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and has a soitherto believe is one of fib.ir wounds more the
are never placed elsewhere in the class of eatables, and among others the Bisort ( Alp. minor) whose root is juicy, and which has nearly the taste of a nut. They have also poisonous plants, which they reduce to powder, and rub with it the points of their arrows, in order to render their wounds mortal.
The sea along the coast is full of fish. Among the inhabitants of the ocean there is one frequently observable here, which has hitherto been unknown: it is called the Bieluga, and has a good deal of the resemblance of an ox; it has a white and shining mane, and forms, perhaps, a class in the fpecies of the sea calves, or phocæ. Among the quadrupedes of this country, are black bears, of a very fierce and untractable kind. The dogs do the business of horses, are put to the sledges, and four of them will draw a weight of four hundred pounds. The rivers abound with excellent salmon, and the dodeco grammos, a fish little known to the writers of Natural history, is to be found here. The inhabitants of the Peninsula live almost entirely upon fish, but they eat it in the most disgusting manner imaginable. As they neither have salt, nor care for it, they let their fith rot in ditches, and then feed upon it. When they smoke it, or roast it immediately, it is eatable enough.
GOTTINGEN. . VII. The following work is every way worthy of the reputation of its learned Author: Summarische Geschichte von Nerd Africa, &c. i. e. A Compendious History of Northern Africa, viz. of Morocco, Algiers, Tunis, and Tripoly , composed for the Use of the Public Schools. By M. AUG. Lewis Schlozer, Gotingen. 1775.
This work is divided into fix periods : the ist contains the ancient history of these countries, as far down as the Christian æra. The 2d, 3d, and 4th exhibit a view of the northern regions of Africa under the domination of the Romans, Arabians, and Fatemites. The 5th, which begins with the year 1120, presents them under the government of the MuThedians, or Al Mohdians; and the 6th and last comprehends the history of the same parts of Africa under the empire of the Osmans and Shariffs.
ZAGRA B. VIII. A writer distinguished by his industry and erudition, has published at Zagrab, (where is that? in Sclavonia; is there a printing press there? yes ;) a Latin work of very considerable merit under the following title : De Regnis Dalmatia, Criatiæ, Sclavoniæ, &c. i. e. An Introduction to the History of the King, doms of Dalmatia, Croatia, Sclavonia, divided into fíur Periods, and published under the auspicious Protection of her Imperial and Royal Majesty, by the Honourable BALTH. ADAM KERESELICH,
Mitred Abbot of Kaes, Afessor of the Royal Tribunal, and Canon of the Cathedral of Zagrab. In Folio. The printing-press, which brought forth this production, was erected at Zagrab by the Author himself, under the protection and munificence of the Empress-queen. The work is the result of the most indefatigable inquiries, made, by the Author, after all the papers, coins, lapidary inscriptions and other monuments of ancient times, that were to be found in the countries, whose history he writes; these, and the manuscripts of Baron Paul Ritter, are the materials from whence his relations are princi. pally drawn. It is true, that in his researches in Dalmatia, Croatia and Sclavonia, he met with many difficulties and much opposition. Some of the inbabitants wrote libels against him, that were burnt by the hands of the common hangman; others, considering him as a traitor to his country, concealed, or deftroyed many of the infcriptions, records and ancient monuments, from whence Mr. KERESELICH expedied information. It is not difficult to perceive from what principle all this opposition proceeded. It is probable that the free and indepen. dent spirit, that is not as yet annihilated, in these countries, even by the weight of the Austrian yoke, indisposed the peo. ple against a work, which is principally designed to prove, that the kings of Hungary have always had an undoubred and an uninterrupted right to all the territories of Dalmatia, Croatia, Slavonia, Servia and Bosnia. It is with this view, that Mr. KERESELICH examines and appreciates, with a crirical sagacity, a multitude of facts and relations, true and falle, probable and doubtful, and gives a new aspect and form to the histories of these countries, even in this introduction, which will be followed, it is hoped, by a complete history, when more favourable times and circumstances shall enable our Author to execute his general plan.
