תמונות בעמוד
PDF
ePub

schie

sand

COLMAN'S TRANSLATION. NEW TRANSLATION.
Oh my dear Demea, in all matters else The main concern of money. O dear
Increase of years increasis wisdom in us:

Demea! This only vice age brings along with it; To every other purpose of our lives “ We're all more worldly-minded, than Years make us wiler: this, old age itself, there's need :"

relle, Adds to our follies : we old men are all Which pallion age, that kills all paflions But loo attentive to our money : years Will ripen in your sons too.

Will give to them that same attention. DEME A alone.

DE ME A folus. Never did man lay down so fair a plan, Never did man lay down so perfect rules So wise a rule of life, but fortune, age, For his conduct through life, but circumOr long experience made some change in

fance,

[produce, (thought he knew, Time, custom, still shall something new And taught him, that those things he still teach him something; and he finds He did not know, and what he held as best,

at last In practice he threw by. The very thing That he's deficient in the very points,

That happens to myself. For that hard life He thought himself a master of: and on
Which I have ever led, my race near run, Trial, will lay aside his firt designs.
Now in the laft ftage, I renounce : and And this is now my case; for ih' auftere
I why?

life
But that by dear experience I've been told, I have led hitherto, do I give up.
There's nothing to advantages a man, When my race, too, is almost run. And,
As mildness and complacency. Of this

why? My brother and myself are living proofs : Because I've found, in fact, that kindness He always led an easy, chearful life; Compliance turn unto the best account. Good-humour'd, mild, oitending nobody, The truth of this may eafily be seen, Smiling on all; a jovial batchelor, In me, and Micio: he hath spent his life His whole expences center'd in himself. In ease and revelling; mild, affable, 1, on the contrary, rough, rigid, cross, Offending none, and smiling upon all. Saving, morore, and thrifty, took a wife: He for his own sake liv'd away, and made What miferies did mar.iage bring !- Expence: all love him, and speak welt

had children; A new uneasiness and then besides, I, who forsooth am savage, countryfied, Striving all ways to make a fortune for Sulky, begrudging, peevith, obftinate, them,

Thealth: Was married: oh! what misery was there! I have worn out my prime of life and Then came two sons, another charge upon And now, my course near finishid, what

me ! return

Moreover, while I have been Audying Do I receive for all my toil? Their hate. To get as much as poffible for them, Meanwhile my brother, without any care, I've worn the beft part of my life away; Reaps all a father's comförts, Him they Now at the end of it, the recompence love,

They render me for all my care, is this; Me they avoid : to him they open all Hatred ! my brother, who has had no care, Their secret counsels; doat on him; and He enjoys all a father's benefits:

faken. 'Tis him they love: me they avoid: trust Repair to him ; while I am quite for

him

[with him : His life they pray for, but expect my With all their secrets: him adore : are death.

(labour, I am forsakeo : his life they pray for : Thus those, brought up by my exceeding But long, no doubt, to see my death. And He, at a small expence, has made his own:

thus The care all mine, and all the pleasure bis. Hath he ad little cost made them his own,

Well then, let Me enricavour in my turn Whom I have labour'd hard in bringieg up. To teach my tongue civility, to give I have the pain, and he the pleasure; well! With open-handed xenerosity,

Let me try t'other fide ; what I can do Since I ain challengid to't mind let Me I'th'way of civil speech, and courteous too

[dren! Behaviour ! since I am provokid to it. Ob in the love and reverence of my chil. I too will set myself to gain the love, And if ’ris bought by bounty and indul And be the darling, of my family. gence,

If that's to be procur’d by giving, and I will not be bebind-hand. ---Cash will fail: Complying, I'll not be behind in that. What's thai to me, who am the eldett- Our means shall fail us; but that couches me born ?

The least of all, who am the oldeft maa.

of him.

both

We We have endeavoured to select such passages of the play as might, with least violence, be detached from the rest of the dialogue, and would therefore be most agreeable to the Reader, The difference between the two translations, a difference wbich prevails through the whole work, is obvious. We shall therefore only observe that the last ought to have been the best, and that the New Translator, having adopted Mr. Colman's mode of rendering the Roman poet into familiar blank verse, has no claim to that originality of transiation which the first idea of such a method conferred on the version of Mr. Colman, which indeed he has taken uncommon pains to defend and recommend in his preface. The New Translation of the Adelphi has no preface, and very few notes.

