who took me from my father's house, &c., He shall send (ne? 137) His angel before thee'; Deut. 13''All the word that I command you, it shall ye observe to do' (nivy pun ink); Ezek. 1824, ‘In his trespass that he hath trespassed, and in his sin that he hath sinned, in them shall he die' (da). See further, Driver, Tenses, § 123 y Obs. Similarly in Aramaic-Dan. 237.38, ‘Thou, O king, the king of kings, to whom the God of heaven gave, &c., thou art that head of gold (N371 17 προ A7 ΠΡΙΝ); Dan. 322, “Those men that took up Shadrach, Meshach, and Abed-nego, the flame of the fire slew them? (Ν17 Νο2 in 5e2) ; Dan. 47-19, The tree that thou sawest, &c., it is thou, O king' (Nape Nu nạın); Ezr. 5'*, ‘And moreover, the vessels of the house of God, &c., them did Cyrus the king take out (oria ja? PDI) of the temple of Babylon'; Ezr. 724, ‘All priests and Levites, &c., it shall not be lawful to impose tribute, &c., upon them' (oby pin); Ezr. 726, 'Every one that will not perform the law of thy God and the law of the king, let judgement diligently be executed upon him’ (792 79νη» Νηπ).

This reinforcement of a Casus pendens by the Pronoun is a marked characteristic of the Fourth Gospel. We may note the following illustrations :

τ'2 όσοι δε έλαβον αυτόν, έδωκεν αυτοίς εξουσίαν τέκνα Θεού γενέσθαι. 18 μονογενής Θεός ο ών εις τον κόλπον του πατρός εκείνος εξηγήσατο. 183 ο πέμψας με βαπτίζειν εν ύδατι εκείνος μου είπεν. 326 ος ήν μετά σου... ίδε ούτος βαπτίζει.* 322 8 εώρακες και ήκουσεν τούτο μαρτυρεί. 5' Ο ποιήσας με υγιή εκείνός μου είπεν. 59 & γαρ αν εκείνος ποιη, ταύτα και ο υιός ομοίως ποιεί.

526 τα γάρ έργα α δέδωκέν μοι ο πατήρ ίνα τελειώσω αυτά, αυτά τα έργα & ποιώ, μαρτυρεί περί εμου ότι ο πατήρ με απέσταλκεν (we should surely omit the comma after ποιώ, and make αυτά τα έργα the subject of μαρτυρεί, reinforcing τα γάρ έργα after & δέδωκέν μοι κτλ.)

57 και ο πέμψας με πατηρ εκείνος μεμαρτύρηκεν περί εμού. 528 ον απέστειλεν εκείνος τούτω υμείς ου πιστεύετε. 639 ίνα παν και δέδωκέν μοι μη απολέσω εξ αυτού. 616 και ών παρά του Θεού, ούτος εώρακεν τον πατέρα. 718 ο δε ζητών την δόξαν του πέμψαντος αυτόν ούτος αληθής εστιν. 826 κάγώ & ήκουσα παρ' αυτού ταύτα λαλώ εις τον κόσμον. το' ο μη εισερχόμενος διά της θύρας... εκείνος κλέπτης έστιν και ληστής.

* Schlatter (Sprache, pp. 49 f.) quotes a number of instances from Rabbinic Hebrew in which ?? ?? behold, this one, &c.' reinforces a Nominativus pendens. Thus e. g. Mechilta on Ex. 164, 7328 dine op 1777 ano's Whosoever hath what he may eat to-day, and saith, What shall I eat to-morrow? behold, this one lacketh faith.'

כל מי שיש לו מה יאכל היום ואכר מ

το25 τα έργα και εγώ ποιώ εν τω ονόματι του πατρός μου ταύτα μαρτυρεί περί εμού.

1218 ο λόγος δν ελάλησα εκείνος κρινει αυτόν εν τη εσχάτη ημέρα. 1219 ο πέμψας με πατήρ αυτός μοι εντολήν δέδωκεν. I412 και πιστεύων εις εμέ τα έργα και εγώ ποιώ κάκείνος ποιήσει. I413 και ότι αν αιτήσητε εν τω ονόματί μου τούτο ποιήσω. 1421 ο έχων τας εντολάς μου και τηρών αυτάς εκείνός έστιν ο αγαπών με.

