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of these houses is 16 feet by 12. They are made of deals, have no floor, but are furnished with a rack and manger, into which the turnips are put for the sheep to eat ; and the houses are moved [for they run upon caftors] from one part of the field to another, as occasion requires. Each house is calculated to hold 20 sheep, and will cost about 2l. 13 s. an expence not to be thought of by the proprietor of the numerous focks which are kept in our great sheep-counties.
In the subsequent chapters he treats of the different forts, and proper management, of turnips and cabbages, as winter food for cattle. We also meet with receipts for a pickle to prevent the fly from destroying young turnips ; and for a compound manure to improve land, and to prevent the red or cutworm, and slug, from destroying green corn. A quantity of this manure, sufficient for an acre, may be made for about ten shillings : thus-of foot, alhes, and lime, two bushels each ; bay-salt, two stone ; train-oil, one gallon; and the same quantity of any kind of urine. If it is intended to prevent damage from flugs, or other vermin, you may add two pounds of sulphur, and two quarts of gall [if it can be got from the butchers: but if intended as manure only, these two laft-mentioned ingredients may be omitted. This composition may be applied as a top-drefsing for any sort of land or crop, and will improve it (according to Mr. Varlo) • beyond conception.'.
An easy method to prevent the rot in fheep, we are here cold, is to give each sheep a spoonful of dry falt, once a week, when a rotting season is apprehended. When the sheep are a little used to it, they will lick it up, of themselves, if laid upon fat stones in different parts of the pasture, without any farther trouble.
The Author (ch. xx.) treats of feeding cattle ; and proposes a cheap food for that purpose, viz. linseed-oil and bran, mixed : the quickest feeding, he says, that a beast can possibly take. « If the cattle be small, give each two pecks of bran a-day, divided into three feeds, which will serve morning, noon, and night. Into each peck put half a pint of linseed-oil, and mix it well. The cattle will eat it very greedily; and it feeds them paft conception; they must have what hay they will eat, but that will not be much.'.He adds, that five gallons of oil, which will coft about 17 s. 6 d. with bran in proportion, will fatten a beast sooner, and more effectually, than five pounds expended in any other food whatever. This food, it seems, is remarkable for laying on tallow,—but what sort of beef it will produce, is not said.
He next treats of ditching, planting, and draining, in a man. ger that may afford some useful instructions to the practical far
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mer in those particulars, especially the last : his invention of what he calls a pipe-drain, promiling to be of great utility, in wet spungy soils. • In chapter xxvi. we meet with some pertinent remarks upon the old broad-cast husbandry, compared with what the Author calls his own new mathematical husbandry ; in which corn-seeds or plants may be set at regular distances, by means of a new-invented machine; the construction and use of which he explains, at great length, in the 27th chapter ;-to which we refer the inquisitive reader, for farther information, in regard to a method of husbandry, seemingly too mathematical for common practice.
Chap. i. of vol. ii. the Author here gives into the very questionable opinion that smutty wheat is occasioned by a worm at the root, which is frequently the case where hot fresh dung is used as manure; this he therefore greatly disapproves, as furnishing a proper nidus for such destructive wornis. Instead of dung, he advises the farmer to enrich his land by more frequent plowings, as the best preservative against the smut : and as a farther security against the abovementioned malady, he recommends a pickle wherein to steep the seed.
As Mr. Värlo profefses to have travelled over many parts of the three kingdoms; he gives us, in the next four chapters, a detail of the abservations he had made on the different natures of the soil, as well as the prices of land, labour, and victuals, in various parts of England, Scotland, Ireland, and Wales; in the course of which he touches on many subjects necessary for a farmer to be acquainted with.-If his remark, that there is no greater sign of an improving country than the rise of lahour and eatables,' be well founded, we may congratulate our own country on its present high advancement in both those kinds of improvement, beyond the example of former times !
Chapters vii.-X. treat of the management of beans and peas.-And in the two next are some receipts, which the Author says he hath experienced to be valuable for the cure of horses, black cattle, and sheep.
In chap. xiv, the culture of madder is described, and the expence stated; by which it appears that an acre of good madder is worth upwards of 52 1. that the whole expences thereof (rent of the ground and tythe included) do not amount to quite 16). for the three years it is growing, so that a clear profit of 361. i.e. 121. per ann. has been made from one acre of good madder ;-a fufficient encouragement, one would think, to increase the cultivation of a plant, so necessary as this, in the earrying on our woollen manufactures.--This Writer, however, seems to be little acquainted with the latex improvements in the culture of this article.
In chap. XV: we meet with some rational remarks on large stock. farms, and on the different state of the English and Irith farmers and poor. On this subject, he says, it appears to him
as clear as the noon-day, that large overgrown grazing, or stock-farms, ever were, are, and will be the ruin of Ireland, or any other country, where they get footing; and I am sorry to say England is coming too much into them. They are a . ftagnation to trade and improvement ; for what improvement do three or four thousand bullocks (which occupy more acres of land) create or require ? In short, they do in a manner lay waste a country, as four or five families are sufficient to take care of this tract of land, and number of cattle. It is a known truth, that the riches of every country depend upon the labour. ing part of its inhabitants. But in such waste countries, the poor are deprived of all manner of means to be useful to themselves or the Public; they must either starve, or turn out to beg or steal, or perhaps both.
Chapters xvi.- xxviii. are taken up in describing the various methods of managing fax and hemp.