NUREMBERG. IX. The booksellers Lochner and Mayer have published the fol. lowing work which will be a delicious morsel for the antiquaries: Dem Munkvergangen gewiedmete nebenstunden, &c. i. e. Numismatical Recreations : or, a Defcription of 100 rare and
arkable Gold Medals. By M. MATTHEW HENRY HEROLDT. 1775. The Author of this work is a perfect adept in numismatical science, and associates the labours and the pleasures of this species of erudition with the occupations of commerce. He possesses the greatest part of the antiques of which he treats, has had them all engraven, and has accompanied the copper plates with ample descriptions of these medals, and with critical remarks upon their merit and rarity. To all these are added satisfactory accounts of the persons, in Rr 2
wholc honour they were ftruck, and the events which gave occasion to them.
BERLIN. X. The king's printer, Decker, has published lately a small, but fingular pamphlet of 53 pages, entitled Confiderations sur l'Etude de la Jurisprudence, i. e. Confiderations upon the Study of Jurisprudence : or, the Science of Natural Law. By ABRAHAM PERRENOT. We suppose, from the dedication, that Mr. PerRENO'T lives at Berlin, and is pretty much under the influence of hope or fear; for if this were not the case, it is scarcely conceivable, how a production that has Natural law, Humanity, and Reason, for its objects, could be placed with any propriety under the protection of a patron, who is characterized in a Larin dedication of five or fix words, as the victorious Alumnus of Mars and APOLLO, the former of whom teaches to cut throats, and the latter to play upon the flute.- As to the pamphlet itself, it does not seem to be the production of a man of mean abilities ; on the contrary, ic discovers, in many places, penetration, wit, and erudition; and yet it is one of those productions, which even an attentive reader totally forgets the very moment he has done perusing it. The want of connexion, which is designed to give an air of ease to the piece, at the expence of the lucidus ordo,-the affectation of an uncommon phraseology which seems intended to give an aspect of novelty to objects that are not new-a variety of thoughts that are so dresled up that we are at a loss to know whether they are new or old principles that are so vague that we know not whether to pronounce them true or false, conclusions drawn from them, that are as uncertain as their source,-ingenious digressions that disperse attention, a number of metaphorical expres. fions that dazzle, but do not enlighten, all these concur to render the piece before us obscure and unsatisfactory. Nevertheless there are several acute things, and some interesting points of view presented to us in this pamphlet. The Author's prin. ciple of Natural law is the lave of order and humanity. He supposes physical order to be the rule of moral, and yet asserts, that the will of a Superior is the only source of moral obligae tion : and so he goes on.
MAN HE I M. XI. The doctrine that the several classes of beings rise is a regular gradation or scale, has received much confirmacion from modern discoveries in natural hiftory. From there it is manifest that there is a nearer affinity between the several kingdoms into which the natural world has been divided, than superficial observers are aware of. But some modern natura. lists, not satisfied with acknowledging this general affinity, have proceeded so far as to maintain, that it is impoflible to lay
down any characteristic distinctions between the animal and vegetable world, and that those characters by which they have hitherto been distinguilhed are in reality common to both. This opinion is supported with great ingenuity, and by a curious detail of facts, in a work just published at Manheim, by Ff. de Necker, entitled, Physiologia Mufcorum. The Author is To fully persuaded of the truth of his system, that he does not hesitate to affert, that if his readers will examine attentively and without prejudice the facts which he has collected, they will agree with him in the opinion, that there is in nature only one general kingdom. In support of this doctrine, the Author first compares the manner in which mosles, and fundry other vegetable productions are propagated, with the mode of genesation in the polypus, and some other animals, in order to Thew that in each the species is propagated in a funilar manner, wichout the aid of sexual organs. He then examines the structure. of mosles and some other plants, and the organization of the polypus, and of several kinds of worms and other animals, and points out a wonderful similarity in their formation, and their powers of reproduction: after which he proceeds to fhew the resemblance between these vegetable and animal bodies, with respect to the manner in which their growth and nutrition are conducted. He next maintains, that many bodies, animal as well as vegetable, are without sexual organs or powers. And
lastly, he enters into a farther comparison of the properties and . powers of various animal and vegetable bodies ; the result of · which is, that neither form, organization, loco motion, irritability, sensation, nor any other known properties, can furnish a characteristic distinction between the animal and vegetable world. On the whole, the work abounds with curious facts, and ingenious observations; which, if they do not fully establith the Writer's opinion, at least give it the appearance of probability, and will afford much entertainment to those who study nature with a true philosophical spirit of inquiry.