1426 ο δε παράκλητος, το πνεύμα το άγιον ο πέμψει ο πατήρ εν τω ονόματί μου, εκείνος υμάς διδάξει πάντα.

15' παν κλήμα εν εμοί μη φέρον καρπόν αίρει αυτό, και πάν το καρπών φέρον καθαίρει αυτό.

15' ο μένων εν εμοί κάγώ εν αυτώ ούτος φέρει καρπόν πολύν.
17' ίνα πάν ο δέδωκας αύτω δώσει αυτούς ζωήν αιώνιον.
1774 και δέδωκάς μοι, θέλω ίνα όπου είμι εγώ κάκείνοι ώσιν μετ' εμού.
I81 το ποτήριον δ δέδωκέν μοι ο πατήρ ου μή πίω αυτό;

Against these 27 * instances in Jn. we can only set 11 in Mt. (46, 1320.22.23.35, 151, 1928, 2012, 243, 259, 2633), 4 in Mk. (616, 120, 120, 13'), and 6 in Lk. (814.15, 1218, 2017, 21, 2310-52); and of these Mt. 416 and Mt. 2142 = Mk. 1210 = Lk. 20'7 are O.T. quotations.

Of course it cannot be claimed that the use of Casus pendens is specifically a Semitism, since—to go no farther-it is a familiar colloquialism in English. Prof. Moulton remarks that it is one of the easiest of anacolutha, as much at home in English as in Greek” (NTG.3 1, p. 69).

The fact which concerns us is the remarkable frequency of its occurrence in Jn. as compared with the Synoptists. If Lk., for example, is a fair specimen of Κοινή Greek, why should we find that a construction which occurs there but 6 times is employed in Jn. with six times the frequency ? An adequate answer is forthcoming in the assumption that a common Aramaic construction has been exactly reproduced in translation.

* Abbott (JG. 1921) adds το35.36, δν ο πατήρ ήγίασεν και απέστειλεν εις τον κόσμον υμείς λέγετε ότι Βλασφημείς; «Whon the Father sanctified... do ye say [to him] Thou blasphemest ?”, best explained as [εκείνος] όν. 138, και πιστεύων εις εμέ ... ποταμοί εκ της κοιλίας αυτού (also cited by Abbott) is not included as involving-on our theory-a mistranslation. Cf. p. 109.

CHAPTER III

CONJUNCTIONS

και, ούν.

As compared with the Synoptists, kaí in Jn. is infrequent in narrative. The occurrences, as given by Abbott (JG. 2133; cf. Bruder's Concordance?, pp. 456 ff.) are, Mt. about 250 times, Mk. more than 400 times, Lk. about 380 times, Jn. less than 100 times. This comparative infrequency seems to be due partly to the writer's use of asyndeton (cf. p. 50), partly to his fondness for oủv, which he uses some 200 times, as against Mt. 57 times, Mk. 6 times, Lk. 31 times. Kaí is frequent in Jn. in speeches, linking co-ordinate clauses, as in a Semitic language. A striking Semitic usage may be seen in its employment to link contrasted statements, where in English we should naturally employ and yet' or 'but'. This is most frequent in speeches, though occasionally we find it also in the reflections of the author upon his narrative. So 11.11, 22, 310.11.19.39, 42, 539.40.43.4, 67, 74.19.30, 820.52.57, 930.34, 11, 129, 16", 20", 21". Cf., in Hebrew, Gen. 216.17, 'Of every tree of the garden thou mayest eat; and (=but) of the tree of knowledge of good and evil, thou shalt not eat of it'; 32.3, ‘Of the fruit of the trees of the garden we may eat; and (=but) of the fruit of the tree which is in the midst of the garden God hath said, Ye shall not eat, &c.'; 1720.21, ‘And as regards Ishmael I have heard thee; behold I have blessed him, &c. And (=But) my covenant will I establish with Isaac'; 32" (Heb. 329'), 'I have seen God face to face, and (=and yet) my life is preserved' (other instances of this common usage in Oxford Heb. Lex. p. 252 b).

