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flotan and Sceotta.

of sailors and Scots. Thær geflymed wearth, There was chased

away, Northmanna bregu, the leader of the Northmen, (i, e. Anlaf.) nyde gebæded,

compelled by need, to lides stefne,

to the ship's prow, litle werede.

with a little band. Cread cnear on-flot, (The) ship drove (crowded) afloat, cyning ut-gewat,

(the) king departed out, on fealone flod,

on the fallow flood, feorh generede.

preserved (his) life. Swylc thær éac se froda ", So there also the sapient one, mid fleame cóm,

by flight came, on his cyththe north, on his country north, Constantinus,

Constantine, har hylderinc :8

hoary warrior. the foamy-necked ship,

18 The hoarse din of Hilda, T. The likest to a fowl.

hoary Hildrinc, I. It is quite an asTill that about six o'clock,

sumption of modern writers, that this of the other (next) day,

goddess of war was acknowledged by the curved bark,

the Anglo-Saxons; and no ingenuity had (so) waded,

can reconcile Mr. Turner's translation that the voyagers,

with the Anglo-Saxon text. Mr. Ingram most unnecessarily makes “hyl

a proper name, which, if corFor an illustration of “ cread” the reader is referred to the Appendix to

rect on the present occasion, would be

equally so the following passage, vol. ii. p. 492, where this line is translated. And in further support of the where Beowulf plunges into the "mere"

to seek the residence of Grendel's moversion there given, the following extract

ther : from the fragment of Brithnoth may be

Brim-wylm onfeng, quoted.

hilderince: We willath mid tham sceattum,

Sea-wave received,
us to scype gangan,

(the) warrior:
on-flot feran,
and eow frithes healdan.

or in the preamble to Brithnoth's dying

address :
We will with the scot (treasures),
us to ship gang,

gyt that word gecwæth,

hár hilderinc.
afloat proceed,
and hold peace with you.

Then yet the word quoth,

(the) hoary warrior. 17 The routed one, T. the valiant chief, I. By which of these epithets With these examples before us, there

can be little doubt but that we ought are we to translate the title bestowed upon Sæmund, for his extraordinary to insert «rinc” in the following exlearning ?-Sæmundr hinn frodi. The tract relating to the funeral obsequies age of Constantine procured for him of Beowulf: this distinction, which in Beowulf is so Tha wæs wunden gold, frequently applied to the veteran Hroth on wæn hladen, gar.

æghwæs unrím,

saw land.

p. 19.


Hreman ne thórfte, He needed not to boast, meca gemanan '8.

of the commerce of swords. Her wæs his maga-sceard '', Here was his kindred troop, freonda gefylled,

of friends destroyed (felled), on folc-stede,

on the folk-stead, beslægen æt secce; slain in [at] battle ; and his sunu (he) forlet, and his son he left, on wal-stowe,

on the slaughter-place, wundum-forgrunden, mangled with wounds, geongne æt guthe. young in [at] the fight. Gylpan ne thórfte, He needed not to boast, beorn blanden-feax , bairn blended-haired, bill-geslehtes,

of the bill-clashing, eald in witta o';

old deceiver ; æthelinge boren,

thæt him his wine-magas, hár hilde (rinc)

georne hyrdonto Hrones-næsse.

oth thet seo geogoth geweox Then was the twisted gold,

-mago-driht micel. on wain laden,

Then was to Hrothgar, numberless of each,

army-success given, with the atheling borne,

honour of war; hoary warrior,

that him his friendly-relatives, to Hron's-ness.

willingly heard (obeyed)18 Mr. Ingram, who reads "mæcan till the youth waxed (in years) gemanan, translates it "

mickle kindred band. p. 7. kindred. But “ mæca," if it exist at

20 The lad with flaxen hair, T. The all as a nominative case, can never mean

fair-haired youth, I. Mr. Turner ap" a relative." tions, of his friends felled in the folk- does. There would be little propriety 19 He was the fragment of his rela- pears to refer these expressions to Con

stantine's son; Mr. Ingram certainly place, T. Here was his remnant of relations and friends slain with the sword boast, or the unfitness of such a proceed

in declaring a dead man's inability to in the crowded fight, I. It is difficult to conceive upon what principle the

