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every thing in his power to prevent others from knowing any thing about it, or inquiring into it.'
Our Author goes ou to give his readers a specimen of Dr. Reid's talent for irony, and after quoting a passage or two from the Doctor's work, concerning the use of the nerves, he tells us, that such a mode of writing ought to be treated with indignation and contempt.
It is obvious, surely, that if Dr. Reid's ignorance of the subject he writes upon be so very gross, it was unworthy of Dr. PRIESTLEY to contend with such an adversary, with so puny a philosopher, with a mere metaphysical mite. A mastiff never stoops to fight with a lap-dog. . As Dr. Priestley intended to establish the true science of human nature, by facilitating the study of Dr. Hartley's Theory, by improving and extending it, &c. was it not unworthy the dignity and eminence of his philosophic character to take so much notice of so very absurd and incoherent a schemie as that of Dr. Reid?
Our readers, having so flattering a prospect before them as that of seeing, and so very soon too, the true science of human nature established, will, we doubt not, readily excuse us for not detaining them with a particular account of what Dr. Priestley has said in answer to Dr. Reid's Inquiry into the Human Mind. His liberal manner of writing, and the spirit wherewith his answer is animated, will appear very clearly from the extracts we have already given. ..
As to Dr. Beattie's performance, our Author introduces his observations on the Ejay on Truth, in the following manner:
• Having animadverted so largely upon Dr. Reid's performance, I shall have the less to say with respect to that of Dr. Beattie, who adopts his general system of instinctive principles of truth, and discovers too much of his spirit and manner, which is exceedingly decisive, and insolent to those who think differently from himself; and he even exceeds Dr. Reid in throwing an odium upon those whose sentiments he is willing to decry, by ascribing to them dan. gerous and frightful consequences, with which they are far from being juftly chargeable.
i I believe, however, that Dr. Beattie wrote his Esay on the Nature and Immutability of Truth with the very best intention in the world; and that it was nothing but his zeal in the most excellent cause, that of religion, which has betrayed him into these rash censures, and into a mode of reasoning which I cannot help thinking to be very prejudicial to the cause of that very truth which he means to support, and favouring that very scepticism which he imagined he was overthrowing. P. I believe farther, and I most sincerely rejoice in it, that Dr. Beattie's treatise has done a great deal of good to the cause of re. ligion ; and I hope it will still continue to do so, with a great majority of those who are molt in danger of being seduced by the
fophiftry of Mr. Hume, and other modern unbelievers ; I mean with superficial thinkers, who are satisfied with seeing superficial objections answered in a lively, though a superficial manner. Besides, I do think that, in several respects, Dr. Beattie's strictures on Mr. Hume are juít; and therefore that they will be an useful antidote to che mischief that might be apprehended from his writings.
' But there is danger lest other persons, of greater penetration, finding that Dr. Beattie argues on fallacious unphilosophical principles, should reject at once, and without farther examination, all that he has built upon them. With respect to such persons, it may be of importance to fhow that religion, though assailed from so many quarters as it has been of late, is under no necessity of taking refuge in such untenable fortresses as Dr. Reid, Dr. Beattie, and Dr. OFwald have provided for her; but that the may safely face the enemy on his own ground, opposing argument to argument, and silencing sophiltry by rational discussion.
' In this opinion I am by no means singular. Many judicious perfons, excellent scholars and divines, and whose metaphysical systema is very different from mine, think Dr. Beattie's book by no means calculated to serve the cause of truth with philosophical and think. ing men ; and that it will be doing service to truth and religion to point out the faults and defects of it.'
Dr. Beattie's Epay then, in the opinion of Dr. Priestley, is a superficial performance, and can be of little use but to superficial thinkers. Are all thore, therefore, who have approved and warmly recommended Dr. Beatrie's Essay, superficial thinkers ? Are there no philosophical and thinking men, in the very nume. rous and respectable class of his admirers ? If this be the case, how happy was it for the unenlightened world, that our meek and patient Author was por, like Moses of old, provoked to dalh the torch of Wisdom on the ground, and leave a genera. tion so stupid, purblind, and perverse, to grope and blunder on, in the darkness which they seem to love, rather than the light?
