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subsequent observations ; in which the most noxious effects are ascribed to the simple contact of a plate of this metal. The case is thus briefly, and rather too uncircumstantially, related.
. I have been assured,' says the Author, from undoubted authority, that Dr.
A h ad a slight paralytic affection of his legs, by the practice of setting his feet every evening on a piece of lead placed near the fire. And that a dog, by lying on it, was entirely deprived of the use of his limbs,'--We should add, however, that, in a postscript is given the case of a plumber's child, communicated by Dr. Wall, who ascribes the colicky and paralytic symptoms of his young patient to his having been accustomed to run barefooted along the sheets of lead, whilst they were warm.
The Author recommends the trial of alum, in flighter cases of the colica piztonum, in consequence of the experience he has had of its efficacy in obstinate and painful affections of the bowels; referring the Reader to his account of the cures performed by the use of this remedy, in the second Volume of his Essays. With respect to the asthma, with which the miners or smelters of lead in Derbyshire are affected, he observes that experience has taught them to fly to the lime-kilns for a cure; which they soon, and more certainly than by any other means, obtain, by inhaling the fixed air so copiously expelled from the lime stone during its calcination. B.
ART. XV. Obfervations and Experiments on the Poison of Copper. By
three mineral acids, by the fixed and volatile alcalis, by all the neutral salts, and even by the generality of waters, and by that heterogeneous Auid, the atmosphere ; its active, and generally pernicious, medical qualities ;-together with its extensive use for culinary and other purposes, render an inquiry into its chemical properties, and into its effects on the human system, worthy of the particular consideration which the Au. thor of this Essay has bestowed upon it.
The form in which this metal most frequently and unsurpeatedly gains admission into the body, is in combination with the native acid juices of vegetables, and with the acetous acid, or vinegar. With respect to the latter particularly, we think it is of consequence to the Public to be informed, how liable it is to acquire a noxious impregnation from brass and copper, in the preparation of pickles; in many of which a fine blue or green colour is reckoned a test of superior goodness. This quality accordingly is often intentionally procured, or heightened, by
the the nicer and more notable housewives; who, for that purpose, and ignorant or heedless of the consequences, have been taught to prepare their pickles in a brass or copper pan, and to heighten the ringe, when it is too faint, by throwing in a few halfpence. In some of the most modern books of cookery, quoted by the Author, a brass, bell-metal, or copper pan, is particularly directed to be used, whenever a fine green colour is required ; and that this practice is adopied even in the best Thops, and converts their pickles into poisons, is evident from the following observation of the Author :
He took an ounce of pickle from some cucumbers remarkable for their fine colour, which had been bought at a noted shop. This pickle betrayed its cupreous impregnation, even to the taste; and on putting into it some bright iron wire, it was evidently seen that the liquor contained copper ; for the wire was soon covered with a rusty coat of that metal, in the same manner as when a knife or other iron utensil is immerged in a solution of blue vitriol.
Some of these cooks and Authors scruple not to dispense very liberally even ceruss and lead in their printed recipes, for the cure of pricked wines;- ignorant, it is to be hoped, that they are scattering firebrands and death, in ambuh, among those who drink them. In the · Universal Cook,' (as Dr. Pero cival remarks, towards the end of his Obfervations published in 1773, by John Townshend, late master of the Greyhound tavern, and cook to his Grace the Duke of Manchester, is to be found a receipt in which a pound of melted lead is directed to be put into a cask, to hinder the wine from turning.
We have particularly noticed these instances, as being of very general concern; and shall only add that the Author first investigates all the modes in which copper may be rendered active and noxious, in the kitchen or elaboratory, by its combination with acids, alcalis, neutral salts, oils, sulphur, distilled spirits, water, air, and other menstrua. He next considers the effects of this metal, when reduced by any of these agents into a saline and soluble ftate ; observing that the various menstrua that act upon it do not seem greatly to alter its effects on the human body; which are therefore owing to the metal, and not to the particular solvent. He then proceeds to treat, in order, of the different, and some of them unsuspected modes, in which it is most likely to find admission into the body. The whole inquiry is judiciously conducted ; and the Ellay, though short, contains many cautions of importance to the health of mankind.
Art. XVI. Th. Rivals, a Comedy; as it is acted at the Theatre
his performance, presumes lo little on supposed abilities, and to candidly acknowledges his youth and inexperience, that even remorseless critics are inclined rather to promise themselves much future entertainment from the rays of genius that shine through particular passages of his Comedy, than to censure with acrimony its irregularities and defects.
The fable indeed is neither new nor probable, nor the characters original or well sustained; but there are many just observations on human life and manners, many beauties of sentiment, and much excellent dialogue. We are sorry, however, to see a young writer of so great promise, adopting the vulgar error of dreading imitation, and even allerting in his preface that' on subjects on which the inind has been much informed, invention is flow of exerting itself.' The contrary is so true, that till the mind is stored with information, invention cannot exist, nor can imagination body forth the form of things unknown, till the poet's eye, glancing over the creation, has enabled his pen to copy and combine the images he has contemplated and admired. Bilhop Sprat, towards the con. clusion of his History of the Royal Society, after enumerating many more important advantages resulting from that inftitution, adds, as an appendix, another benefit of experiments; and that is, that their discoveries will be very serviceable to the wits and writers of this, and all future ages. This (continues he) I am provoked to mention by the confideration of the present genius of the English nation ; wherein the study of wit, and humour of writing prevails so much, that there are very few conditions, or degrees, or ages of men who are free from its infection. I will therefore declare to all those whom this spirit has possessed, that there is in the works of nature an inexhaustible treasure of FANCY and INVENTION, which will be revealed PROPORTIONABLY TO THE INCREASE OF THEIR KNOWLEDGE.'
