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eáforan Eadweardes. (the) children of Edward. Swa him geætheles wæs Such [80] was to them (their native) nofrom cneo-mægum, from (their) ancestors,

[bility, thet híe et campe ofto, that they in [at] battle oft, with lathra gehwäne,

against every foe (loathed one), land enlgodon,

(the) land preserved, hord and hámas,

hoard and homes, hettend crungon? (the) enemy crushed. [cringed, actively.) cient to remark, that if there were any

thæt ic wæs on Myrcon, thing like probability to justify such a

miccles cynnes. translation, we ought at least to read I will my nobility, With the survivors of the family ;" manifest to all, “ lafum” stands in the ablative case

that I among Mercians was, plural. A similar expression occurs once of a mickle kin. in Beowulf, where we know from the Mr. Ingram's translation of cneo-mecontext that neither of the versions cited above would suit the sense. The sword gum-kindred zeal, is perfectly indefen

sible. of Wiglaf has recently severed the dra

6 That they in the field often, T. That gon's body in two: with reference to they at camp often, I. Yet “camp-stede” which it is said,

is translated battle-place by Mr. Turner, Ac him irenna,

and field of battle by Mr. Ingram. ecga fornamon,

"Æt campe" would have been equally hearde heatho-scearde,

descriptive of a sea-fight.

It has no homera lafe,

connexion with our modern camp, Fr. thet se wid-foga, wundum stille,

? Pursuing

they destroyed the Scottish hreas on hrusan,'

people, T. Pursuing fell the Scottish hord-ærne neah.

clans, I. In these translations “hettend But him of iron,

crungon” is separated from its context;

and though it is a common practice of edges seized, the hard high-shearer,

Anglo-Saxon poetry to unite, by the

alliteration, lines wholly unconnected by (the) relic of hammers, that the wide-fier,

the sense, yet in the present instance

both are terminated by the same period. still (quiet) with wounds, fell on the earth,

It may be questioned whether “hettan,' hoard-hall near. p. 210.

persequi, has any existence beyond the

pages of Lye, where it is inserted as the In this poem “gomel-laf, eald-laf, yrfe- root of "hettend.” There is reason to laf,” are common expressions for a believe, that it was obsolete at a very sword; and there can be little doubt but early period, and that its participle prethe language of the text is a metapho- sent alone was retained in a substantive rical description of such a weapon. A signification to denote an enemy or pur. similar phrase in Icelandic poetry would suing, one.

When the verb was occasion no difficulty.

quired, it would seem to have been used s As to them it was natural from their without the aspirate : ancestors, T. So were they taught by

Ehtende was, kindred zeal, I. Ge-æthele is an are deorc death scua, λεγομενον. The version of the text is

dugothe and geogothe. founded on the following declaration of

Pursuing was Ælfwine a follower of Brithooth:

(the) dark death shadow, Ic will mine athelo,

old (ad lit. valentes) and young. eallum gecythan,

Beowulf, p. 14.

campus, Lat.

re

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Scotta leode,

(The) Scottish people, and scip-flotan,

and the mariners, fæge feollon

fated fell. Feld dennade*,

The fieldAt all events, the examples recorded by lates the second example “for deadly Lye only exhibit the substantive hettend, fight;" making “fæge" an adjective to which the following may be added : agreeing with “feohte,” and conseGif ic thet gefricge,

quently like its substantive governed by ofer floda-begang,

the preposition “to." But indepenthæt thec ymbsittende,

dently of the impossibility to produce

an example, where any Anglo-Saxon egesan thywath,

preposition exhibits this twofold power, swa thec hettende, hwylum dydon.

-a retroactive and prospective regimen,

--the dative singular and plural of If I that hear,

“fæge" would be either “fægum” or over the floods-gang,

“fægan,” accordingly as it was used that thee, the round-sitting ones,

with the definite or indefinite article. oppress with terror,

In the languages of the North, “ fæge,” so (as) thee enemies,

however written, means fated to die ; or, (ere) while did. Beowulf, p. 138. to use the interpretation of the Glossary

to Sæmund's Edda, morti jam destinatus, Syth-than hie gefricgeath,

brevi moriturus. This is the only version frean userne,

equally suited to both examples in the ealdor-lease; thone the ær geheold,

present text; and it might be supported

by numerous instances from Cædmon with hettendum,

and Beowulf. A confirmation of its hord and rice.

general import may also be drawn from After that they hear

the use of “unfægne" in the latter our sovereign (to be)

poem. life-less;

Wyrd oft nereth, he who ere held,

unfægne eorl, against (our) foes,

thonne his ellen deah. hoard and kingdom. Ib. p. 222.

