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in her name, by the W--k-es's and the R-ach-.d's on the one hand, or by the Johns..s and the Sh-bb-os.es on the other.. • REASON and Truth set out at lengih for France, where they are made to bepraise the new monarch, who really deserves to be praised, and propose many objects of political and economical reformation.
11. One of the moft exquisite pieces of pointed satire that has appeared for some time at Paris is the Theory of Paradox.
This anonymous produâion is generally attributed to the Abbé MORELLET, a leading member of the party of the economifs, a name given to a set of men in France, who are the zealous promoters of agriculture in that kingdom, and are supposed to be, or to have been, zealously devoted to the ancient ministry. The subject of this fatire is the famous Mr. Linguet, who by his eloquence, impudence, and misconduct at the bar, and the fingularity, vehemence, wit, and extravagance, that characterize his literary compofitions, has made such a noise in the world. The witty Abbé has, with an ironical applause, collected cogether all the disgusting paradoxes that are to be found in the writings of this hot-headed and abusive author, and, arranged them under certain heads. Bayes in the Rehearsal does not make a more ridiculous figure. We shall here firew fome of these paradoxical flowers for the Reader's amusement : Liberty · is distinguished into natural and civil, the former is the character of a favage bull, the latter is a phantom, because government and civil liberty are incompatible--Hereditary savery is as equitable a thing as hereditary property-The visible decline of population in Europe proceeds from the suppression of Navery* Aftate of society is detrimental to population - The government of England is the most absurd of all civil eftablishments, and there is not one great man in that country who may not vix and opprefs bis inferiors with impunity --- It is in the Hatic gvoernments alone, that true liberty can find an asylum, that we must learn the true spirit of legistation, the true notions of civil rights, and the folid principles of civil associations. The Turks and Persians point out 'to 14 the fure path to public felicity: Corn is a miserable pitiful production, which invites famine infead of re . moving it: a present made by Nature in ber wrath, whose falk conTains more catamities than grains --Bread is a murthering drug, of 'which corruption is the first elementory principle; we are obliged in modify it by a poifon (the leaven), ti render it less unhealthy; it is like those poi foris, the use of which brings us at length to the grave, and whefe privation would have equally brought on death-The cuftom of eating bread has been the source of lavery and dejection of fpiritof meanness in the lower orders, and of the contempt of men among the great.---The most fhamefut excess, and that criminal effeminacy which enervates individuals and empires, are never found but in those countries where there are corn-mills and bakers. We
are accustomed to eat bread as Mithridates was brought by babit to digest poison.
This is a sample of Mr. Linguet's paradoxes with respear to things : his paradoxes with respect to per fons are not lefs extraordinary ; nay, indeed, they are monstrous, and almoft incredible; they are nevertheless faithfully extracted by our Abbé from Linguet's two books, intitled, Revolutions Romaines and the Age of Alexander. Here we see this hair-brained wit, with the fury of an Iconoclast, throwing down the statues of Marcus Antoninus, Trajan, and Titus, and with the same hand offering, the moment after, the incense of panegyric to Tiberius, and softening the just severity of those reproaches that have been caft upon the memories of Caligula and Nero. One exe ample here will suffice-Suetonius (says Mr. Linguet) bas DISHONOURED the memory of Titus, by relating these two sayings of bisa (MY FRIENDS I HAVE LOST A DAY— and, IT IS NOT FIT THAT ANY ONE SHOULD RETIRE DISCONTENTED FROM AN AUDIENCE OF HIS SOVEREIGN) the former of these fayings, were it trui, would ratber discover a LITTLE MIND than a GENEROUS HEART, and the latter is ODIOUS,' FAITHLESS, IMPRUDENT, and CRURL. From the ancients this Drawcanfir comes down to the moderns, and treats Montesquieu, D'Alembert, and several other respe&able names with the most fcurrilous epithets, and the moft ridiculous marks of malignity and fury, while, all this time, the Abbé MONELLET, with inimitable dexterity and pleasantry produces these sentenees in such a happy arrangement, and accompanies them with fuch reflexions, as make their folly come forth like a strong ballo relievo, and give them a truly Bedlamitical force from their fories and juncture. It is truly a pleasant performance; but we cannot proceed any farther in the account of its contents,
III. The following work is of a much more grave and feo rioos turn, and is really recommendable by its folidity and inportance. Though we are not, in general, fatisfied with the manner in which the French writers defend Chriftianity, bocause the foundations they lay are often narrow, and the super. structure, of consequence, is imperfect and precarious, yet there are several exceptions from this general rule, and among these we may place the Abbé Duvoisin's Defence of the Books of the New Testament against tbe Objetlions of Unbelievers. The French title runs thus : L'Autorité des Livres du Nouveau Teftament contre les Incredules. In 8vo. 1775. Mr. Freret's pofthumous work, (if it was his really) concerning the Apologifts or defenders of the Chriftian faith, as it ftruck dire&ly at the authenticity of the sacred writings, animated many learned men in France to defend the Canon of Scripture, and to fet that matter in a more full and fatisfactory light. The Author now before us has
not neglected this part of the defence of Christianity, though he takes in a larger field, and answers all the most specious objections of unbelievers. His work is learned, solid, judicious, and ample.
