תמונות בעמוד

misreading xyz aş la yeda'nā (1st plur. Perfect) of an original NYT x yādānā (fem. sing. Participle combined with ist pers. pronoun). Cf., for this latter form, Dalman, Gramm. p. 235. The same mistake, y'da'nā for yāda'nā (masc. sing. Participle combined with ist pers. pronoun), is made in the vocalization of xgyti Num. 22 in Walton's Polyglot. Possibly oïdajev in the opening words of Nicodemus (3*) may likewise represent yn 'I know'.

2018. έρχεται Μαριάμ η Μαγδαληνή αγγέλλουσα ... ότι Eώρακα τον κύριον και ταύτα είπεν αυτή. The change from direct to oblique oration is strange and awkward. “ 'Eópaka = non hăméth, cópake = non hamyath.* The two forms are identical in the unvocalized text, and the latter may easily have been taken for the former by the translator under the influence of the ordinary construction with ot recitativum. Thus we may conjecture that the original ran, 'announcing that she had seen the Lord, and that He had spoken, &c.

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* We have assigned the Galilaean verb xan? to a native of Magdala. If NIT was used in the narrative there might be a precisely similar confusion—ist pers.



.3rd pers ,חֲזֵית




The question whether the writer of the Fourth Gospel cited the 0. T. from the Hebrew Bible or the LXX is important in its bearing on the question of the original language of the Gospel. If the author was a Hellenist he would naturally have employed the LXX. If he was a Palestinian he would be more likely to make his citations from the Hebrew; and if he actually wrote in Aramaic he could hardly have done otherwise. Thus, though the question of the Johannine quotations has frequently received discussion, a fresh examination may possibly bring to light certain points which have hitherto passed unnoticed. This section of our examination gives therefore a tabulation of all O. T. citations and references, together with the Hebrew text of each passage and its translation compared with the LXX rendering.

1. 123 Έγώ φωνή βοώντος εν τη ερήμω Ευθύνατε την οδών Κυρίου, καθώς είπεν Ησαίας ο προφήτης.

. , In the wilderness prepare ye the way of the Lord'.

LΧΧ Φωνή βοώντος εν τη ερήμω, Ετοιμάσατε την οδών Κυρίου.
Jn. quotes from memory, and substitutes the verb of the parallel

, way for our God', for the verb ve 'prepare ye’. In doing this, he seems to be thinking, however, of the Hebrew and not of the LXX, since the latter renders ha not by Eidúvate, but by evdelas TOLEITE. The fact that the words in the wilderness' properly form in the Hebrew the opening of the proclamation (synonymous with in the desert' of the parallel clause), whereas LXX and Jn., as

,The voice of_one crying קוֹל קוֹרֵא בַּמִּדְבָּר פָּנוּ דֶרֶךְ יְהוָה 40

° .Isa

-make straight in the desert a high * יַשְׁרוּ בָּעֲרָבָה מְסִלָּה לֵאלֹהֵינוּ ,clause

ויחלם וְהִנֵּה סִלָּם מְצָב אַרְצָה וְרֹאשׁוֹ מַגִּיעַ וַשָׁ יְיָמָה וְהִנֵּה מַלְאֲכֵי 282

.Gen עלִים וְיֹרְדִים בּוֹ


the text of these versions is punctuated, treat them as descriptive of the speaker's situation, is unimportant, since the punctuation is a secondary matter.

2. 151 'Αμήν αμήν λέγω υμίν, όψεσθε τον ουρανόν ανεωγότα, και τους αγγέλους του Θεού αναβαίνοντας και καταβαίνοντας επί τον υιόν του ανθρώπου. .

? ia d'??!! d'Di DSA ' And he dreamed, and lo, a ladder set up on the earth, and its top reaching to the heaven; and lo, the angels of God ascending and descending upon it'.