ART. VIII. PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS, Vol. LXIV. Part 2,

for the year 1774. 4to. 7 s. 6 d. sewed. Davis.

PHYSICAL OBSERVATIONS and EXPERIMENTS. Article 44. On the Stilling of Waves by Mleans of Oil: Extracted

from sundry Letters between Benjainin Franklin, LL.D. F.R.S. William Brownrigg, M. D. F. R. S. and the Rev. Mr. Farish. THE very singular effect produced by a small quantity of T oil thrown upon water, in ftilling its surface when it is agitated with waves, was not, as is observed in this Article, unknown to the ancients. Pliny has related this property of oil, and the use made of it by the divers, in a passage that occurs in his second book, which we have given below *. But it was not wonderful that philosophers Mould pay little attention to the observacion, when, on turning back a few pages, they find this venerable but credulous ancient affirming likewise that the most violent tempest, the Typhi, might likewife be stilled, only by dashing a little vinegar in its face ;-imui remedio aceti in advenientem effufi; [lib. ii. cap. 48) cui, he phi. lofophically adds, frigid:fima ejt Natura.

Though it is evident from this Article that oil really poiluftes, in a conliderable degree, the power ascribed to it by Pliny in the quotation given below ; yet none of our writers on experimental philosophy appear to have been acquainted with this property. It is well known however to the modern divers and dredgers of oy fiers at Gibraltar and elsewhere, who are not philosophers, but who have long availed themselves of this piece of traditional knowledge handed down to them from their fore.

* Omne oleo tranquillari. Et ob id urinantes ore spargere: quonian mitiget naturam afperam, lucemque deportet. Lib. 2. cap. 103.- Plu. tarch likewise, in Quæft. Natur. aks, Cur mare oleo conjperfum, perluridum fit et tranquillum ?

Y 3

fathers,

fathers, and which appears to be of considerable use to them in their respective employments. The divers in the Mediterranean, in particular, descend, as in Pliny's time, with a little oil in their mouths, which they now and then let out; and which, on rising to the surface of the sea, immediately renders it smooth, so as to permit the light to pass through the water, undisturbed by various and irregular refractions.

The Bermudians, it is here said, are enabled to see and strike fish, which would be concealed from their view through the roughness of the sea, by pouring a liule oil upon it. And the Lisbon fishermen, it is added, effect a safe passage over the bar of the Tagus, by emptying a bottle or two of oil into the fea,, when the surf is so great as to endanger its filling their boais. .. Dr. Franklin had formerly read and smiled at Pliny's ac. count ; but an accidental obiervation made at sea caused him first to attend particularly to it; and the various informations which he afterwards received relating to it, induced him to try some experiments on the subject. Standing on the windward side of a large pond at Clapham, the surface of which was rendered very rough with the wind, he poured a tea spoonful of oil on the water. He had the pleasure to see this small quantity producer an instant calm over a space several yards square, which spread amazingly, and extended itself gradually vill it reached the lee side, making all that quarter of the pond, perhaps half an acre, as smooth as a looking glass.'

On repeating this experiment, which constantly succeeded, one circumstance ftruck the Author with particular surprize. « This was the sudden, wide, and forcible (preading of a drop of oil on the face of the water, which,' he adds, - I do not know that any body has considered. When a drop of oil is put on a looking glass, or polished marble, it spreads very little; but on water it initantly expands into a circle extending several feet in diameter; • becoming so thin as to produce the prismatic colours, for a considerable space, and beyond them so much thinner as to be invisible, except in its effect of smoothing the waves at a much greater distance. It seems, says the Author, ! as if a mutual repulsion between its particles took place as soon as it touched the water, and a repulfion so strong as to act on other bodies swimming on the surface, as straws, leaves, chips, &c. forcing them to recede every way from the drop, as from a center, lcaving a large clear space. The quantity of this force, and the distance to which it will operate, I have not yet ascertained ; but I think it a curious inquiry, and I will to underftand whence it arises?

"In endeavouring to account for the fingular effects of oil, in the smoothing of waves, the Author offers a very ingenious and

natural natural solution of the principal appearances : but it is not easy to abridge or condense the writings of so close a reasoner as Dr. Franklin; nor will our limits allow us to transcribe the whole of his explanation ; for which we must therefore refer the curious to the Article itself.