IV. We cannot give the following work, though it is far fron being deftitute of merit, such an high commendation, En. tretiens Philosophiques & Critiques fur plusieurs Points de Morale te d'Histoire, ou Examen des Principes de la Philofophie Moderne, &c. i. e. Pbilosophical and Critical Conferences on several Points of Morality and History, or an Examination of the Principles of a certain Modern Philosophy witb respect to Religion and Criticism. By M.M. P. P. C. 1775. This work confaits of two parts. In the first we have a series of conversations between a Philofopher and a Divine ; in the second a Count and his Lady, bold unbelievers, are introduced on the scene, seconded by a'Wit. The Abbé Couet fights them all by turns. There are many good things in the book, and it reads pleasantly. Most of the objec. tions againlt the Christian religion are produced and refuted in the easy style of familiar conversation ; but there is still, here and there, a smell of Popery that comes in, and taints the pure Aavour of genuine Christianity GERMANY and the NORTH.
VIENNA, V. Who would believe that we are in the cighteenth and not in the fourteenth century, when he sees ANTHONY DE HAEN, aulic counsellor, and for physician to her Imperial Mojenly the one prefs queen of Hungary, and forf profeffor in the university of Vienna, publishing an odavo volume of 316 pages in delence of the supernatural science of magic. It is really truc. The title of the book is ANTONII DE HAEN, De Magia' Liber. Mr. D'Alembert esteemed it as one of the marks of the little progress true philosophy had made in the Roman-catholic universities in Germany, that a book was publilhed in the year 1750 at Vienna, upon the Aristotelian hypothesis concerning fube Pantial forms and absolute accidents ; - in this, perhaps, he car. ried things too far. We have a late proof that the transforming power of genius can present, under very interesting points of view, even the long exploded predicaments of Ariftote; and this proof is given us by the learợed, ingenious, and respectable Author of the Philosophical Arrangements. But a book upon magic ! nay, in defence of magic-and that composed by the firft physician of a splendid court; this, indeed, we fear is a fhrewd proof that the literary and philosophical talte at Vicona, is far from being as yet. disengaged from the Tuperftition and barbarism of the fourteenth century. It will, however, prove, at the same time, that professor DE HAEN is no sorcerers this he has already shewn upon several occa
ther of the Philele ce of magic macbis indeed,
Sxin enumerates ability. Perous or deletina contorming
Gons, and particularly by, bis virulent, devout, voluminous, and impotent oppofition to the falutary practice of inoculation. Be that as it máy,—this work (oot in defence of the practice, but of the existence of magic) confifts of three parts, and each part consists of three chapters; that is, three times three, a number that savours somewhat of incantation. Our professor, indeed, gives the matter a fair hearing. He begins by defining magic to be, the power of performing, with the pera mission of God, but in consequence of a convention made with the Devil, things advantageous or detrimental to mankind, which exceed all human ability. In the three chapters of the firft part he enumerates the arguments of those who maintain the real existence of magic, thus defined, arguments drawn from the three following fources, the Old and New Teftament- the doctrines, customs, and laws of the church, and the opi.