soldiers ing even if there were any thing to colour of Constantine, who fell in the battle, feax is a phrase which in Anglo-Saxon

such an interpretation. But blondeucould be called either the fragment or

poetry is only applied to those advanced remnant of his followers. A similar expression-here-laf—is afterwards appli. ture of colour, which the hair assumes

in life; and is used to denote that mired with evident propriety to the survivors of the conflict. The present translation The German ( blond,” at the present

on approaching or increasing senility. has been hazarded, from a belief that day, marks a colour neither white nor “sceard” is synonymous with “sceare

brown, but mingled with tints of each. (the German schaar, a band or troop);

31 The old in wit, T. Nor old Inand maga-sceard,” like

The orthography of the predriht,” descriptive of the personal or household troops of Constantine.

sent text is supported by the Cotton

MSS. Tiberius A. vi. & B. i. Mr. Tha wæs Hrothgare,

Ingram reads “inwidda," of which he here-sped gyfen,

has made “ Inwood;" though the learnwiges weorth-mynd;

ed translator has omitted to inform us

p. 23.

among his

“ mago wood, I.




ne Anláf thy má,

nor Anlaf any more, mid heora here-lafum, with the relics of their armies, hlihan ne thorfton,

needed not to laugh, thet hí beadu-weorca , that they of warlike works, beteran wurdon,

better (men) were, on camp-stede,

on the battle-stead, cumbol-gehnastes, at [of] the conflict of banners, gár mittinge 23

the meeting of spears, gumena gemotes,

the assembly of men, wæpen-gewrixles,

the interchange of weapons, thæs the híe on wæl-felda, of that which they on the slaughter-field, with Eadweardes,

with Edward's, eáforan plegodon.

children played. Gewiton hym tha Northmen, The Northmen departed, nægledon cnearrum, (in their) nailed ships, dreorig daretha láf 24, gory relic of the darts, on dinges mere who this venerable personage might be. version may be justified by the follow. It is rather singular that he should appear ing extracts from Beowulf: again, with no slight ubiquity of person, Thonne wæs theos medo-heal, in the fragment of Judith :

driht-sele dreor-fah,

thonne dæg lixte, Swa se inwidda,

eal benc-thelu, ofer ealne dæg,

blode bestymed. driht-guman sine,

Then was this mead-hall, drencte mid wine.

troop-hall gore stained, So the deceiver,

when day lighted (dawned), over the whole day,

all (the) table, his followers,

sprinkled with blood. drenched with wine.

Thonne blode-fah,

husa selest, * That they for works of battle were,

heoro-dreorig stod. T. That they on the field of stern command better workmen were, l. But

Then stained with blood, “ beado-weorca is the genitive case

the best of houses, plural of “beadu-weorc," and to justify

stood sword-gory. these translations ought to have been

Wæter under wolcnum, “beadu-weorcum (T.) or “ beadu

wæl-dreore fah. wyrhtan” (I).

Mr. Ingram reads “mittingés," Water under clouds, which can only owe its existence to the stained with slaughter-gore. p. 123. negligence of a transcriber. The ge 25 This reading has been retained in nitive case of “mitting" is "mittinge. preference to the “ dinnes” of Gibson,

24 Dreary relics of the darts, T. authority of Tiberius B. i. The Dreary remnant, I. This expression other Cotton MSS. read “dynges seems rather to refer to the wounded A. vi. “dynges” B. iv. condition of the fugitives. The present

*6 On the stormy sea, T.

On the VOL. I.


P. 39.

p. 72.

on the

ofer deop water,
Dyflin secan,
eft Yraland 7
Swylce thá gebrother,
begen æt samne,
cyning and ætheling,
cyththe sohton,
West-Seaxna land,
wiges hremige 28
Læton him behindan,

over deep water,
Dublin to seek,
Ireland again,
with a shamed mind.
So too the brothers,
both together,
king and prince,
sought (their) country,
land of the West Saxons,
of (the) wat exulting.
(They) left behind them,

roaring sea, I. There is every proba- this is left to the victors. This expresbility that these translations give thesion occurs repeatedly in Beowulf, sense of this passage, though some doubts where it is always applied to the sucmay be entertained as to the integrity of cessful party : the present text. If "dynges-mere” be