Fate oft preserveth, Mr. Ingram's translation is obviously a man not fated to die, incorrect. The whole context proves the when his courage is good for aught. Scots to have been the yielding party,

Beowulf, p. 45. and consequently they were the pur # The Cotton MS. Tiberius B. iv. sued, not those pursuing; and if, with reads “ dennode;" Tiberius A. vi. and Mr. Turner, we apply “pursuing” to B. i. read “ dennade,” which is supthe victors, Athelstan and Edward, the ported by the Cambridge MS. For this participle (as it then would be) ought to unusual expression no satisfactory meanstand in the nominative case plural- ing has been found; and it is left to the hettende—and not in the accusative sin- ingenuity and better fortune of some gular.

future translator. Mr. Turner and Mr. 8 They fell dead, T. In numbers Ingram, who render this line-the field fell, I. This expression occurs again resounded, mid the din of the field-have below, “fæge to feohte,” where Mr. followed a reading recorded by Gibson, Ingram expounds it, the hardy fight. It “dynode,”—and which, notwithstandseems almost superfluous to add, that ing the collective authority of four exone of these interpretations must be cellent manuscripts in favour of the preerroneous; and it will be shown im- sent text, is possibly correct. In this mediately that neither is correct. Mr. case, however, “dynode" must not be Turner with more consistency trans- interpreted in a literal sense, but con

secga swateo,
sith-than sunne úp,
on morgen-tíd,
mære tuncgol,
glád ofer grundas 19,
Godes candel beorht,
éces Drihtnes ;
oth-thet sio ethele gesceaft,
sáh to setle,
Thær læg secg monig,
gárum ageted,
guman northerne,
ofer scyld scoten.

with warriors' blood,
since the sun up,
on morrow-tide,
mighty planet,
glided over grounds,
bright candle of God,
of the eternal Lord;
till the noble creature,
sank to (her) seat (settle].
There lay many a warrior,
strewed by darts,
northern man,
shot over (the) shield.

p. 220.

switon”

sidered as synonymous with the Icelandic Wolf Wonreding, “ dundi,” from “dynia,” resonare, ir wæpne geræhte, ruere.“ Blodid dundi (dynode] og tarin

thæt him for swenge, tidt,” Creberrima erat stillatio tum san

swát ædrum sprang. guinis, tum lacrymarum.“ Hrídin dynr

Wolf the son of Wonred, yfir,”-procella cum strepitu irruit.

reached (him) with weapon, The warriors swate, T. The war

that to him for the swinge (blow) rior swate, I. To justify these trans blood from the veins sprang. lations we ought to read either, “ secgas

or "secg swat.” The latter, which offers least violence to the text, is The German "schweiss” (sweat) still

means the blood of a wild boar. clearly impossible, since no line of Anglo-Saxon poetry can have less than four the past

tense of glidan, to glide; and

10 Glad, T. and I. But “glád ” is syllables. There is however no necessity formed like rád from ridan,

bád from for changing a single letter of the text, as “swate

" is the dat. case sing. of “swát;" bidan, &c. in all of which the accenblood, and "secga” the gen. plural of tuated a was pronounced like

o in rode. “secg." It may be safely asserted that It is the glode of " Le Bone Florence

of Rome. "swát" in Anglo-Saxon poetry never

sweat "' in its modern accepta- Thorow the foreste the lady rode, tion.

All glemed there sche glode,

Till sche came in a felde. v. 1710. Thá thet sweard ongan,

In Sir Launfal, Mr. Ritson leaves it unæfter heatho-swate,

explained. hilde gicelum,

Another cours together they ród, wig-bil wanian.

That syr Launfal helm of-glód. v. 574. Then that sword began,

Unless we admit this interpretation of after the mighty blood,

“glád,” the first part of the proposition with battle-droppings,

will be a mere string of predicates withwar-bill (to) wane. Beowulf, p. 121. out a verb. The antithesis to “glád

ofer grundas” is “sah to setle." Swa thæet blod gesprang,

" Hastened to her setting, T. Sat in hatest heatho-swát.

the western main, I. Sah is the past

tense of sigan, to incline, sink down; So that blood sprang,

and follows the same norm, as stah, from hottest mighty gore.

stigan; hnah, from hnigan, &c.

means

p. 126.

Five lay,

Swylc Scyttisc eac,

So Scottish eke, werig wiges sæd 12

weary of war West-Seaxe forth,

The West-Saxons forth, ondlangne dæg,

the continuous day, eorod-cystum ,

in battalions, on last lægdon,

laid on the foot-steps, lathum theodum.

to the loathed race. Heowon here-flyman, (They) hewed (the) fugitives, hindan thearle 14,

hindwards exceedingly, mecum mylen-scearpum 15.

with swords mill-sharp. Myrce ne wyrndon,

The Mercians refused not, heardes hand-plegan,

of the hard hand-play, heletha nanum,

to none of the men, thára the mid Anlafe, of those who with Anlaf, ofer ear-geblond,

over the ocean, on lides bosme,

in [on] the ship's bosom, land gesohton,

sought (our) land, fæge to feohte.