There is danger, we are told, lest persons of penetration, finding that Dr. Beattie's principles are fallacious and unphilosophical should reject, at once, all that he has built upon them, But may it not be fairly presumed that such persons as have penetration enough to see the fallacy of Dr. Beattie's principles, should likewise have penetration enough to discover the real foundations of truth, and be able, of themselves, without Dr. Priestley's affiltance, to silence fophiftry by rational discusion? If this presumption be well founded, there was little occasion for our Author's remarks on-Dr. Beattie. If there are no grounds for such presumption, we can only say, that we shall moft fincerely rejoice to find that philosophical and thinking persons can discover no fallacy in Dr. Priefley's principles, and are fully convinced by the arguments he employs in support of truth and religion.
In regard to Dr. Oswald's Appeal, though our Author's strica turęs upon it take up more room than his remarks upon Dr. U 4
Reid or Dr. Beattie, yet he acknowledges that he does little more than select and arrange a number of passages which he has collected from the Appeal.
• For I must acknowledge, says he, that if the Doctor has embarrassed me, and taken up my time in the disposition of my materials, he has made me amends by saving me the trouble of making many observations. In fact, I Thall have occasion to do little more than let our Author speak for himself, only purcing his words a little nearer together than he would have done.'
But it is time to conclude this Article, which we shall do by observing that our Author's zeal for the cause of truth and religion, which we are persuaded is warm and sincere, does him great honour : that many of his remarks are acute and pertinent; that he is well acquainted with the points in controversy; but that bis manner of treating his antagonists is (as we have seen) extremely arrogant, contemptuous, and illiberal. Art. 11. The Speaker, or Miscellanecus Pieces, selected from the bejt
English Writers, and disposed under proper Heads, with a Vier to facilitate the Improvement of routh in Reading and Speaking. To which is prefixed, an Eflay on Elocution. By William Enfield, LL. D. Lecturer on the Belles Lettres, in the Academy at War.
rington. 8vo. 6s. bound. Johnson. 1775. T F we were as curious in cultivating the Arts as we are in 1 tracing the Remains of antiquity, that of elocution would be in a higher and more improved state than it can at present boast. For, among the ancients, it was studied and pursued as an object of the greatest importance. It was even placed and considered .. under the patronage of the Muses
Graiis dedit Ore rotundo Musa loquiand its powers, if we may allow them upon the faith of history, were equal to the divinity of its institution.
It is recorded of Hegésias *, the Cyrenian philosopher, that when he declaimed on the miseries of human lise, many of his hearers were disposed to put an end to their existence. Such was the amazing energy and power of his elocution ; a power which Ptolemy thought it prudent to suppress! Ideoque a Rege Prolemæo ulterius bac de re differere prohibitus eft.
But how are we to attain this wonderful art, fince Cleanthes and Chryfippus, who laid down the principles of it, are no more? Can we awaken those preceptors from their slumber of "two thousand years ? or, had we preceptors equal to those, could they give us the natural advantages of the orators so famed through antiquity ? could they communicate to us the acumen oculorum acerrimum, the terribile vultus pondus of Demosthenes? By no means. Yet are these nothing more than the questions
Laert. Ariftip.-Cic. Tusc. 1, Val. Max, I. viii. c. 9.
of idleness and inactivity ; for there are certainly practical advantages to be derived from the study and discipline of Elocution, and those very great. · Good reading, Bishop Sprat has justly observed, is half a comment; we may add that, good speaking is half an argument. If the speaker would be heard with pleasure, nay if he would be heard at all, if he would even be understood, he must cul. tivate elocution. Without a pure and harmonious utterance, an easy and commanded cadence, a duly varied inflexion, a voice restrained within its natural compass, capable, at pleasure, of elevation or depression ;-without being practised and instructed in thefe (and these can never be acquired, at least not in any perfect and unexceptionable manner, without practice and instruction) a man may bawl, or whine, or chatter, but he will hardly speak.
