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ginal, others translations, but all short, and neither on account of The subject nor execution very interesting. One of the best is a verfion of the song,

When Orpheus went down to the regions below, &c.

- MATHEMATIC s. Art. 39. A Treatise on Assurances and Annuities on Lives: With

several Objections against Dr. Price's Observations on the Amicable · Society and others. To which is added, a mort, easy, and more

concise Method of calculating the Value of Annuities and Afsurances on Lives, than any heretofore published. By Charles Brand. 8vo. 38. 6 d. Boards. Owen. 1775.

We have been favoured with some pertinent and juft remarks on this publication by an anonymous Correspondent; but it is hardly necessary to trouble our Readers with them : more especially as Mr. B. does not seem to be capable of misleading those who are at all conversant with subjects of this nature. Dr. Price prefers the Equitable to the Ami.able Society ; our Author, we suppose, has some connexion with the latter; and that this is the reason of the present publication, from which Dr. P. can derive no injury, nor Mr. B. any great credit. The folution of the tenth question in “ Obfervations on Ree 'verfionary Payments, &c." is stated with such clearness and precifion,

that we cannot conceive how Mr. B.'should find any difficulty in it: and we are still more astonished, that he mould alter the state of the question, as proposed by Mr. De Moivre and Mr. Simpson, and ftill more accurately by Dr. Price, and then object to the solution which they offer, because it does not agree with his own. The tables and problems in this treatise are taken, without the least acknowledgment, from Mr. Simpson's " Doctrine of Annuities, &c." and Mr. Smart's Tables of Intereft." Those from Mr. Smart are needlessly and erroneously altered and abridged: nor has our Author availed himself of the more correct rules, for the valuation of annui. ties, which Mr. Simpson has published in his Select Exercises."R

NO V E L s. Art. 40. The History of Mademoiselle de Beleau; or, the New

Roxana, the Fortunate Mijirefs, afterward Countess of Wincsel. theim. Published by Daniel De Fol. And from Papers found Since his Decease, it appears was greatly altered by himself; and from the faid Papers the present Work is produced. 12mo. 3 s. bound. Noble, &c. 1775.

Few novels are better known than the story of the Lewd Roxana ; which, we see, is afcribed to the famous De Foe. It is not improbable that this is really one of Daniel's productions ; for he wrote books of all kinds, romantic as well as religious; moral as well as immoral. History, politics, poetry ; in short, all subjects were alike to Daniel.

The versatility of this man's genius procured him the admiration of the age in which he lived ; but the breed of De Foes has so much increased, of late years, that hundreds of them are to be found in the garrets of Grubstreet, where they draw nutrition, propagate, [novels and pamphlers) and rot : and nobody minds them.

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Art. 41. The Modern Fine Gentleman. žmo. 2 Vols. 6 $.

Lowndes. 1774. We are often told that, if our modern novels have no other excellence, they have at least some negative merit; and are, for the most part, so moral and sentimental, that they may be trusted in the hands of young people without any danger of debauching their manners. For our part, we must be of a different opinion : and we think that the novel before us, which may be taken as a fair specimen of the too general character of these productions, will justify our censure. Perhaps there are few parents, or guardians, who would not have fome scruple in introducing a child, or ward, to an intimate acquaintance with young men, whose avowed principles are in the highest degree licentious, and who facrifice religion, honour, friend. thip, every thing, at the frine of pleasure. At the very idea of such a conne&ion, we cannot but suppose that the virtuous female mind would tremble: and yet (in these fictions) among the youngest and moft virtuous of the sex, such characters are introduced without reserve, and received without a blush.

The principal heroes which here wait at the toilet of the fair reader, are two profeffed libertines, who, without the least pretentions to wit or philosophy, disavow every principle but the love of pleasure, in the lowest meaning of the word; and pursue and execute one scheme of baseness and villany after another. One of these Fine Gentlemen trepans a virtuous woman into an involuntary marriage, by a base contrivance to bring her to his bed without her consent, and thus render it necessary, for the sake of reputation, to become his wife. The other obtains his end by a clandestine marriage, which he artfully prevails upon the injured fair to conceal. Soon after. ward the latter employs every artifice to seduce the wife of the former, and, not succeeding, at last proceeds to violence : at which instant his friend rushes in ; a duel ensues; and both fall a facrifice. On this, one of the widow's retires to a convent; and the other

(after having overcome-her grief for her husband ? no-the tender Cattachment which, from a child, she had very naturally entertained

for her guardian, who was more than double her age, and whom she now discovers to have been her uncle) gives her hand to a new lover.