Vol. iii. The first fix chapters of this volume treat of the culture of that useful root, the potatoe. The Author gives us a method to improve ground, by destroying whins and broom, and, at the same time, raising thereon a valuable crop of potatoes. This is proposed to be done by cutting up the whins, covering them with such earth as the place affords, and then planting thereon potatoes. He says, they will quickly rot, and afford so rich a manure as to produce two successive crops of potatoes ; after which the ground will admit of being plowed (as the whins will by that time be quite rotted) for either wheat or barley.--Broom is to be managed in the same way; and in both cases the spade is to be made use of, for trenching the ground, and throwing the earth, from the intervals, upon the whins, or broom, which are to be laid only upon the beds, whereon the potatoes are intended to be set. A likely method (in our opinion) for the purpose.
In chapters ix-xvi. he gives us the management of, what are usually called, the artificial gralles, as clover, lucerne, saintfoin, rye-grass, and burnet. After describing the use and advantage of cultivating clover, he judiciously adds, that it is a gross mistake to let the first crop of clover-hay ftand too long before it is cut: for when it stands till the bottom of the stalk turns brown, it is drained of its substance, and has exhausted the root too much of its vigour, so that when mown the stubble is left as dead as that of corn; and the next thoot must come from the very root, which admits of (occasions] a fortnight's delay in the growth of the crop: whereas, if it was cut while the stalk is green and full of fap, it would send forth fresh fboots
out of the very stalk, a little below the cut; and the coat of clover being stripped off, the roots are supplied with fresh air, and kept in vigour, to support, and bring to maturity, the succeeding crop. - It is true, there may not be so great a bulk of hay in the first crop ; because the stalk is cut when soft and full of juices, and therefore fattens, and cakes together when in stack. It also requires more care in making; but as this happens in the height of summer, there is not much danger that way: and a stone of such hay is worth two of that which is left to stand till the stalks are dry and hard.' This remark appears to be rational; and might, perhaps, be extended, in some degree, to natural grass, which undoubtedly makes the finest hay, when cut before it is perfectly ripe ; otherwise the stem of the grass will be little better than straw, in respect to the nourishment of the cattle that eat it.
In chap. xvii. On manuring Land;-he strongly recommends additional plowings (even to the number of ten or a dozen) for enriching corn-land; and advises dung to be laid chiefly upon grass-land; for which practice he gives several reasons, to which every judicious farmer will pay a due attention, as they seem calculated to promote his real interest.
The Author, in the five next chapters, treats of Manures in general, and introduces some very sensible remarks on a subject bighly interesting to every practical farmer.
In the subsequent part of this volume, we are instructed in the management of all the different species of corn and pulse; and we meet with directions for raising rape and cole-seed: but for these, and other particulars well deserving notice, we are obliged to refer the inquiring husbandman to the book.
Chap. xl. contains remarks, made in the West of England, on his favourite topic, trench-plowing; which he represents as being more generally practised, and approved of, in that part of the country, than elsewhere.-In the succeeding chapter he recommends thin fowing, or rather planting the grains of wheat at equal distances, either by hand, or by a machine, as one of the moft falutary measures that can be well adapted for public good. Would all the farmers in the kingdom (says he) come into this saving method, of setting the seed, it would be one step towards reducing the price of provisions, as it would save annually, at least, a million quarters of corn; which, by the present method, is thrown away, and lost.'— The money paid foc, labour to make this faving, would go, in a direct channel, to such women and children, as might otherwise be idle.'
In his Appendix he offers a few hints to the confideration of the legislature : Rev. Jan. 1775.
: 1. Concerning the growing evil of inclosing open town. felds, and adding farm to farm. . By these methods (of late too much in vogue) agriculture, the great support of population, is diminished, by the sudden change of corn-land, to grass; the usual consequence of an inclosure. He therefore recommends a restraint to be laid upon this practice; and would have the size of farms limited to 400 acres at the most.
2. He recommends a dog.act, by which a tax of 5 s. should be laid upon every dog in the nation. He computes the number of these useless animals, kept at present, to amount to two millions, which is, surely, too high! and he reckons the expence of keeping them to amount to 20 s, each, annually. The tax proposed, he thinks, would reduce the number, at least, one hall, and thereby save yearly (among the poor) a million of money, now needlessly thrown away; and the tax proposed on the other half would annually raise 250,000 1. for the service of the Public. If it is allowed (as he affirms) that what will keep a dog, will keep a pig, one may easily see which would be the moft profitable to a poor man's family.
3. He wishes for an act to establish one general standard of weights and measures, to be observed through the kingdom. This regulation has been long talked of, and, to the fame of our police, only talked of.
4. He proposes an act to enforce the general use of broadwheel'd waggons, two to roll within two. "We should then, [he fays] have good roads, without any other expence than that of a drain on each side, to take away the water,
5. He thinks great advantages would arise from an act to make Game the private property of the occupier of the land where it is found." This would put a final stop to poaching, as it would be every landholder's interest to watch his wild as well as his tame stock.'— Though this law would secure the property of game to the tenant, yet he allows that the landlord Thould, notwithstanding, have full power to hunt and shoot at all proper seasons, as at present.
6. He supposes that limiting the size of farms to 400 acres, at the most, would have a great tendency towards making improvements Aourish, and plenty abound ; as it would, then, be in the power of every one to make the moit of his ground, by being able to fill the whole with some profitable crop or other.
7. Though he is against incloging open town-fields, yet he thinks a general act for inclosing wasle lands, or forests, would be of great utility to the Public, by bringing plenty to the market. In this particular we are entirely of our Author's opinion; as the many uncultivated heaths, wherewith our country abounds, must be allowed, by every unprejudiced person, to be
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