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famous in the reign of Henry the Third, as to be made the subject of a picture in the royal palace of Clarendon near Salisbury. A circumstance which likewise appears front the same ancient record, under the year 1246.
6. Et in camera regis subtus capellam regis apud Clarendon lambruscanda, et muro ex transverso illius cameræ amovendo et hystoria Antiochiæ in eadem depingenda cum DUELLO REGIS RICARDI!.” To these anecdotes we may add, that in the Royal library at Paris there is, “ Lancelot du Lac mis en Francois par Robert de Borron, du commandement d'Henri roi de Angleterre avec figures m.” And the same manuscript occurs twice again in that library in three volumes, and in four volumes of the largest folio". Which of our Henrys it was who thus commanded the romance of LANCELOT DU LAC to be translated into French, is indeed uncertain: but most probably it was Henry the Third just mentioned, as the translator Robert Borron* is placed soon after the year 1200o.
But not only the pieces of the French minstrels, written in French, were circulated in England about this time; but translations of these pieces were made into English, which containing much of the French idiom, together with a sort of poetical phraseology before unknown, produced various inno vations in our style. These translations, it is probable, were
1 Rot. Pip. an. 36. Henr. III. Richard ° Among the infinite number of old the First performed great feats at the manuscript French romances on this siege of Antioch in the Crusade. The subject in the same noble repository, the Duellum was another of his exploits learned Montfaucon recites, “ Le Roamong the Saracens. Compare Wal- man de Tristan et Iseult traduit de Lapole's Anecd. Paint. i. 10. Who men tin en François par Lucas chevalier sieur tions a certain great book borrowed for du chastel du Gast pres de Salisberi, the queen, written in French, containing Anglois, avec figures.” Cod. 6776. fol. GESTA ANTIOCHIÆ et regum aliorum, &c. And again, “ Livres de Tristan This was in the year 1249. He adds, mis en François par Lucas chevalier that there was a chamber in the old pa- sieur de chateau du Gat." Cod. 6956. lace of Westminster painted with this seq. fol. max. In another article, this history, in the reign of Henry the Third, translator, the chevalier Lucas, of whom and therefore called the ANTIOCH Cham I can give no account, is called Huc or BER: and another in the Tower.
Hue. (Luc?) Cod. 6976. seq. Nor do m Cod. 6783. fol. max. See Montfauc. I know of any castle, or place, of this Cat. MSS. p.785 a.
See Montf. ibid. name ncar Salisbury. See also Cod. (See Note A. at the end of the sec 7174. tion. --Edit.)
enlarged with additions, or improved with alterations of the story. Hence it was that Robert de Brunne, as we have already seen, complained of strange and quaint English, of the changes made in the story of Sir TRISTRAM, and of the liberties assumed by his cotemporary minstrels in altering facts and coining new phrases. Yet these circumstances enriched our tongue, and extended the circle of our poetry. And for what reason these fables were so much admired and encouraged, in preference to the languid poetical chronicles of Robert of Gloucester and Robert of Brunne, it is obvious to conjecture. The gallantries of chivalry were exhibited with new splendour, and the times were growing more refined. The Norman fashions were adopted even in Wales. In the year 1176, a splendid carousal, after the manner of the Normans, was given by a Welsh prince. This was Rhees ap Gryffyth king of South Wales, who at Christmas made a great feast in the castle of Cardigan, then called Aberteivi, which he ordered to be proclaimed throughout all Britain; and to “which came many strangers, who were honourably received and worthily entertained, so that no man departed discontented. And among deeds of arms and other shewes, Rhees caused all the poets of Wales P to come thither: and provided chairs for them to be set in his hall, where they should dispute together