The same usage in Aramaic—where it is equally common-may be illustrated from Dan. 25.6, 'If ye make not known to me the dream and its interpretation, ye shall be cut in pieces, &c.; and (=but) if ye shew the dream and the interpretation thereof, ye shall receive of me gifts, &c.'; 35.6, 'At what time ye hear ... ye shall fall down

ܙ

and worship the golden image, &c.; and (=but) whoso falleth not down, &c.'; 3.7.18, ‘If our God, whom we serve, be able to deliver us, He will deliver, &c.; and (=but) if not, be it known, &c.'; 4+ (Aram. 4'), 'And I told the dream before them, and (= yet) its interpretation they did not make known to me'.

In Hebrew and Aramaic ‘and' may very idiomatically introduce a contrasted idea in such a way as to suggest a question, this being implied by the contrast without the use of an interrogative particle. So in Hebrew, Judg. 146, Behold, to my father and my mother I have not told it, and shall I tell it unto thee ?' (lit. ‘and to thee I shall tell it !'); 2 Sam. II", ‘The ark, and Israel, and Judah are abiding in tents; and my lord Joab, and the servants of my lord, are encamped in the open field; and shall 1 into my house, to eat and to drink, &c. ?' (lit. 'and I shall go, &c. !' see further instances in Oxf. Heb. Lex. p. 252). The same usage may be illustrated in Aramaic from passages in Acta Thomae (ed. Wright).

ܐ

.ܟܠܗܘܢ ܒܢܝ̈ܢܐ ܒܩܝܛܐ ܗܘ ܡܬܒܢܝܢ. ܘܐܢܬ ܒܤܬܘܐ ܒ݁ܢܐ ܐܢܬ .(ܩܦܘ .p)

'All buildings are built in summer; and thou buildest in winter!'

ܡܛܠܬܟܝ ܐܫܬܐܠܬ ܡܢ ܡܪܝ ܡܙܕܝ ܡ̇ܠܟܐ ܘܡܢ ܚܫܡܝܬܐ. (ܪܢܚ .p) lOn thy account I excused .ܘܐܢܬܝ ܠܐ ܨܒܝܬܝ ܠܡܚܫܡܘ ܥܡܝ

myself from my lord, king Mazdai, and from the supper; and thou dost not choose to sup with me!'

ܐܢܬ ܩܢܘܡܟ ܡܢ ܠܘܬܢ ܠܐ ܡ̣ܢܝܬ. ܐܠܐ ܐܢ ܚܕܐ ܫܥܐ. ܘܠܐ ܝ̇ܕܥ (ܫܝܛ .p) Thou thyself hast not departed from .ܐܢܬ ܐܝܟܢܐ ܚܒܝܫܢ ܗܘܝܢ

• us, except for a moment; and thou knowest not how we were shut up!'

ܐܢܬ ܝܿܬܒ ܐܢܬ ܘܫܡܿܥ ܡ̈ܠܐ ܒ̈ܛܠܬܐ (ܪܣܛ

.With inverted order

, ( p Tliota sittest and hearkenest ، ،ܘܡܙܕܝ ܡ̇ܠܟܐ ܒܪܘܓܐܗ ܒܲܥܐ ܕܢܘܒܕܟ

'Thou to vain words; and king Mazdai in his wrath is seeking to destroy thee!

!) In a precisely similar way kaí introduces a paradox in several passages in Jn., and the paradox, being hypothetical, is treated as a question.

220 Τεσσαράκοντα και εξ έτεσιν οικοδομήθη ο ναός ούτος, και συ έν τρισιν ημέραις έγερείς αυτόν;

310 Συ ει ο διδάσκαλος του Ισραήλ και ταύτα ου γινώσκεις ; 8 Πεντήκοντα έτη ούπω έχεις και Αβραάμ εώρακας ;

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