LEY DE N.
Etablissemens & du Commerce des Européans dans les deux Indes, Co., under the title of Analyse de L'Histoire, &c. has lately appeared
at Leyden. It is a malignant but feeble attack upon a work which has deservedly engaged the public attention *. Notwithstanding the uncommon traits of gerius, good sense, extensive knowledge, and a manly philosophic spirit which this work dir. covered, the Author ventured too far out of the beaten track, to be secure from the calumny of those who look upon heresy as the most - heinous crime a man can commit. The Analyst,
* See App. to Rav. vol. xlvi. p. 633.
highly offended at the liberties which his Author had taken with established systems of religion and policy (liberties which we do not mean entirely to justify) sits down with a full determination to represent the work as nothing better than a compofilion of blunders and contradictions, heresies and blasphemies. It would be a task equally tiresome to ourselves and our Readers, to enter into a particular derail of the accusations which are here brought against this generally adınired work. We think it sufficient to remark that, from the perusal of this Analysis, we have only learned that genius and philosophy cannot absolutely secure a writer from falling into mistakes, or preserve him from the influence of prejudice and false judgment; and that a bigotted and lavish attachment to any system, political or religious, blinds the underítanding, corrupts the taste, and depravus the heart. .
i XIII. The commencement of the third century or fecular year of the UNIVERSITY of Leyden, was celebra:ed, with great lolemnity, in the month of fiebruary last ; and, upon that occafion, the sages of the Lycæum and the votaries of the muses felt all that inspiration, which the joint influence of the love of liberty and the love of letters could excite in ingenuous minds. Accordingly, the annual academical rector or chief magistrate, who was to resign his place to a successor (on the 8th of Feb. ruary), turned the discourse, which is usually delivered on this occasion, towards the solemnity of the day; and this magistrate happened to be the very learned and illustrious Professor GAUBIUS, whose name has long appeared, and will always continue to appear, with diftin&tion, in the annals of medicine, literature, and philosophy.-The Panegyrical Oration, he delivered upon this literary festival, to a most numerous and splendid audience, with the Serene Prince Stadtholder of the United Provinces at its head, has been lately published, and the subject of it is, The allmirable display of a Divine Providence in the origin, preservation, and progressive luftre of the University of Leyden. This excellent Discourse (of which we shall here give some account) was applauded, and continues to be read with singular pleasure by all ranks and orders of men. The Rhetoricians pronounce it elequent; the Latin critics acknowledge it classical; the philosophers esteem it a master-piece of philofophical history, the courtiers find it insinuating without meanness, and the Belgic di. vines declare it not only pious, but even orthodox. The title of the piece is as follows: Hieron David Gaubni Oratio Pane. gyrica in Aufpicium Sæculi Tertii Academiæ Batavæ quæ Leida eft, Auctoritate Publica Die VIII Februarii 1775, in æde D. Petri Recitatæ cum Magistratu Academico tertium abiret. Folio.
In the same volume with this Oration, we find a very elegant poem or CARMEN SECULARE, which was recited to the same aucience, and upon the fame occasion, by a swo-fold Jon of Apollo,