In illustration of the argument pur- concerning which he adds, “therof yit sued in the text we may observe, that men rime." p. 332. In the wardrobe. about this time the English minstrels roll of the same prince, under the year flourished with new honours and re 1306, we have this entry. « Will. Fox wards. At the magnificent marriage of et Cradoco socio suo CANTATORIBUS canthe countess of Holland, daughter of tantibus coram Principe et aliis magna. Edward the First, every king minstrel tibus in comitiva sua existente apud received xl. shillings. See Anstis Ord. London, &c. XXs." Again, “ Willo Gart. ii. p. 303. And Dugd. Mon. Ffox et Cradoco socio suo cantantibu i. 355. In the same reign a multitude in præsentia principis et al. Magnatum of minstrels attended the ceremony of apud London de dono ejusdem dni per knighting prince Edward on the feast of manus Johis de Ringwode, &c. 8. die Pentecost. They entered the hall, while jan. xxs." Afterwards, in the same roll the king was sitting at dinner surrounded four shillings are given, “Ministrallo with the new knights. Nic. Trivet. An- comitissæ Mareschal. facienti menestral. nal. p. 342. edit. Oxon. The whole num- ciam suam coram principe, &c. in comiber knighted was two hundred and sixty- tiva sua existent. apud Penreth." Comp. seven. Dugd. Bar. i. 80. b. Robert de Garderob. Edw. Princip. Wall. ann. 35. Brunne says, this was the greatest royal Edw. I. This I chiefly cite to shew the feast since king Arthur's at Carleon: greatness of the gratuity. Minstrels were
to try their cunning and gift in their several faculties, where great rewards and rich giftes were appointed for the overcomers 9." Tilts and tournaments, after a long disuse, were revived with superiour lustre in the reign of Edward the First. Roger earl of Mortimer, a magnificent baron of that reign, erected in his stately castle of Kenelworth a Round Table, at which he restored the rites of king Arthur. He entertained in this castle the constant retinue of one hundred knights, and as many ladies; and invited thither adventurers in chivalry from every part of Christendom'. These fables were therefore an image of the manners, customs, mode of life, and favourite amusements, which now prevailed, not only in France but in England, accompanied with all the decorations which fancy could invent, and recommended by the graces of romantic fiction. They complimented the ruling passion of the times, and cherished in a high degree the fashionable sentiments of deal honour, and fantastic fortitude.
Among Richard's French minstrels, the names only of three are recorded. I have already mentioned Blondell de Nesle. Fouquet of Marseilles, and Anselme Fayditt, many of whose compositions still remain, were also among the poets patronised and entertained in England by Richard. They are both cele
part of the establishment of the houshold Who adds, that the bards of “ Northof our nobility before the year 1307. wales won the prize, and amonge the Thomas earl of Lancaster allows at musicians Rees's owne houshold men Christmas, cloth, or vestis liberata, to his were counted best.” Rhees was one of houshold minstrels at a great expence, the Welsh princes who, the preceding in the year 1314. Stowe's Surv. Lond.
year, attended the parliament at Or. p. 134. edit. 1618. See supr. p. 95. ford, and were magnificently entertained Soon afterwards the minstrels claimed in the castle of that city by Henry the such privileges that it was thought ne Second. Lord Lyttelton's Hist. Hen. II. cessary to reform them by an edict, in edit. ii. p. 302. It may not be foreign 1315. See Hearne's Append. Leland. to our present purpose to mention here, Collectan. vi. 36. Yet, as I have for- that Henry the Second, in the year merly remarked in OBSEKVATIONS ON 1179, was entertained by Welsh bards Spenser's FALERIE QUEENE, we find a at Pembroke castle in Wales in his pasperson in the character of a minstrel en sage into_Ireland. Powell, ut supr. tering Westminster-hall on horseback p. 238. The subject of their songs was while Edward the Second was solemniz- the history of king Arthur. See Šelden ing the feast of Pentecost as above, and on POLYOLB. s. iii. p. 53. presenting a letter to the king. See 'Drayton's Heroic. Epist. Mort. Walsing. Hist. Angl. Franc. p. 109. ISABEL. V. 5S. And Notes ibid. from
? Powell's Wales, 237. edit. 1584. Walsingham.