Thanon eft gewát, the genuine reading, it must be consi

huthe hremig, dered as a parallel phrase with "wiges

to ham faran, heard, hordes-heard,” &c. where two

mid there wæl-fylle, substantives are united in one word, the wica neosan. former of which stands in the genitive case with an adjective power. Of this Thence (Grendel) again departed, practice the examples are too numerous with prey exulting, and too notorious to require further il

to home (to) go, lustration. “Dinges-mere” would then with the slaughtered-slain, be a “ kenningar nafn” given to the to approach (his) dwelling. p. 12. ocean from the continual clashing of its waves. For it will be remembered that Guth-rinc gold-wlanc, the literal import of “ mere ” is a mere græs-moldan træd, or lake, and this could not be applied to since hremig. the Irish channel, without some qualify

Warrior (Beowulf) bright in gold, ing expression. It is clearly impossible

grass-mould trode, that « dinges," if correct, can stand

with wealth exulting. alone, as "on" never governs a genitive On “thone mere,” on


Nu her thára banena,
See Lye in voce.

byre nat hwylces, 97 Mr. Ingram retains “heora land"

frætwum hremig, in the text, and translates the variation

on flet gæth; -Yraland. All the Cotton MSS. unite

morthres gylpeth, in reading “eft”; and we learn from

and thone maththum' byreth, other sources that this statement is his

thone the thu mid rihte, torically correct.

rædan sceoldest. ** The screamers of war, I. In fight triumphant, I. It has already been said Now of those banes (murderers), of the fugitive Constantine that he had (the) son (I) know not of which, no cause to exult-hreman ne thórfte; with ornaments exulting,

p. 141

case. mere.

i Maththum must not be confounded with mathmum, the dative case plural of mathm.

hrá brittian,

(the) corse to enjoy, salowig padan ?,

(the) sallowy thone sweartan hræfn, (the) swarth raven, hyrned-nebban;

the horned nibbed one ; and thone hasean padan 90, and the dusky earn æftan hwit", eagle white behind (after), æses brucan,

of the corse to enjoy, grædigne guth-hafoc ; greedy war-hawk; and thæt græge deor, and that gray beast (deer), wulf on wealde.

(the) wolf on the wold. Ne wearth wal máre, Nor was (there) a greater slaughter, on thys igland,

on this island,

ever yet, folces gefylled,

of folk felled, beforan thissum,

before this,

æfre gyta,

p. 154.

in (the) hall goeth;

taven over high flood. boasteth of the murder,

Noah reckoned (told) and the jewel (i. e, a sword) beareth, that he from need him that thou by right,

seek would; shouldest command (or wield).

but the fiend,

sallowy of feathers, 30 The dismal kite, T. The sallow

would not seek (him). 33. 5. kite, I. Whatever idea may have been It will be remembered that the Angloattached to "padan", it is manifestly not Saxon “blac" was equivalent to our a species but a genus. It occurs again black and yellow. immediately as characteristic of the eagle. 2 And the hoarse toad, T. And the There is, however, reason to believe that hoarse vulture, 1. The latter version is these lines have been transposed, and totally without authority. The former that we ought to read

is justified in part by our vocabularies, Thone sweartan hræsn,

though evidently at variance with the salowig pádan.

context. The Cotton MS. Tiberius

A. vi. reads haso (the nom. case), which Cædmon unites with the present text shows this word to have had a twofold in calling the raven both “swarth and termination : baso and haswelike salo sallow.'

and salwe, fealo and fealwe. The noLet tha ymb worn daga

menclature of Anglo-Saxon colours sweartne fleogan,

must necessarily be very obscure; but hræfn ofer heah flod.

as we find the public road called “ fealwe Noe tealde,

stræte" (Beowulf); and the passage made thpt he on neode line

for the Israelites over the Red Sea "haswe secan wolde;

stræda" (Cædmont), the version of the ac se feond,

present text cannot be materially out. salwig fethera,

* The eagle afterwards to feast on the secan nolde.

white flesh, T. And the eagle swift to

consume his prey, I. The very simThen after some days (he) het plicity of the Anglo-Saxon text apswarth fly,

pears to have excited distrust in the only

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