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The Antiquities of Herculaneum. Volume the Sixth t, being the
Second of the Bronzes. Folio. Naples. THIS volume contains roi folio plates, and 31 small ones,
in which are represented 190 bronzes, three models in clay, and one view of an ancient building discovered in the excavations now carrying on at Pompei. Many of these statues are nearly the size of life; nine are colossal, and two eques. trian. They have not all of them the same degree of merit, but they are, with very little exception, all in a good style; and many are wrought with such extreme delicacy, and exquisite taste, as to stand in competition with the most excellent of those ancient marble statues that continue to be the admiration and delight of the curious : so that the royal museum of Portici, in respect of ancient bronzes, as well as paintings, may justly be esteemed, of all others existing, the most copious, and most curious.
Thus much is said of the originals; of the engravings we observe those performed by Campana, Nolli, and Fiorillo, after the drawings of Vanni, and Cala nova, are the best; the other draftsmen and engravers are in general below criticism.
It must appear unaccountable to thofe who peruse this royal publication, that in Italy, long the seat of the fine arts, and at present not deftitute of good artists (witness the Italian school of painting published at Rome by Hamilton *) the protection and inunificence of a sovereign, Mould not have produced a more excellent work than this before us; especially when they consider the materials from which it is composed, so bighly interesting for the beauty of workmanship, and the curiosity of the subjects represented.
The prints of this, as of the former volumes, are accompanied with descriptions, and those descriptions are illustrated by notes; the whole by a society of litterati instituted for that purpose by the King of Naples, and called the Herculanean dcademy, That the English Reader may form fome judgment of the manner in which these academicians acquit themselves of their task, we shall give a translation of what they say of the first plate, which it is evident, at the first and slightest view, represents a Jupiter.
† For our account of the preceding volumes, see Appendix to Ree view, ol, xlvi. * See Rev. vol. lv. p. 241.
'T + 3
- There will be, for the reasons elsewhere explained, a propriety in beginning our collection of bronzes with this little idol of Jupiter t, for so the majestic aspect alone of our figure would authorize us to name it. He is also respectable I for his abundant tresses, and his thick bushy beards, but the thunderbolt, of which a fragment remains in his right-hand l, the
*' Olds, onuicer dparo God, the mark, fign, or token ; also the beginning ; says Hesychius. In effect he himself remarks the cuttom of the ancients, that in the beginning of whatsoever action, they repeated Ocós, eós, God, God : as Euftachius also observes, 11. B. v. 481. p. 238. and perhaps that part of the bowels of the victim which they called Deus, and when found entire accounted a good omen, (Statius Th. v. 176, where the scholiaft) had that name, be. cause it was the beginning of the intestines (as Kusterus explains onu mov oj dexoni of Helychius) and was the first to be inspected. Now as among other statues those of the gods deserved the first place, so among these, the principal is certainly that of Jupiter, who perhaps was the one only god with the wise men among the Heathens, who expressed their notions of the true Deity in such manner as was permitted them, living as they did in darkness, to conceive it. (Mi. nut. Felix 18, and his commentators.) See also note 2, plate I. of our 4.b volume of the paintings.
+ • It was found in the excavations at Portici, when they were first undertaken.'
I • Homer designing to make Agamemnon appear the most re. spectable of all the Greek captains who went to the gege of Troy, describes him thus, Il. B. v. 477. '
– – μετα δε κρέιων 'Αγαμέμνων
His arms to Mars, to Neptune his high ches. On which Eustathius remarks, p. 258, rpia &v o month's Paintai tu βασιλεϊ προσμαρτυρείν, το αξιωματικον, το πολεμικών, και το γεραρόν, ο και αυτό πρέπον εςι μάλιςα βασιλεί. Three things therefore it bould ten the poet attributes 10 a King, authoritative, warlike, and majeftic, even this being greatly advantageous to a King
$• Phornutus de N. D. 9, thus describes Jupiter, papildiyson αυτόν τιλείο ανδρός ηλικίαν έχουλα επεί ετε το παρηκμακός, ότε το ελλιπες έμφαινει. They represent him in the figure of a man of perfe& age, since he does not appear 10 be either old or young ; for the reit, see the notes (2 and 3) of the ad plate of the first volume of bronzes.
