תמונות בעמוד
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υ. 9. πάντα άνθρωπον ερχόμενον εις τον κόσμον is rightly recognized by J. Lightfoot (Horae Hebraicae, ad loc.) and by Schlatter (Sprache, pp. 18 f.) as the common Rabbinic phrase Diy xa ba 'all comers into the world', i.e. all that are in it.* The Aram. equivalent would be apya ng ep 5p. Thus Westcott's proposal to regard TÒ pos as the subject of nv épxóuevov ('The true light . . . was coming, &c.': so R.V. margin) is excluded, and hv tò būs tò å noivóv can only mean, 'It was the true light', referring to the preceding verse. For this sense we seem to need a demonstrative pronoun; and this probably stood in Aramaic as 897, which was misread xya? and rendered nv.

υ. 10. και ο κόσμος αυτόν ουκ έγνω. Notice the adversative force of kaí = 'and yet', here and in v." kai oi idcou ktd. This is very frequent in Semitic (cf. p. 66).

υ. 1. εις τα ίδια ήλθε, και οι ίδιοι αυτόν ου παρέλαβον, i.e. Πο? Mabap som ens mob? (cf. Pal. Syr. and Pesh.). The use of idla, oi idol cannot, of course, be claimed as unusual; but the expressions are striking, and at once suggest to an Aramaic scholar the phrase mob? which to him’, i.e. that which pertains (or those who pertain) to him'—' his belongings'. dios is a favourite term in Jn.; occurring 15 times (illbis. 42, 44, 518.43, 718, 84, 103.4.12, 13), 159, 16", 19"), as against 5 in Mt., 1 in Mk., 4 in Lk.

υ. 12. όσοι δε έλαβον αυτόν, έδωκεν αυτοίς κτλ. The construction


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in thought some such words as "he was born blind’; and 1525 where before ålı' iva ahnpwon ó lógos ktd. there is an implied ellipse of “This cometh to pass'. Cf. also Mk. 1449. Similarly, Schlatter (Sprache, p. 18) cites parallels from

אלו אפשר להעביר מלאך המות הייתי מעבירו אלא שכבר 2019 .Mechilta on Ex

אלא שתגלה

אין אנו נזקקים

07792 17933 If it were possible to remove the angel of death I should have removed him, but because the decree has already been decreed? (sc. 'I cannot do so'), and from Siphre on Num. 25195

13 • We are not under such obligation to him, but (sc. it is necessary) that thou, &c.' In spite of these parallels for an ellipse, it is clear that 7 = iva in the Aramaic rendering of our passage most naturally stands for the relative ‘one who'; and this conclusion is supported by the other instances collected on pp. 75 f., where iva is a mistranslation of a relative.

* Schlaiter quotes a remarkable para'lel to our passage from the Midrash Rabba

אתה מאיר לעליונים ולתחתונים ולכל באי עולם-6 .on Leviticus, par. xxxi

• Thou (God) givest light to those that are above and to those that are below, and to all comers into the world'.

with Casus pendens is very frequent in Semitic— Pal. Syr. las


ܕܝܢ ܕܩܒܠܘܗܝ ܝܗܒ .Tesh ,ܗ̇ܠܝܢ ܕܝ ܕܩܒ̈ܠܘ ܝܬܗܼ ܝܗܒ ܠܗܘܢ


For the occurrences of the construction in Jn. see p. 64.

Tuotevovoi eis õvoja aŭtoll, i.e. hippa ;"map. The striking phrase LOTEÚELV eis is strongly reminiscent of the Hebrew and Aramaic construction (Heb. ?TON, Aram. ? D'a). This is admitted by Moulton (NTG. p. 68), whose words are—'It would seem therefore that the substitution of eis or éní for the simple dative may have obtained currency mainly in Christian circles, where the importance of the difference between simple belief > ;P87) and personal trust @ '7) was keenly realized. The prepositional construction was suggested no doubt by its being a more literal translation of the Hebrew phrase with? The occurrences of πιστεύειν εις are as follows: (είς τον Ιησούν, εις τον viòv , , &c) . ', υιον του Θεού, εις αυτόν, &c.) Jn. 21, 316.18.36, 429, 629.35.40,, 830,

, 9:35.36, 1049, 1125.26.45.45, 12!, 14119, 169, 170, 1 Jn. 5°; elsewhere, Matt. 189 = Mk. 9", Acts 10“), 14”, 199, Rom. 109, Gal. 214, Phil. 1", 1 Pet. 18; (eis tò pôs) Jn. 1234 ; (els ovoja aŭtoñ) Jn. 1", 2-3, 35, 1 Jn. 5'3; (eis tov uaptuplav) 1 Jn. 5" (37 Johannine cases in all ; 9 other cases).