LΧΧ και ενυπνιάσθη και ιδού κλίμαξ έστηριγμένη εν τη γη, ής ή κεφαλή αφικνείτο εις τον ουρανόν, και οι άγγελοι του Θεού ανέβαινον και κατέβαινον επ' αυτής.

The quotation takes the form of a free reminiscence. It seems clear, however, that in the words, “ascending and descending upon the Son of man', we have an interpretation of the final ia different from that which is generally accepted. ia is regularly taken to mean 'on it' (the ladder); but there is also the possibility of the interpretation on him’ (Jacob), and this appears to be adopted in Jn.'s citation.* Jacob, as the ancestor of the nation of Israel, summarizes in his person the ideal Israel in posse, just as our Lord, at the other end of the line, summarizes it in esse as the Son of man. The Genesis-passage, in which the ladder is an image of the invisible, but actual and unceasing connexion in which God, by the ministry of His angels, stands with the earth, in this instance with Jacob' (Delitzsch), points forward to the constant and living intercourse ever maintained between Christ and the Father' (Driver). The point which concerns us here is that the interpretation put upon the passage depends on the Hebrew, in which, since yo‘ladder' is masculine, the force of 53 is ambiguous. In LΧΧ, επ' αυτής can refer only to κλίμαξ. It may be added that Jn.'s αναβαίνοντας και καταβαίνοντας literally

* We should of course expect by in this sense, as in the following verse 1o y 3x? 'standing over him? (not 'standing upon it'—the ladder). We are not, however, concerned to argue the legitimacy of the interpretation, but merely its origin; though it may be remarked that this interpretation of a might be justified by the use of the preposition to denote proximity (see Oxford Hebrew Lexicon, 3 S II).


represents the Hebrew participial construction D'??!! doby, which is obscured in ανέβαινον και κατέβαινον οf LΧΧ.*

3. 27 'Eμνήσθησαν οι μαθηταί αυτού ότι γεγραμμένον εστίν ο ζήλος του οίκου σου καταφάγεται με. .

Ps. 699 7ņa np"The zeal of Thine house hath eaten me'.

LΧΧ ο ζήλος του οίκου σου καταφάγεται με.

Here Jn. and LXX are in verbal agreement against the Heb. hath eaten me'.

There is a v.l. karépayev which is found in LXX in Boxca R, and in Jn. in (13) &c. LS (vt.s vg.) E (boh) Eus Epiph.

4. 631 οι πατέρες ήμών το μάννα έφαγον εν τη ερήμω, καθώς έστιν γεγραμμένον "Αρτον εκ του ουρανού έδωκεν αυτοίς φαγείν.

. , I

Behold , I will rain for • הִנְנִי מַמְטִיר לָכֶם לֶחֶם מִן־הַשָּׁמַיִם 16


* This note stands as worked out by the writer before it occurred to him to consult the Midrash Bereshith Rabba for traces of the interpretation of ia which he has suggested as inherent in the Johannine reference. He now finds that such an interpretation was actually put forward and debated in early times in Rabbinic



ר' חייא ור' ינאי ח"א עולים ויורדים : 18 .circles

; cf. Bereshith Rabba , par . lxviii בסלס. וח"א עולים ויורדים ביעקב. מ"ד עולים ויורדים בסלס ניחא. ומ"ד עולים ויורדים ביעקב. מעלים ומורידים בו. אפזים בו קפזים בו סונטים בו. שנא' ישראל אשר בך אתפאר את הוא שאיקונין שלך חקוקה למעלה. עולים למעלה (Interpretations of) • ורואים איקונים שלו. ויורדים למטה ומוצאים אותו ישן.

. () Rabbi Hiya and Rabbi Yannai. The one scholar says, “ Ascending and descending upon the ladder", and the other says, “Ascending and descending upon Jacob”. The explanation, “ Ascending and descending upon the ladder”, is to be preferred. The explanation,“ Ascending and descending upon Jacub”, implies that they were taking up and bringing down upon him. They were leaping and skipping over him, and rallying him, as it is said, “ Israel in whom I glory” (Isa. 493).