Previous to the large colle&ion of lessons for the exercise of this art, Dr. Enfield presents us with an effay on elocution. This essay is a kind of comment on the following general rules, each rule being at the head of the observations that follow it. I. Let your Articulation be distinct and deliberate. Il. Let your Pronunciation be bold and forcible. III. Acquire a Compass and Variety in the height of your
Voice. IV. Pronounce your Words with Propriety and Elegance. V. Pronounce every Word consisting of more than one Syilable
with its proper Accent. VI, In every Sentence distinguish the more significant Words
by a natural, forcible, and varied Emphasis VII. Acquire a just variety of Pause and Cadence. VIIL Accompany the Emotions and Passions which your Words
express, by correspondent Tones, Looks and Geitures
The Author's observations on the last rule, with his concluding precepts, are as follows:
. There is the language of emotions and passions, as well as of ideas. To express che former is the peculiar province of words; to express the latter, nature teaches us to make use of tones, looks, and gestures. When anger, fear, joy, grief, love, or any other active paffion arises in our minds, we naturally discover it by the particular manner in which we utter our words; by the features of the countenance, and by other well known figns. And even when we speak without any of the more violent emotions, some kind of feeling usually accompanies our words, and this, whatever it be, hath its proper external expression. Expression hath indeed been so little studied in public speaking, that we seem almost to have forgotten the language of Nature, and are ready to consider every attempt to recover it, as the laboured and affected effort of Art. But Nature is always
the same; and every judicious imitation of it, will always be pleasing. Nor can any one deserve the appellation of a good speaker, much less of a complete orator, till to distinct articu. lation, a good command of voice, and just emphasis, he is able to add the various expressions of emotion and paffion.
• To enumerate these expressions, and describe them in all their variations, is impracticable. Attempts have been made with some success to analize the language of ideas; but the language of sentiment and emotion has never yet been analized ; and perhaps it is not within the reach of human ability, to write a Philosophical Grammar of the Pallions. Or, if it were pos. sible in any degree to execute this design, I cannot think, that from such a grammar it would be possible for any one to instruct himself in the use of the language. All endeavours therefore to make men Orators by describing to them in words the man. ner in which their voice, countenance, and hands are to be employed, in expressing the passions, muft, in my apprehension, be weak and ineffe&tual. And, perhaps, the only instruction which can be given with advantage on this head, is this general one : Observe in what manner the several emotions or passions are expressed in real life, or by those who have with great labour and taste acquired a power of imitating nature ; and accustom yourself either to follow the great original itself, or the best copies you meet with, always however, 6 with this special observance, that you o’ERSTEP NOT THE MODESTY OF NATURE.”
In the application of these rules to practice, in order to acquire a just and graceful elocution, it will be necessary to go through a regular course of exercises ; beginning with such as are most easy, and proceeding by flow steps to such as are more difficult. In the choice of these, the practitioner should pay a particular attention to his prevailing defects, whether they regard articulation, command of voice, emphasis, or cadence : and he should content himself with reading and speaking with an immediate view to the correcting of his fundamental faults, before he aims at any thing higher. This may be irksome and disagreeable ; it may require much patience and resolution ; but it is the only way to succeed. For, if a man cannot read simple sentences, or plain narrative or didactic pieces, with distinct are ticulation, just emphasis, and proper tones, how can he expect to do justice to the sublime descriptions of poetry, or the animate ed language of the passions ? .: In performing these exercises, the learner should daily read aloud by himself, and, as often as he has opportunity, under the correction of an Instructor or Friend. He should also frequently recite compositions memoriter. This method has several advan. tages; it obliges the speaker to dwell upon the ideas whịch he