υ. 13. οι ουκ εξ αιμάτων ... εγεννήθησαν, i.e. in N5) Νο7 2 57 v. o


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דְּלָא מִן דְּמָא וְלָא מִן A point of .צְבוּת בִּסְרָא וְלָא מִן צְבוּת גַבְרָא אִינְהֵן מִן אֱלָהָא אִיתְיְלִידוּ


great interest is the fact that the Latin variant ôs . . . éyevvon becomes considerably more plausible upon the assumption of an Aramaic original. Since the particle is invariable, it might form the relative either to “as many as received Him', or to 'He gave'. The question of reading in Aramaic depends, then, upon the difference between the plural 1795mx 'they were born', and the singular 777 · He was born'-a difference which involves solely the insertion or omission of the letter 1. Moreover, since the following v. "4 begins with kai = 1, it is quite possible that the plural form 1795enis may have arisen through dittography of this 1. Very probably ? may not have had the relative sense at all, but (as in v. 4) may have been intended to express

the sense ‘inasmuch as', thus giving the reason why the fact previously mentioned became possible, inasmuch as He was born, not of blood, nor of the will of the flesh, nor of the


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will of man, but of God'; i.e. He, being born not after the manner of flesh, but of God, was thus able to give to those who received Him power to become sons of God.

This interpretation is of a piece with that which is given above for vv. 3.4—just as the Logos was the Source of all physical life because in Him was life', so (vv. 12.13) He is the Source of spiritual life (the new birth) because He was born into the world, not by the ordinary process of human generation, but of God'. Cf. Lk. 135

Πνεύμα άγιον επελεύσεται επί σέ,
και δύναμις Υψίστου επισκιάσει σοι:
διό και το γεννώμενον άγιον

κληθήσεται υιός Θεού. We note a connexion between υιός Θεού and τέκνα Θεού of Jn. 112 which may not be accidental (cf. also encì ävdpa oo yevóokw, Lk. 134, with oúdè én Oeluaros åvdpós, Jn. 13). If this explanation of Jn. 112.13

θελήματος . be correct, the writer is drawing out the mystical import of the Virgin-Birth for believers on precisely the lines on which he elsewhere (524–29, 1125.26, 14") draws out the mystical import for them of the Resurrection.

On the other hand, the generally accepted reading oi... éyevvú noav surely involves a very strange sequence. The spiritual birth of believers is clearly the result of the grace described by έδωκεν αυτοίς εξουσίαν τέκνα Θεού γενέσθαι, but υ. as phrased seems to imply that it was an antecedent condition. The author would surely have written and so they were born', or so that they should be born', had this result been the fact which he was intending to convey.

υ. 14. και έσκήνωσεν εν ημίν. The verb έσκήνωσεν very clearly


שְׁכִינְתָּא ,(.Sh* kind (Heb שְׁכִינָה suggests the Jewish doctrine of the

Sh®kīntā (Aram.), or visible dwelling of Yahweh among His people, typified by the pillar of cloud standing above the Tent of Meeting, as subsequently in Solomon's Temple (Ex. 337-1 from the old document E; 1 Kgs. 81011. Cf. also, for the use of the verb 28 šākan of Yahweh's dwelling in the midst of Israel, Lev. 2611.12 (H), Ex. 259, 29, Num. 5", 35(P), 1 Kgs. 63, Ezek. 43"; of His causing His Name to dwell there, Deut. 12", 14", 16.6.1, 26, & .). In Hebrew passages in which Yahweh is said to dwell, or to cause



His Name to dwell, in the midst of Israel, the Targumic phrase is, He caused His Sh®kintā to dwell there. Examples are


Lev. 2612 •And I will walk

among you'.
Ex. 259 «That I may dwell in

Targ. And I will cause My Shokīntā

to dwell among you’. 'That I may cause My Shekīntā

to dwell among you'. * And I will cause My Shkīntā

to dwell in the midst of the children of Israel'.

your midst.