On the whole, there is great room to suppose (notwi hitando ing the partial failure of an experiment made at Portsmouth by the Author, asisted by the Hon. Cape. Bentinck, Mr. Banks, Dr. Solander, and others) that sea-faring people may derive advantages from using oil on particular occasions, in order to mo. derate the violence of the waves, or to lessen the surf which sometimes renders the landing on a lee-fiore dangerous or impracticable. The following relation shews that oil has been lately thus employed with great advantage.

The Author having thewn the experiment of smoothing the large piece of water at the head of the Gren Park, in a windy day, to his Excellency Count Bentinck and Professor Alemand, his Excellency mentioned a letter which he had received from Batavia, relative to the saving a Dutch East India thip in a storm, by pouring oil into the sea. The following is an extract from this letter, dated at Batavia, Jan. 15, 1770.

- Near the islands Paul and Aníterdam, we met with a storm”-in which “ the Captain found himself oblized, for greater safety in wearing the thip, to pour oil into the sea, to prevent the waves brtaking over her, which had an excellent effe&t, and succeeded in preserving us. -As he poured out but a little at a time, the East India Company owes perhaps its thip to only fix demi-aumes of oil olive. I was present upon deck when this was done; and I should not have mentioned this circumstance to you, but that we have found people here so preju. diced against the experiment, as to make it necessary for the officers on board and myself to give a cerrificate of the truth on this head, of which we made no difficulty." Article 42. On the Reviviscence of fome Snails preservid many

Years in Mr. Simon's Cabinet : In a Letter from David Macbride, M. D. to John Walsh, Esq; F. R.S.

That we may avoid the two contrary imputations of excef. five credulity and unreasonable scepticilin, we hall simply re. late the principal facts endeavoured to be established in this Article, without entering into a minute detail of the circumstances. They are certainly of a very singular nature, but not perhaps more extraordinary than the phenomena woich the snail has lately presented to certain naturalists; with whom it has lived several months after its head has been completely taken off, and has then produced a new head provided with its proper organs. The last fact has indeed been denied by some unjuccessful operators; but it is now, we believe, put out of all

doubt

Y

4

doubt by many other philosophers, who have successfully rea peated M. Spalanzani's experiments t.

The Author of the present observation is Mr. Stuckey Simon, a merchant in Dublin, 6 of a very respectable character and undoubted veracity.' Having occasion, we are told, to arrange some shells in a drawer which contained a collection of fossils that had been in his posleflion ever since the death of his father 15 years ago, he gave some snail shells that lay among them to his son, a child about ten years old. Some days afterwards he found several of these snails alive in a baton into which the child had put them. They had however been a long time in water ; to which circunstance the Author ascribes the Tubsequent death of all of them except one, which survived, and has been shewn, at different times, to many learned and curious persons at DubJin, named in this Article. This snail was afterwards sent to Sir John Pringle, who shewed it, still alive as we suppose, at a meeting of the Royal Society.

To obviate certain doubts that may arise in the minds of those who may be struck with the fingularity of this relation, it is obseryed that, as Mr. Simon lives in the middle of the city, it is almost impossible that his son, had he been to dispofed, could have substituted fresh shells, with a view of imposing them on his father for those which he had given him; especially as he was, at that time, and for several days afterwards, confined to the house with a cold. Article 36. Experiments on Animal Fluids in the exhausted Rea

ceiver : By D. Darwin, M. D. Communicated by Dr. Franklin,

From the results of the experiments related in this Article the Author infers, that the phenomena exhibited by blood in an exhausted receiver, where it swells and rises into bubbles, are fallacious; so far as they are supposed to indicate the existence of air, or of an elastic vapour contained in that fluid, while it circulated in the vessels of the animal. He is induced to think that these appearances are owing to atmospheric air, which is combined with the blood during its passage from the vein into the vessel which receives it; and further concludes, that experiments made on the chemical and other properties of blood, thus circumstanced, are rendered very uncertain and erroneous; fince some of its properties, particularly that of coagulation, and perhaps of putrefaction, may depend on this adventitious commixture of atmospheric air. The following is the substance of

+ Among others we may refer to the recent experiments of M. Muller, related in the work lately published by that gentleman, (Vermium, &c. Hisoria) of which an account was given in our Rea view for February last, page 1676

the

« הקודםהמשך »