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so be born ? If this is so, it is of course likely that St. Luke may have owed his conception to St. Paul's doctrine of Christ as the second Adam; but, if our argument has been sound, St. Paul himself owed it to an earlier source, embodied in a collection of Testimonia for general use. If, then, St. Luke's toù ’Adáp, toll coû links itself on to viòs Ocoll in the words of the Annunciation, and if his thought shows connexion with St. Paul's doctrine of the two Adams, is it likely that St. Paul, in enunciating this doctrine, was ignorant of the tradition of the Virgin-Birth ? *
* This point has already been brought out by Dr. Box, The Virgin Birth of Jesus, pp. 38 f., 150.
It is highly characteristic of Aramaic to open its sentences abruptly without the use of a connective particle. In this respect its contrast with Hebrew is very marked, the latter language regularly employing 'And' in prose to connect a sentence with what goes before, the force of this · And’ varying as determined by the context (And, So, Then, But, Yet, &c.). This difference in usage may well be illustrated from the Book of Daniel, in which chs. I'_244, 8-12 are written in Hebrew, while chs. 2b-7 are in Aramaic.
Dan. I'--2" (Hebrew) consists of 23 sentences. Of these, 22 (i.e, all but the opening verse of ch. I) begin with ‘And' (sometimes variously rendered in R.V. “Then', 'But', 'So').
Dan. 23–49 (Aramaic) contains 44 sentences. Of these, 22 begin with a connective particle, and 22 without such particle. The openings are as follows: With connective particle.
Without connective particle. v. joze 'And if'.
v. " v.! ;o7 97 ‘For if'.
king' v." xnkor · And the word '.
v.? 13 «They answered ', v.13 x771 And the decree'.
vis " v.1 527 78 Then Daniel'.
king'. “ the
Answered the • ענה מלכא 0.5
Answered the" ענה מלכא 2.8
Then: אדין מלתא (0.15
Answered the ענו כשדיא 0.10
Chaldaeans. v.16 by 589371 'And Daniel went v.2 737 52 53 Because of this'. in '.
“ v.17 4897 ;'78 Then Daniel'.
and said'. v.194
• Answered Daniel
He answered" ענה ואמר
Then * אדין לדניאל
This great frequency of unconnected sentences is equally characteristic of the rest of the Aramaic portion of the Book of Daniel. In ch. 8 the Hebrew begins again, and here we have 27 sentences (corresponding with the verse-division). Of these, 24 begin with 'And' (sometimes rendered, Then', 'Now', 'So', • Yea'), and 3 only (vv.1.4.20) without any connective particle. It will thus be seen how clear is the distinction in style between Aramaic and Hebrew even of so late a date (c. 167 B.c.). When we come down to the Hebrew of the Mishna, we do find a paucity of connective particles, entirely owing to the influence of Aramaic.
Now great frequency of sentences opening without a connective particle is a marked characteristic of the Fourth Gospel. If we take ch. I-neglecting openings in speeches (vv.30–23, &c.), where asyndeton is natural in Greek as in English-we find 34 asyndeton
openings, as against 28 with connective particle. In the 28 sen. tences which have connective particles, these are και 19 times, δε 4 times, ότι twice, oύν 3 times. And', which is thus more than doubly as frequent as all the others taken together, is the ordinary Semitic connective particle, which bears various forces according to the context (cf. p. 49). The openings are as follows:
46 α υ.
υ. 3 κάγώ ουκ ήδειν αυτόν. υ.*4 κάγώ εώρακα.
υ.35 τη επαύριον πάλιν ιστήκει. υ.36 και έμβλέψας. υ.37 και ήκουσαν. υ.38 α στραφείς δέ. οι δε είπαν.
0.00 λέγει αυτούς. ήλθαν ούν.
ώρα ήν ως δεκάτη.
ήν 'Ανδρέας. υ.41 ευρίσκει ούτος. υ.124 ήγαγεν αυτόν.
τη επαύριον ηθέλησεν.
υ.15 ευρίσκει Φίλιππος.
λέγει αυτώ ο Φίλιππος. υ.17 είδεν Ιησούς. υ.18α λέγει αυτώ Ναθαναήλ. υ.485 απεκρίθη Ιησούς. υ.49 απεκρίθη αυτώ Ναθαναήλ.
υ.30 απεκρίθη Ιησούς. υ.51 και λέγει αυτώ.
In order to prove that this characteristic is found throughout the Fourth Gospel, we may take two other chapters - from the middle and end-consisting mainly of narrative. Ch. I contains 59 sentences, of which 17 have no connective particle (vv. 18.104.22.168.35.39 bis.40.44 Vix-48); ch. 18 contains 52 sentences, and 20 of these are without connective particle (vv. 1.50 22.214.171.124.126.96.36.199.188.8.131.52δισ.36.317 ter:8).
This is a smaller proportion than in ch. I; yet, as compared with the Synoptists, it is a very high one. To take three chapters at random from the latter—Mt. 3 contains 13 sentences, none without connective particle; Mk. 1 contains 38 sentences, 2 only without connective particle (vv.l.f); Lk. 8 contains 60 sentences, 2 only without connective particle (vv.86.).
Asyndeton απεκρίθη, απεκρίθησαν = asyndeton 72y, ay. In the openings of unconnected sentences given above from the Aramaic of Dan. 2, it will be noticed that 9 out of the 22 take the form, 'Answered (so and-so)'. This is very characteristic,