Ex. 29" And I will dwell in

the midst of the children of Israel'.

So, of the withdrawal of Yahweh's Presence, Isa. 57'7 "I hid Myself'.

'I caused My Shokintā to depart

(ascend) from them'. Ps. 44° And Thou goest not *And Thou dost not cause Thy forth with our hosts'.

Shokintā to dwell with our

hosts'. Ps. 88'And they are cut off And they are separated from

• from Thy hand'.

the face of Thy Shokintā.

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Thus we may assume with some confidence that και έσκήνωσεν

and_caused וְאַשְׁרִי שְׁכִינְתִּיךְ בִּינָנָא ev now represents the Aramaic



His Sh®kīntā to dwell among us'. The choice of the verb oknvoûv was doubtless largely dictated by its close resemblance to the Semitic root š-k-n. The same usage is to be seen in Apoc. 716 και ο καθήμενος επί του θρόνου σκηνώσει επ' αυτούς, 21 Ιδού, η σκηνή του Θεού μετά των ανθρώπων, και σκηνώσει μετ' αυτών. και εθεασάμεθα την δόξαν αυτού. Here we have a clear reference


a to a second term used in the Targums to describe God's Selfmanifestation to mankind, 7 7 'the Glory of the Lord'. The conception of the X72: Ykārā goes back, like that of the Shekīntā, to 0. T. passages.

In these the Heb, term is id; Kābhodh. Thus, Ex. 16"", Behold, the Glory of the Lord appeared in the cloud’; 24', 'And the Glory of the Lord abode upon mount Sinai, and the cloud covered it six days ’; &c. The Targums employ Yekārā, like Sh'kintā, in paraphrasing passages which might, as they stand in the Heb., be taken to describe the actual appearance of God in bodily form. Thus

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Ex. 3' 'And he came to the

mountain of God, unto

Targ. ‘And he came to the mountain

on which the Yokārā of the
Lord was revealed, even to

For he was afraid to look

upon the manifestation of the

Y®kārā of the Lord'. *And they saw the Yokārā of

the God of Israel'.

Ex. 36 'For he was afraid to

look upon God'.

Ex. 24"' •And they saw the God

of Israel'.

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We sometimes find Sh kīntā and Yoķārā coupled; 72; 'the Dwelling of the Glory'— Isa. 4022 “He that sitteth upon

'That causeth the Shkīntā of the circle of the earth'.

His Yokārā to dwell in lofty

strength'. Ps. 4424 'Wherefore hidest Thou 'Wherefore causest Thou the Thy face?'

Sh'kīntā of Thy Yoşārā to

depart?' Or, with inversion of orderIsa. 6 For mine eyes have For mine eye hath seen the

seen the King, the Lord of Ylārā of the Shkīntā of hosts'.

the King of the ages'. This last passage, from Isaiah's vision, leads us to a point which proves beyond the shadow of a doubt that when Jn. describes our Lord's Self-manifestation as sóta he has in mind the Y®karā of the Targums.* In Jn. 120.41 the writer, after quoting Isa. 60, adds the statement, ταύτα είπεν Ησαίας ότι είδεν την δόξαν autou. The opening of the vision (Isa. 6') runs in Heb., 'I saw the Lord sitting upon a throne', and this is rendered in Targ., I saw the Yoķārā of the Lord resting on His throne'. Other instances in Jn. of dóta in this sense are, 2" épavépwoev tiv dóšav αυτού, 1110 εάν πιστεύσης όψη την δόξαν του Θεού, 1724 να θεωρωσιν την δόξαν την εμήν.

We are now in a position to maintain that the lóyos-conception

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* Not of course necessarily the written Targums, but at any rate the conceptions which entered into the oral exposition of Scripture called Targum.

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