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in high and defenical chairs in the course of yea
(if we may use that expression) the Professor ADRIAN VAN Royen ; who has, during a long course of years, filled the medical and botanical chairs in the university of Leyden with an high and deserved reputation, and has often twined round them poetical laurels of a lively, permanent, and delightful verdure.
These two pieces, beside the natural effect of their uncommon merit, are interesting and affecting, from this consideration, that the Orator and the Poet are advanced in years, and have upon this occafion both resigned their academical dignities; so that we contemplate them, with a fort of sensibility, as two old swans singing their melodious exit upon the
banks of the Belgic Meander. At the end of the Oration and : the Poem, a bird of a different class comes in (a descendant of those that once faved the capitol) and cackles a few Latin verses (twelve in number) which we will pass over in silence.
The Oration of Professor GAUBIUS contains an historical view of the rise and progress of the University of Leyden, which is interesting in the highest degree, deserves to be made known whereever learning and philosophy are cultivated, and is composed with a truly masterly hand. After a lively description of the deplorable state of servitude and superftition, under which the United Provinces groaned in the iron age of Spanish tyranny, and the incredible Itruggles and efforts it cost them to recover their liberty, he asks, with reason, the following question: Was this period of tumult, confusion, and despair, a time for forming the plan of a seminary for Philosophy and Letters? He answers this question in the negative; maintains that human wisdom could never have formed the idea of such a project at such a period, and from hence he is led to attribute the attempt to the suggestion and interposition of a miraculous Providence. This, however, is straining the point rather too far even for a Chriftian philosopher. The fact is, no doubt, surprising; nay more, it is astonilhing. A civil war raging in the very heart of the republic--the most powerful monarch in Europe direct. ing all the thunder of his arms and vengeance to the destruction of this little district-an exhausted treasury-scenes of carnage, rapine, and defolation--divided counsels, and contradictory interests, producing all the dismal effects of anarchy all these were, certainly, most discouraging, and, in appearance, une surmountable obstacles to the establishment of a seat of learning. Such establishments are, generall : speaking, the fruit of leisure and tranquillity, and there is nothing that the Muses abhor more than the din of arms, and the barbarous tumults of war. But if we call supernatural, every thing which is furprifing, we may extend too far the sphere of miracles, and it is only by granting a proper indulgence to the effusions of a pious Rr 4
and and patriotic eloquence, that we can justify this conclusion af the respectable Professor. We could wish, however, that he had given to his pious conclusion, less the air of a doctrine or a tenet; because, in this form, it stands more exposed to the chicane of infidels.
After living thus described the amazing spirit, that laid the foundations of this famous University, the learned Professor considers the human and visible means that contributed to increase its lustre and to extend its reputation. WILLIAM I. (whole projects and exploits look as like miracles as things car look, that are not such) was one of the zealous protectors of the Infant-university, and took care to provide it with learned and ingenious men from all quarters : and though the tribunal of the Inquisition, the erection of rival universities at Louvain and Doway, sanguinary edicts, and many other impediments oppofed the growth of this feminary of learning, yet it grew and flourished even from its birth. The Orator relates, and relates in a very pathetic manner, the various fates of the republic, that , chreatened the University during the first hundred years of its existence, such as the inauspicious government of the earl of Leicester, the theological war between the Gomarists and Armirians, and the lawless and perfidious invasion of the French in the year 1672.
Tbe second century of the University presents a new and more prosperous face of things. It arrives at full maturity : it is frequented by the flower of the European nobility : its acaq demical honours, especially in certain branches, are objects of ambition in all countries : the studious youth from other seminaries repair thither to finish their education : and though, in process of time, the erection of academies in other countries, the edicts of sovereigns in favour of their national schools, and several other circumstances diminish the number of students at Leyden, yet its renown has still subsisted, and still remains.
The causes that contributed to its luftre and renown, are pointed out with truth and judgment by our venerable Orator,
We shall not dwell upon those that are only of an accidental and subordinate nature, such as the magnificent library so often augmented by noble donations, the botanical garden, and the chemical laboratory, which are perfect in their kinds, the exquisite anatomical preparations of Ravius and Albinus (which exceed any thing that Europe can exhibit in that way) the precious collection of antiquities, the admirable apparatus of inftruments relative to experimental philosophy in all its branches, and the curious cabinet of natural history: all these, though highly ornamental, would (as our Professor observes) be litile better than a lifeless body, if they were not (as it were) animated by the vivifying spirit of philosophy and genius, in those
whe who have been appointed to employ them as the means of public instruction. It is therefore here, even in the eminent merit of her professors, that we must seek the true causes of the lustre and reputation of the University of Leyden ; and, indeed, there are few, if any, seminaries of learning, which have been adorned with such an uninterrupted succession of EMINENT or confideratle men in all the various branches of philosophy and literature. Of these illustrious names, the discreet Orator only mentions two, whose superiority none can contest, who had no rival in their spheres, and whom he considers as real prodigies. There are two advantages in this method : by it, invidious and con. teftible comparisons are avoided, and, beside, it gives occasion to point out the marks of that extraordinary providence which our Professor seems so fond of acknowledging in behalf of his University. He makes a general oblation of well-merited incense to the memory of the Dead and the merit of the Living ; but he thinks it natural to give here a particular attention to the medical departments, of which he, himself, is a member * and which, indeed, have always shone with a peculiar lustre in the University of Leyden. It is from these departments that he has taken the two great names, whom he has ventured to mention, and the Reader will easily conceive, that he first turns his fiew to the immortal BoerHAAVE, who (though educated and designed for a quite different profession) foared by the intrinsic force of astonishing genius, to an amazing height in the sphere of natural philosophy and medicine, gave a new form to the latter science, and by uniting it with the former, established it upon solid foundations, upon truth, nature, and experience. This extraordinary man may be called, in a great measure, the
restorer of medical science;' for though there were before him ..jeminent men, who improved this science by their discoveries
and their experiments, yet all these (says our learned Professor) were unable to banish conjecture, fictions, and seets. (Are they banished yet?) He acknowledges the services that have been rendered to medicine, by Paracelsus and Van Helmont, who raised their yoices against the jargon of the schools, by Harvey, whose discovery of the circulation of the blood, is the æra from whence the true theory of the art of healing dates its origin; (Sydenham might have been named) but after all he observes, that BOERHEAYE was the Newion of the medical world. And it is indeed true, that he rose there, like a star of the first mag. pitude, at whose light the other constellations (as Milton expresses it) hid their diminished heads. We shall not dwell any
* Dr. Gaubius was Professor of Phyfic and Chemistry till lately, for he is now succeeded by the eminent and learned Professor De Haen of Utrecht.