Charming characters! Edifying scenes! What a fund of refined ideas, delicate sentiments, and elegant manners, for the improvement of young people of both sexes !

The only apology that can be made by the Author, is, that the Fine Gentlemen, the worthless heroes of the piece, are not exhibited for the Reader's approbation ; that, on the contrary, as they act like scoundrels, exemplary justice takes place, and they are punished as they ought to be. This is admitted ; but, fill, we contend, that fuch characters form but a very improper sort of acquaintance for the young, and unguarded, of either sex. --We are pleased with freedom of opinion, when it is supported with manly sense, and a philosophical spirit; we are charmed with tender sentiments, dictated by a feeling heart; we can allow for many frolics of fancy and excentricities of paflion, where there is much to admire, or something to love : but where characters are nothing more than a compound of

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scepticism and stupidity, licentiousness without taste or generosity, and the affectation of passion with an heart capable of every thing base and cruel, we must despise and detest them : we cannot think that such characters are proper to be contemplated by young minds, or exhibited before them, even in fi&tion.

E.
ME D'ICA L.
Art. 42. A Chemico-Medical Differtation on Mercury, &c. With

Observations on the Use and Abuse thereof in Venereal Disorders, &c.
By J. L.L. M. D. 8vo. 2 s. 6d. Williams. 1774.

Convinced of the danger and uncertainty arising from the use of mercurial frictions, and of the inconveniencies and disappointments frequently attending the exhibition of the greater part of the known internal preparations of mercury, the Author very early, and anxi. ously, endeavoured to find out some new preparation of that mineral, which might possess the desirable qualities of activity, incorrosive. ness, solubility, and certainty,' united, and be less apt to salivate.' His labours in this pursuit, we are told, have not been thrown away: but a chain of circumstances oblige him to suspend his designs, at least for a time,' of laying open his process to the public.

So potent, however, has been our Author's avowed philanthropy, that it has enabled him to break through the aforesaid chain, or at least to stretch the links fo far, as to step forth, and make known some of his thoughts on this subject; in hopes, notwithstanding, in the midst of his restraint, of affording other practitioners a few hints, and some incitements to aim at procuring a preparation of fimilar and equal virtues. · Having thus advertised the Author's secret, it is but just to add, that, notwithstanding the empirical complexion of this publication, he does not appear to be deficient in a knowledge of the subject of which he treats. He investigates the chemical and medicinal qua. lities of many of the known mercurial preparations with sufficient judgment; propofing an hypothesis to account for the activity that mercury acquires in some of them, which he attributes to its combination with pure element al fire. Art. 43. Seleet Cases in Phyfic, which have been treated at the Waters of Aix la-Chapelle, &c. By J. Williams. M. D. Svo. 23. 6 d. Becket. 1774.

In our 4-th volume (Dec. 1772, page 464] we gave a pretty full account of Dr. Williams's inquiry into the chemical and medicinal qualities of the celebrated waters at Aix-la-Chapelle; and of his reflections on the misconduct of the physicians at that place in dispensing them. In the present performance he confirms and illusirates his former observations on these subjects, by the recital of thirty.four cases; from which he endeavours to Thew, that the salutary effects of the waters are frequently frustrated through the inat. tention and obftinacy of many of the resident practitioners ; and that, in other instances, many dangerous, and often fatal symptoms, are produced by the improper, or ill-timed exhibition of them.

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Art. 44. Remarks on Mr. Thomas Henry's improved Method of

preparing Magnefia Alba, &c. By a Physician. 8vo. 1 s. 6d. Bell. What strange motives seem to determine some men to publication ! - The present remarks were, it seems, originally intended for the College of Physicians; 'but my correspondent near town,' says the Author, · being greatly out of health, they were never presented, that I heard of. This accident almost determined him to drop his design of making them public; ' had not a tiresome controversy,' he adds, • between the Oxford and Manchester preparers, and venders of this article, very difinteresting to the community in general, pestered us almost incessantly from the press, I thould scarce have resumed the subject.'-— And thus our Author, very consequentially, took heart, and haftened with his papers on Magnesia to the press; because truly the public were tired, and had been pestered with a contro. verly on the subject, which was very disinteresting to the community.