Let not therefore our young writers, who would aspire to eminence in the dramatic line, as our Authór phrases it, or in any other walk of literature, let them not (we repeat it) congratulate themselves on their ignorance ! let it not be their
first wish in attempting a play, to avoid every appearance of plagiary ;' but let it be their chief aim to copy nature, and their favourite employment to study those great artists who have faithfully imitated her! Horace, it is true, who always
* Said to be Mr. Sheridan ; son to the celebrated actor.
enforces enforces the necessary union of industry and genius, directs the writer's attention to the living manners;
Refpicere exemplar vitæ morumque jubebo
Dostum imitatorem, & veras hinc ducere voces. So far, however, is he from countenancing the idea that the progress of invention is likely to be interrupted by starts of recollection,' that he recommends the closest study of the ancient models as the most effectual means of warming the imagination :
Vos exemplaria Græca Nocturnâ verfate manu, versate diurna. The Author of the Rivals, being by no means conversant with plays in general,' has incurred the very cenfure he was particularly anxious to avoid, and has exhibited as new, fale characters and hackneved situations, which a more intimace acquaintance with the drama would have taught him to reject. An event which will always happen in some degree to those writers, who think that the want of information will allilt their INVENTION.
FOREIGN ARTICLE announced in our lat APPENDIX (publishid with the Review for January) see p. 554.
A RT. XVII. Vermium Terrestrium & Fluviatilum, &c. Succincta Historia, &c.
A succinct History of Animalcules, Worms, and Teltaceous Ania mals, not Inhabitants of the Sea. By Otho frederick Muller, &c.
4to. 2 Vols. Leiplic, &c. 1774. . D VERY part of Natural History is now cultivated with
with such zeal and afliduity by numerous inquirers, that even the animalcular kingdom is not without its natural hifto. rians, nomenclators, and clasihers. But no one, we aj prehend, has taken such pains to reduce this branch of zoology to a regular system, and to describe the numerous subjects of the invisible world, as the learned and industrious Author of this performance, who has displayed equal knowledge and perseve. rance in the execution of this difficult task.
In the first volume of the work before us, all the fu'jects of this extensive kingdom, which had before been described as well as numerous others which have not yet been described, named, or perhaps seen, by other observers, are regularly arranged under different claires or genera. In the subsequent part of this volume, the Author classes and describes the Gens Helminthica; comprehending under that title, as we have al. ready observed, not only the various kinds of worms, proFerly so called, but likewise the d fferent species of polypes,
* Şce our last Appendix, page 554.
leaches, &c. The second volume is wholly appropriated to the clarification and description of snails, and other testaceous, animals.
Each article comprehends, in general, a scientific description of the form, organization, and the comparative or real magnitude of each animal, or animalcule ;-its motions, habitudes, or manners, the synonyms of different authors, the places in which it may be found, and the trivial or popular names of such of them as have acquired popular names, either in the Danish, Swedish, German, French, or English languages. References are likewise made to the works of Joblot, Baker, Roefel, and other naturalists, with refpe&t to such of the animal. cular tribes, in particular, as have been delineated in plates. All the Author's descriptions of this last-mentioned class of animals, which are on many accounts so difficult to be described, are said to have been founded on his own immediate and repeated observations.
To each of the three principal divisions of this work is prefixed a discourse, containing some general observacions and reasonings relative to the different subjects treated of in each of thein. From the first of these differtations, as being perhaps the most curious and interesting, we shall collect the substance of some of ihe most material of the Author's observations.
lo inis eflay on the animalcular kingdom, M. Muller ftrongly supports the right of its subjects to the rank of animals, which has been contested or denied by Buffon and Needham, and very lately by M Guettard; who (in the Novel Litt. Gattingens. anni 1772) has confidered them as mere farinaceous velicles. Linneus likewise has expressed some doubts on this subject.
This great naturalist, says M. Muller, who scrupled not to allow animal life to the Spongia lacuftris, a subject which has a very doubtful claim to that distinction, questions whether the moving particles in infusions are really living bodies, endowed with organs; or whether they are not particles of a saline, oily, or other nature ;'- Nomineque specifico, adds the Author, infaufto jatis, gentem, innumeris fpeciebus affluentem, in tenebras damnat.
In opposition to this doubt, and to the hypotheses of Buffon and Needbam, the Author in the first place observes, that fimple ocular inspection is alone sufficient to convince the most iceprical naturalist that these beings really pollets animal life. He will see them moving to different sides of the drop with evident spontaneity, and changing their direction and velocity, like other animals, at the command of the will. The motion of some fpecics likewise is so peculiar to them, as to enable an experienced obscrver 19 diftinguith them, at first sight, from every other