- Jupiter is most frequently represented with the thunderbolt in his right hand. See Staverer 10 Albricus, D. Im. 2. Homer's Iliad a. v. 184, describes him with the thunderbolt in both hands, iyon Sizonyy pila zapolvo'
usual diftinction appropriated to this divinity, leaves us no room for doubt 1. Worthy of attention is the chlamys suspended on his
• It must be mentioned, that all the naked of the left arm is new, and the sceptre likewise is new, though it is probable that originally he did hold the sceptre in his left hand, Albricus saying, 1. c. Sceptrum regium in manu tenens, fiilicet fnisira : ex altera vero fcilicet dextra, fulmina ad inferos mittens ; and thus we frequently see it, especially in the medals of the Brutii. The artist who adjusted the bronzes of our Museum, was perhaps induced to make this sceptre short like a truncheon, by having seen it in the same form in certain antique statues (Montfaucon Ant. Expl. Tab. ix. and xi, and Bonanni Muf. Kirch. Cl. i. Tab. x. n. 3) in these it is true, we remain uncertain whether it be entire or broken, that is, whether it were thus made by the ancient artist, or if partly consumed by time: it is certain that in all other ancient monuments we constantly see Jupiter with the hasia pura (that is to say with a long staff) or with a sceptre, which is likewise long, although somewhat shorter than the hafla (as in the marble of the Apotheosis of Homer, and in another of the Adm. Rom. Ant. in Montfaucon, Tom. i. Tab. xv. and on a Patera, and on an Etruscan vafe in Dempster, Tab. i. and Tab. xxx. and in our paintings, Tom. iv. Tab, i) and sometimes with a little globe at the top (as in the medals of the Brutii) or with some asher ornament (as in our paintings, Tom. i. Tab. xxiv. and xxix.) if really it was at all different from the hasła, it was of a suf. ficient length to be mistaken for it. That it was long is evident, because they leaned upon it, whence it had its name according to the etymologist, oxñatcov, no upce to oxýttw, Tò imaxeußitw, ámò te oxha Tiobas kai umezeideo bao áutē. In effeci, Ovid talking of Jupiter,
Celfior ipfe loco, fceptroque innixus eburno :
Higher in place on ivory sceptre leans. And Met. vii. 5o5. Æacus in capulo fceptri nitenti finiftra ; And more precisely Homer, Il. B. v. 109 and the following, says that Agamemnon rifing on his feet, addressed himself to speak, leaning on his sceptre; and it is observable that Homer himself says of this sceptre, it was made by Vulcan, and given to Jupiter, from whom it passed to Mercury, and from him to Pelops, from Pelops to Atreus, from Atreus to Agamemnon. Now this identical sceptre, we are told by Pausanias ix. 40. was preserved by the Cheronesians, and he adds, Taro 8x và cx 7 Top 38ơi, góps avouáorTk: they bogout ibis fceptre with a particular veneration, and call it hasta
• Indeed the basta was the sceptre of the primitive kings. Juftin. xliii. 3. 3. Per ea adhuc tempora reges pro diademate hasłas habebant, quas Græci oxirlpe dixere : nam & ab origine rerum pro Diis immortalibus haftas veteres coluere; ob cujus religionis memoriam ad buc deorum fimulacris haftæ adduntur. See likewise Feftus in the word hafta ; and Stanley on Æschylus Sept. ad The. v. 535. For the rest see the notes on the Tab. i. Tom. iv. Pitt, where it is shewn, that the sceptre o Jupiter, said by Ovid to be of ivory, and by Phidias, formed of T14
left arm, and on the lower extremity of the part which hangs down we observe a button t.
Of the bronzes represented in this volume, the first that occur are the gods of ancient Greece and Rome, which, for the greater part, are easily known by their garb, and the insignia that accompany them. These plates are in number 57. Among them a Venus, plate 14, and a Mercury, plates 29, 30, 31, 32, gave us the most pleasure. The dancing faun, plates 38, 39, has all the motion and sprightliness that ihe ancient sculptors have bestowed on these joyous retainers of Bacchus; he is as light as air. The boxers, or wrestlers, plates 58 and 59, are finely imagined ; each watching an opportunity to seize his antagonist to advantage; and, like the others we have here specified, are some of the best engraved in the collection, though none of them do justice to the originals.