After giving us with much unnecessary parade a test, or proof of the fimplicity and goodness of Magnesa Alba, with which every chemift is acquainted ; and as needlessly informing us, that the same vitriolic acid, combined with different kinds of earth, forms faline concretes of different, and even opposite qualities, the Author proceeds, with great stateliness, to propose, and to resolve a chemical problem, hitherto unresolved ;'-" to decompose Epsom salt, and collect the whole of its earthy basis, free from admixture of the new faline concrete, tartarum vitriolarum."

Passing over other instances of the Author's parade and verbosity, we shall only add, that his resolution of the problem consists principally-in adding to a dilute solution of Sal Catharticus boiling on the fire, a determinate proportion (to be ascertained by a preliminary experiment) of a saturated lixivium of pot-ashes ;-in keeping the liquors for some time in a state of brikk ebullition, and then throwing them into a large quantity of boiling water ;-and, finally, in using subsequent ablutions of boiling water, in order to divest the magneha totally of the neutral falt, or vitriolated tartar ; to the concreted and undiffolved molecules of which, he observes, magnesia owes the grittiness so deservedly complained of,' and not to THE 'pow. der, as erroneously remarked by Mr. Henry'-' at the foot of his process.' MILITARY

B-y. Art. 45. Observations on the prevailing Abuses in the British Army,

arising from the corruption of Civil Government. With a Pro• posal to the Officers toward obtaining an Addition to their Pay, · By the Honourable ***, an Officer. 8vo. Is. 6 d. Davies.

1775.

Some honest and very sensible officer has feelingly represented in these Observations, the hardships suffered by the subalterns in the army, from the scantiness of their pay. It is to be feared, that his manly and fpirited remonftrance contains too many serious truths, to afford him and his brave brethren any hope for relief, even by the measure he is so sanguine to promote, viz. a general subscription of officers

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toward a memorial to be presented to the house of commons, and
a petition to his majesty. But when every growing farthing of re-
venue is so greedily appropriated to purpofes of which he is not
ignoranț; and when the nation finds it so dificult, notwithstanding
the glaring opulence of individuals, to bear new impofitions, the
prospect is melancholy enough to other ranks in the community, as
well as to the military. For surely, the honestly induftrious, who
pay the accumulated and perverted supplies to government, feel
grievances as severe as those who suffer by the misapplication of
them. Some reformation, therefore, that may operate for general
relief, may be faintly hoped, and must be patiently waited for ; but
an increase of expences to any great amount for particular purposes,
we have already found, in a similar instance, not consistent with the
present system of management.
* We could, with pleasure, produce many excellent obfervations
from this well-written compofition, but it is so uniformly spirited and
connected, that it is difficult to detach particular passages. T

RELIGIOUS and CONTROVERSIAL.
Art. 46. A grofs Imposition upon the Public detected; or, Areh,

bishop Cranmer vindicated from the Charge of Pelagianism,
Being a brief Answer to a Pamphlet intituled “ A Differtation
on the Seventeenth Article of the Church of England : Wherein
the Sentiments of the Compilers, and other conscmporary Refor-
mers, on the Subject of the divine Decrees, are fully deduced from
their own Writings.” In a Letter to the Differtator. By the
Author of Pietas Oxoniensis, and of Goliath Slain. Svo, 6d.
Dilly, &c.

The Author of the Differtation * on the Seventeenth Article of the Church of England, has endeavoured to prove, that the bishops Cranmer, Ridley, and Latimer did not give their fanction to Bradford's book upon predestination ; and, at the time of reading the Difsertation, this point appeared to us to be supported by very probable arguments. On the contrary, the present writer has produced a passage from Strype, to evince, that Bradford did obtain Cranmer's, Ridley's, and Larimer's approbation of his treatise. On this account, Mr. Hill greatly triumphs over the differtator, and represents him as having been guilty of a wilful impofition. But, surely, if Dr. Wincheller has been mistaken, which may, perhaps, be doubted, 4 mere miltake is the whole that can be charged upon him.

For us, we think that all these controverlies, on both fides, about the sentiments of the first reformers, in matters of doctrine, are io. significant and needless. The inquiry ought to be, what are the dietates of truth and the declarations of scripture, and not, what were the opinions of any set of men, however venerable, in respect of abilities and character.

We have observed, in this performance, an attempt to introduce a new distinction into ecclefiaftical language. The author would bave the terms met bodism and metbedits applied only to Mr. Wefley's

* The Differtation was mentioned in Rev. vol. xlviii. p. 510.

principles

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