longer longer on the beautiful eulogy of Boerhaave, which is one of the molt masterly parts of this Oration. This great man is suffi. ciently known and applauded. The British isles resounded with his merit, while he was living, and his memory will be always revered there, even by those who shall discern his errors, and
carry his views to greater degrees of perfection. • After the Eulogy of Boerhaave, that of ALBINUS follows. It is fort, but sublime, and worthy of its subject, who was undoubtedly the greatest Anatomist and Physiologist that the world ever saw, in whom genius, precision, depih, caite, and fimplicity, were united to a degree that is above all praise, and whole fame will go down to posterity with a dignity and lustre, which no new improvements in science will ever be able to efface. . The Oration concludes with a congratulatory Address to the PRINCE STADTHOLDER, the CURATORS of the University, and the members of the government present at this licerary festival, This Addreis is elegant and pathetic. That part of it which reJates to the Illustrious Prince, his Royal Confort, and his serens offspring is happily imagined, happily expressed, and in the truest talte. Antonius Mula could not have addressed himself to Auguftus with a more classical purity of style, or with a more courtly turn of phrase, entirely exempt from the stiffness of art or the bombast of adulation.
5 Tbis last article came to us inclosed in an anonymous letter, from abroad; but we have ventured to incorporate it with the communications of our l?atcd foreign Correspondenis; who, we hope, will excuse the liberty which we have taken in this respect. The Stranger, we apprehend, will bring no disgrace on the company to which we have introduced him.-For our own parts, we would not miss this opportunity of declaring that we Mall be glad to be better acquainted with him.
ART. III. Conclufion of the Acccunt of Millot's History of the Troubadours. IN our last Appendix, we gave a short account of this work,
to which we refer our readers, and now proceed to lay before them a few more extracts from the very ingenious and judicious Abbe's preliminary discourse.
A very conliderable part of the writings of the Troubadours, he tells us, turns upon the events of the age they lived in ; events adonirably adapted to excite poetical enthusiasm or indignation. A short view of them will be sufficient to thew how initructive the subject is.
The Troubadour's wrote at a time, when the popes, losing fight of the rules, and of the examples, of the primitive church, excited commotions every where, and converted a divine sys.
er to ched fovereigntes, of whidered in
al views on them a Parmy
tem of religion into an instrument of audacious policy; when they were daring and presumptuous enough, at one time, to dispose of the rewards of heaven, and at another, to condemn and consign over to the punishments of hell; when they subdued nations, dethroned sovereigns, and shook empires to their very foundations. The crusades, of which Gregory the Seventh formed the first idea, if they are considered in a political view, were a master-piece of pontifical despotism. By means of them a pope could arm the subjects of every prince, and thus form an army under his own command; could send troops to conquer kingdoms, and render them tributary to himself; could raise immense contributions from one end of Europe to the other, and dispose of them as he pleased; could drain states of men and money, and thus increase his own strength by their weakness; could banish kings and emperors, in a manner, to distant regions, and render their removal ad. l'antageous to himself; could constitute himself judge of all matters both civil and political, by putting the persons and estates of all those who went to the holy land under the protection of the pontificate. If the policy of Rome did not view this system at first in its full extent, it is evident that, in a little time, she pushed it as far as it could go, though her ambitious projects were always covered with the veil of reJigious and mystical ideas, and concealed perhaps from her own eyes, as well as from the eyes of deluded and infatuated nations.
In the poetical productions of the Troubadours we meet with a thousand instances of the enthusiasm of the crusades, and of the silly motives which gave rise to them ; but we sometimes perceive in them likewise a boldness of censure, which forms a fingular contrast to the prejudices of the multitude.
And indeed, after so many unfortunate expeditions, from which Europe had expected the greatest success, there must of necessity have been some men of sufficient wisdom and discernment to form a just idea of them, and of boldness enough to speak their sentiments with freedom. Ecclefiaftical power, so respectable in itself, and so useful, when it discharges its pro. per duties with wisdom and discretion, exposed itself to the most dangerous attacks, by abuses which begun to fill the minds of the people with indignation.
This was properly she origin of the sectaries in our southern provinces, known by the different names of Manicheans, Waldenfes, Albigenses, &c. Their invectives against the clergy were, as much as their errors, the cause of that horrid war that was declared against them, in order to ruin the count of Toulouse. Till then the crusades had the extermination of the enemies of the Chriftian name for their object. But Christians