all metals (célcanois Tois Tão1 Oloférov: Pausanias, v. ii.) was by the Pythagoreans believed to be of cypress ; Diogenes Laertius, viii, 10. and Menage on that passage: and Jamblicus de Vita Pyrbag. cap. 28. See likewise Servius xii. En. 206. where he observes that in treaties of peace they used the sceptre as a type of the statue of Jupiter, whoin they always represented with a sceptre in his hand, a token of his dominion. The same Servius writes, Æn. xi. 238. Apud majores omnes duces cum fcepiris ingrediebantur curiam : poftea coeperunt tantum ex confulibus fceptra geftare, & hgnum erat eos consulares oje: and these consular sceptres had the eagle on their upper extremity, in the same manner as on the sceptre of Jupiter, in imitation of which was formed the sceptre of the Tuscan kings, from whom the fashion passed to the kings of Rome first, and afterwards to the consuls : Buonarroti Med, p. 185. & Ver. p. 252. & Iluore xviii. 2. who remarks that the sceptre with the eagle was borne by those who triumphed.'
† • Although we equally see Jupiter represented sitting and standing, for we meet with him in boch positions, as well as in act to husl his thunder, (see Burman, de Jove Fulgur. cap. 14. and Beger Thesaur Palat. Sel. n. iv.) and although we observe him sometimes quite naked, sometimes partly clothed, and often covered from the waist downward, it is by no means common to find him, as we lee bim here, with his drapery hanging only from one arm, it is like. wise remarkable, but plainly to be distinguished, that this drapery is a chlamys or a paludamentum (which was almost the same thing); see Kippingius Antiq. Roman. iv. 5, Voffius Etym, in Paludamensum) both one and the other being faltened on the right shoulder with a button, as we fee it in ancient monuments.'
Oh! the profound erudition of the Herculanean Academicians!
Perhaps an apology may be expected, by some of our Readers, for the trial we have made of their patience by the notes which we have translated from this work. In excuse, we have only to urge, that we thought it might gratify the general curiosity of the public, to fee in what manner this royal production is executed, by the Jearned Antiquarians employed in it.
The equestrian statue, plates 61, 62, is supposed to represent Alexander the Great ; but if it resembles the print, it is certainly not the work of Lysippus; the other equestrian ftatue is an Amazon. Next follows a horse without a rider, and then another horse, the only one of four that were harnessed to a triumphal chariot; but his three companions, and the chariot itfelf, were found in so shattered a condition, as to be deemed incapable of repair, and have been destroyed.
Plate 77 is a colossal statue of Auguftus in the character of Jupiter ; that is, he has the hafta pura, or scepter, in his right hand, and a thunderbolt in his left, and has probably been placed in a temple, an object of divine worship: so soon did absolute power debase the spirit of the Romans, and from a generous free people, render them the balest of flatterers, and the most abject of flaves !
Plate 78, is the monster Tiberius, another divinity of the same sort and size with the preceding.-Gods worthy of the degenerate Romans !
Plate 79, Claudius Drusus Germanicus, in a facerdotal habit : this likewise is colossal, as are the fix following: : The book concludes with ten plates that are abominably indecent; the descriptions, with the learned and copious notes which accompany and explain them, cannot but astonith a Reader unaccustomed to the study of such antiquities. He may figure to himself a group of Herculanean Academicians compored chiefly of priests and lawyers ; and, with an indignant smile, fancy he sees those gentlemen, so respectable for their profound erudition ! laying their solemn heads together, poring over this obscene trash, citing Greek and Latin without mercy, calling ancient philosophers, poets, and historians, and what is stranger *, saints and venerable fathers of the church, to their assistance, and puzzling through many a page for an illustration of what would be better consigned to oblivion, or left to such dilettanti, virtuofi, students, and professors, as pursue their studies in the purlieus of Covent Garden.
In the last note on the last chapter, some account is given of the Phallic hand, supposed by some writers to be the Manus impudica. On this occasion à curious story is related of the virgin St. Theresa ; who being, it should seem, haunted by the devil with certain impure phantoms, is ordered by her confessor to make the Fico, or phallic hand, in Satan's face; whence the writer, doubtless a profound cafuift, deduces, that there is no great barm in making the aforesaid Fico.
SŁ. * St. Jerome, St. Gregory Nazianzen, St. John Chryfoftome; Arnobius, Tertullian, and Clemens Alexandrinus,