nions of the fathers—and from the experience of eminent · physicians, the observations of wise men (i. e. wiseacres) and
from the untainted credit of the most accurate historians. In the second part he gives us a list of the principal authors who have denied the reality of a magical power, produces their objections which are drawn from the same sources that its abettors appeal to, and he answers these obje&ions with much zeal, little knowledge, and less judgment. In the third part, the first chapter is employed in some illustrations (if we must call them so) of the doctrine laid down in the preceding part of the work. In the second, the Author (who after all is not fond of burning witches) shews with what caution and circumspection we should proceed, when rumours of magic begin to be spread ; and enumerates the multitude of false pretensions to magic that have deceived the world, and brought numbers of innocent persons to the stake. He also lays down the marks that may be of use to distinguish the pretended sorcerers from the real ones; and this he does with a rich effufion of scholastic jargon and superannuated erudition. But nothing is more ridiculous than the third chapter of this third part which concludes the work, in which magical diseases are distinguished from natural ones, and a threefold method of cure is exhi. bited. Here we have the cream of monastice-medico-nonsens fico-theology
STRASBOURG... : VI. Mr. Scerer of this city has published an interesting work entitled: G. W. Steller's-Beschreibung Vandem Lande Kamschatka, &c. i. e. A Description of the Country of Kamfchatka, by the late Mr. Steller, Alifiant Member of the Imperial Academy, with Fourteen Copper-plates. 8vo. The editor of this posthumous work, who passed a considerable time in Ruflia, and acquired, during his résidence there, an extensive know
them to per is employed less judgmente obje&id
ledge of that vast empire, has prefixed to this publicacion the Life of Mr. STELLER, who was one the most inquisitive and laborious men of his time. He was sent twice to Irkuzk, and during the second voyage died in his sedge, where his guides had left him exposed to the cuid, while they were gone to drink in a village at a small distance. Beside this description of Kamschatíka, he left behind him an account of a voyage to America; and though these works have not received the finishing hand of the Author, yet they contain interesting materials, and bear evident marks of an intelligent and judicious observer --The former alone comes under our consideration in this article.
The people that inhabit the extremities of the southern promontory as far as the river Tigil, call themselves by the name of Italmen, and it is not the Peninsula, but the principal river that goes by the name of Kamschatka. Our Author does not judge very favourably of the discoveries made by Spangenberg; he acknowledges, however, that the western illands of fefe are larger, wa ner, and more fruitful than has generally been imagined : they produce lemon trees and bams, boos. There are several volcanos in Kamchatka. Toward the sea-coast the earth never thaws beyond the depth of a foot, or a foot and a half; below that, all is solid ice. Nevertheless barley grows very well in the district of Stilchney; and our Author is of opinion that the whole country might be cultivated so as to yield a comfortable subsistence for its inhabitants. Mr. Devrier; who fettled there not long ago, had both cows and horses ; and there are as fine meadows in Ka'mschatka as any in Rullia. Turnips and radishes are the vegetables that grow best in that foil. In the country that lies about the river of Kamschatka, are beautiful woods of Jarch-trees, and in several places there are medicinal plants. Hail and thunder are very rare in that region, and the snow falls in greater abundance in the southern part of it than toward the north.
The inhabitants are healthy and live long. Their principal disorder is the scurvy, which attacks, however, the stranger with more violence than the native; and which, in both, may be diininished or cured by various antiscorbutic vegetables which grow in the country. There is another disorder, known there, which manifests itself by ulcers, that break out over the whole body, and may easily prove mortal. The people of the country are, generally speaking, pretty good botanists ; they seem to be susceptible of instruction in other sciences, and are easily converted to Chriftianity. They are remarkable for industry and patience, and discover a fingular dexterity in spinning nettles. They make use, for food, of several plants, that
APP, Rev, Vol. lii. Ro