fated to the fight. Fife lægon,

12 Weary with ruddy battle, T. The gar-berendra, mighty seed of Mars, s. In the first of

guth-fremmendra, these versions the reading of the Cotton tyn hund geteled. MS. Tiberius B. iv. has been followed : “ werig wiges ræd.' This manuscript,

Had each cista, however, exhibits great marks of negli

of approved troops, gence on the part of the transcriber, and, of spear-bearing, if correct in its orthography on the pre

of war-enacting (ones) sent occasion, is equally obscure with the ten hundred taled (numbered). language of the other copies. “ Ræd

Cædmon, 67. 25. cannot be the adjective red, as this would

14 The behind ones fiercely, T. Scatgive us a false concord. If “sæd be the genuine reading, it would be tered the rear, I. But "hindan" posdifficult to point out a better authenti

sesses the same adverbial power as

"eastan cated version than Mr. Ingram's, pro

occurring below. vided the word is to be taken substan.

15 This reading has been retained on tively. But even this has been rejected, the authority of the Cotton MSS. Tibefrom a feeling that the context requires rius A. vi. B. i. The reasons for such a verb, and a doubt whether such a me

an epithet are not so clear, however taphor be in unison with the general spi- obvious this would be if applied to mo rit of Anglo-Saxon poetry.

dern times. But with our present limited 18 With a chosen band, T. With knowledge of the Anglo-Saxon lanchosen troops, I. The Anglo-Saxon guage, and of the arts

, customs and "cysta,” though clearly derived from modes of thinking of our ancestors, it “ceosan” to choose, appears to have ob- would be highly absurd to reject an extained a specific meaning somewhat si- pression, merely because its propriety milar to our regiment or battalion.

is not felt. The more intelligible readHæfde cista gehwilc,

ing “mycel scearpum" wears all the cuthes werodes,

appearance of a gloss.

on thám campstede,

on the battle-stead, cyningas geonge,

young kings, sweordum aswefede.

soothed [slumbered, act.] with swords. Swylc seofen bac,

So seven eke, eorlas Anlafes ;

earls of Anlaf's ; unrím heriges 16,

numberless of the army, 16 And innumerable of the army of tion or intelligence to the present narthe fleet-and the Scots. There was rative. A similar example occurs in chased away, the lord of the Northmen, Beowulf: by necessity driven to the voice of the

Flota wæs on ythum, ship. With a small host, with the crew bát under beorge, of his ship, the king of the fleet departed

beornas gearwe on the yellow flood, T. And of the ship's on stefn stigon. crew unnumbered crowds. There was

Ship was on the waters, dispersed the little band of hardy Scots,

boat under rock, the dread of the Northern hordes urged to the noisy deep by unrelenting fate.

(the) bairns readily

ascended the prow. The king of the fleet with his slender craft escaped with his life on the felon In German, “steven” still means the flood. I. The present translation differs stem of a ship; and in Danish this part occasionally from both these versions of a vessel is called the For-stævn, by Where it agrees with either, no vindica- way of distinction from the Bag-stævn, tion will be necessary; but some of its or stern. It will also be found in the variations are too important not to re- second part of the Edda : quire an account of the authorities from Brim-runar scaltu rista, whence they are derived.—The Anglo ef thu vilt borgit hafa, Saxon “ flota (the floater) equally a sundi segl-maurom; meant a ship and a sailor.

a stafni thær scal rista, Flota wæs on ythum,

oc a storinar-blathe, bát under beorge.

oc leggia eld i ár.

Sea-runes shalt thou carve,
Ship was on the waters,
boat under rock. Beowulf, p. 18.

if thou wilt have protected,

sail-horses (ships) in the sea ; Of its secondary meaning, a sailor, in the prow shalt (thou) carve an example has already occurred in the

and in the stern-blade, (rudder) compound, “scip-flota;" and the frag

and lay fire in the oar. ment of Brithnoth has preserved the But "stefn" must not be confounded simple substantive, as in the present text:

with “stefna,” a ship, frequently occurSe flod ut-gewat,

ring in Beowulf, and which the Latin thá lotan stodon gearowe,

translation always (I believe) renders wicinga fela,

“prora.”
wiges georne.

Gewát tha ofer weg-holm,
The flood departed out,

winde gefysed,
the sailors stood prepared,

flota fámi-heals, of the vikings many,

fugle gelicost. desirous of battle.

Oth-thet umb án tid, " Stefn" like "Aota" had also a twofold

otheres dogores,

wunden stefna, meaning. Lye has only recorded one of these the human voice,--and upon

gewaden hæfde, this both the interpretations cited above

thpt tha lithende, are evidently founded. But it likewise

land gesawon. implied, the prow of a ship; and this is Departed then over (the) billowy the only sense which will give connec hastened by the wind, (main,

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