" Thou art he whose cikúr is engraved on high.” They were ascending on high and looking at his eikár, and then descending below and finding him sleeping'. The words translated “they were taking up and bringing down upon him' are very obscure in meaning ; but the following note by Dr. Ball offers an elucidation. 'I would ask why the Genesis text does not say were coming down and going up thereon ? It seems rather strange that the Angels of God should start from the earth. But leaving that on one side, I am inclined to think that the Midrashic 13 Diy1829 Dobyo is a sort of general reply to the unasked question, Why were the angels going up and coming down ? the answer being, They were taking up and bringing down-acting as carriers between Earth and Heaven. In this case, apparently, they were taking up to Heaven the cisáv of the sleeping Jacob (which

That is the bread • הוּא הַלֶּחֶם אֲשֶׁר נָתַן יְהוָה לָכֶם לְאָכְלָה 1615


you bread from heaven'. LΧΧ Ιδού εγώ ύω υμίν άρτους εκ του ουρανού. .

« which the Lord hath given you to eat”. LΧΧ Ούτος ο άρτος δν έδωκεν Κύριος υμίν φαγείν. .

Ps. 784 ipsini Don 127 And corn of heaven He gave them '. LΧΧ και άρτον ουρανού έδωκεν αυτοίς. .

In Ps. 7824 LXX's rendering of 77 'corn' by ăptov (only so rendered here) is dictated by recollection of Ex. 16. Jn.'s quotation is a free reminiscence of Ex. 161.15, probably uninfluenced by recollection of the Ps. passage. In rendering "Aprověk Toll oúpavou it is nearer to the Heb. of Ex. 16* than is LXX plur. åptovs.

5. 615 έστιν γεγραμμένον εν τοις προφήταις Και έσονται πάντες διδακτοι Θεού. .

is “fastened to the Throne of Glory”; Targ. Jon. ad loc.). As Jacob was in deep sleep, was this cikóv his wraith or spirit-supposed to be separated from the body under conditions of trance? The case would then be parallel to that of St. Paul caught up to the third Heaven” (2 Cor. 12119.) where he “heardđppnta, much as Jacob became conscious of Yahweh “standing by him ", and heard His voice.'

It is difficult to resist the conclusion that the remarkable explanation of this Midrash throws further light upon the Johannine passage. Jacob's cirúv (the Hebrew simply reproduces the Greek term) is already existent in Heaven (cf. also Targ. Jerus. and Targ. Jon. ad loc.); this ciku- inasmuch as Jacob embodies the national hope and ideal -represents the heavenly Man (cf. 1 Cor. 1547–49 ở dettepos άνθρωπος εξ ουρανού, whose εικών we are in the future to bear) who is to come on the clouds of Heaven ; if the heavens were opened Nathaniel might behold the angels exulting over him.

The same interpretation of 13 as referring to Jacob is given a little further on (B.R. par. Ixix. 1) in a comment on loby 28) qma 7271 · And, behold, the Lord ):


א"ר אבהו משל לבן מלכים שהיה ישן על גבי : (2819

.stood over him


וכיון שבא מינקתו שחה עליו מינקתו וברחו עריסה והיו זבובים שכנים עליו. מעליו. כך בתחלה והנה מלאכי אלהים עולים ויורדים בו. כיון שנתגלה עליו

jebyn 1972 "227 · Rabbi Abbahu said, It is like a royal child who was sleeping in a cradle and flies were settling on him ; but when his nurse came, his nurse bent over him, and they flew away from off him. So at first, “ And, behold, the angels of God ascending and descending upon him”. When the Holy One (blessed be He) revealed Himself over him they flew away from off him'. We may note that Rabbi Hiya and Rabbi Yannai also differed as to the interpretation of the suffix of oby, the one explaining that the Lord stood on the ladder, the other that He stood over Jacob.

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