brated and sometimes imitated by Dante and Petrarch. Fayditt, a native of Avignon, united the professions of music and verse; and the Provencials used to call his poetry de bon mots e de bon son. Petrarch is supposed to have copied, in his Triumfo DI AMORE, many strokes of high imagination, from a poem written by Fayditt on a similar subject; particularly in his description of the Palace of Love. But Petrarch has not left Fayditt without his due panegyric: he says that Fayditt's tongue was shield, helmet, sword, and spear. He is likewise in Dante's Paradise. Fayditt was extremely profuse and voluptuous. On the death of king Richard, he travelled on foot for near twenty years, seeking his fortune; and during this long pilgrimage he married a nun of Aix in Provence, who was young and lively, and could accompany her husband's tales and sonnets with her voice. Fouquett de Marseilles had a beautiful person, a ready wit, and a talent for singing: these popular accomplishments recommended him to the courts of king Richard, Raymond count of Tholouse, and Beral de Baulx; where, as the French would say, il fit les delices de cour. He fell in love with Adelasia the wife of Beral, whom he celebrated in his songs. One of his poems is entitled, Las complanchas de Beral. On the death of all his lords, he received absolution for his sin of poetry, turned monk, and at length was made archbishop of Tholouse'. But among the
S Triunf. Am. c. iv.
his disease and her kindness, had just See Beauchamps, Recherch. Theatr. time to say inarticulately, that having Fr. Paris, 1735. p. 7.9. It was Jeffrey, seen her he died satisfied. The countess Richard's brother, who patronised Jef- made him a most splendid funeral, and frey Rudell, a famous troubadour of erected to his memory a tomb of por. Provence, who is also celebrated by Pe- phyry, incribed with an epitaph in Aratrarch. This poet had heard, from the bian verse. She commanded his sonnets adventurers in the Crusades, the beauty to be richly copied and illuminated with of a countess of Tripoly highly extolled. letters of gold; was seized with a proHe became enamoured from imagina- found melancholy, and turned nun. I tion: embarked for Tripoly, fell sick in will endeavour to translate one of the the voyage through the fever of expec- sonnets which he made on his voyage. tation, and was brought on shore at Tri. Yrat et dolent m'en partray, &c. It has poly half expiring. The countess, having some pathos and sentiment, “ I should received the news of the arrival of this depart pensive, but for this love of mine gallant stranger, hastened to the shore so far away ; for I know not what diffiand took him
by the hand. He opened culties I have to encounter, my native his eyes; and at once overpowered by land being so far away, Thou who hast
many French minstrels invited into England by Richard, it is natural to suppose, that some of them made their magnificent and heroic patron a principal subject of their compositions u. And this subject, by means of the constant communication between both nations, probably became no less fashionable in France: especially if we take into the account the general popularity of Richard's character, his love of chivalry, his gallantry in the Crusades, and the favours which he so libe rally conferred on the minstrels of that country. We have a romance now remaining in English rhyme, which celebrates the achievements of this illustrious monarch. It is entitled RICHARD CUER DU LYON, and was probably translated from the French about the period above mentioned. That it was, at least, translated from the French, appears from the Prologue.
In Fraunce these rymes were wroht,
Every Englyshe ne knew it not.
King Richard is the beste v
made all things, and who formed this Fayditt is said to have written a
A fairer than on the death of Richard I.-Edit.]
[The original poem, of which the Impr. for W. C. 4to. It contains above is only a fragment, will be found Sign. A 1.-R iii. There is another in the third volume of M. Raynouard's edition impr. W. de Worde, 4to. 1528. “Choix des Poesies Originales des Trou. There is a manuscript copy of it in Caius badours." The seeming inaccuracies of College at Cambridge, A 9. Warton's translation may have arisen [Among Crynes's books in the Bodfrom the varied readings of his original leian library is a copy of king Richard's text. The fragment published by M. Sis- romance, printed by W. de Worde in mondi, dillers essentially from the larger 1509. Cr. 794. 8vo. This edition was pocin given by M. Raynouard.--Epir.) in th crlcian library-ADDITIONS.]